Exercise 16: The Influence of Modern Art

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Exercise 16: The Influence of Modern Art

History of graphic design

  • What are the key concept of Analytical Cubism and Synthetic Cubism? Who was the key artist of each Cubism concept?
  • Why was Dada movement established? Who was the key artist of this movement?
  • What was Futurism all about? Who introduced the Manifesto of Futurism in 1909?
  • What are the five major techniques invented by Dada artists?
  • What was the key concept of Surrealism? Who was the key artist of Surrealism?

Make the answer 3-4 sentences on your words.

book is :

  • Meggs, Philip B., and Alston W. Purvis. Meggs' history of graphic design. John Wiley & Sons, 2016

no plagiarism

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Exercise 16: The Influence of Modern Art History of graphic design Siriporn Peters Date: Student name: Student ID: 1. What are the key concept of Analytical Cubism and Synthetic Cubism? Who was the key artist of each Cubism concept? 2. Why was Dada movement established? Who was the key artist of this movement? 3. What was Futurism all about? Who introduced the Manifesto of Futurism in 1909? 4. What are the five major techniques invented by Dada artists? 5. What was the key concept of Surrealism? Who was the key artist of Surrealism? Part IV: The Modernist Era Assistant Professor Dr. Siriporn Peters Part IV: The Modernist Era Graphic Design in the first half of the twen?eth century • The influence of Modern Art • Pictorial Modernism • A New Language of Form • The Bauhaus and the New Typography • The Modern Movement in America The influence of Modern Art • • • • • • • • Cubism Futurism Dada Surrealism De S?jl Suprema?sm Construc?vism Expressionism Cubism (Youtube 6 mins) hQps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DSZMlfm1Ln0 Cubism Cubism was one of the most influen?al visual art styles of the early twen?eth century. It was created by Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881–1973) and Georges Braque (French, 1882–1963) in Paris between 1907 and 1914. hQps://www.moma.org/collec?on/works/ 79766 Cubism • While Picasso and Braque are credited with crea?ng this new visual language, it was adopted and further developed by many painters, including – – – – – – – Fernand Léger, Robert Sonia Delaunay, Juan Gris , Roger de la Fresnaye, Marcel Duchamp, Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger Diego Rivera hQp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/cube/hd_cube.htm Cubism Cubism Analy?c Cubism Synthe?c Cubism Analy?c Cubism • This lasted un?l around 1912. As the name ‘analy?cal’ suggests, the technique involved a close examina?on and analysis of the subject in order to translate it into flat geometric shapes, angles and lines. Analy?c Cubism • In Cubist work up to 1910, the subject of a picture was usually discernible. • Although figures and objects were dissected or “analyzed” into a mul?tude of small facets, these were then reassembled, aker a fashion, to evoke those same figures or objects. Analy?c Cubism • During “high” Analy?c Cubism (1910–12), also called “herme?c,” Picasso and Braque so abstracted their works that they were reduced to just a series of overlapping planes and facets mostly in near-monochroma?c browns, grays, or blacks. Girl With Mandolin (1910), By Picasso Museum of Modern Art, New York. Analy?c Cubism: SJll Life with a BoLle of Rum, Pablo Picasso • In their work from this period, Picasso and Braque frequently combined representa?onal mo?fs with leQers. • Their favorite mo?fs were s?ll life with musical instruments, boQles, pitchers, glasses, newspapers, playing cards, and the human face and figure. Landscapes were rare. hQp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/ 1999.363.63/ Analy?c Cubism: SJll Life with Banderillas, Georges Braque • Exhibi?on curator Renée Maurer discusses Georges Braque and the Cubist S?ll Life, 1928--1945. The Phillips Collec?on 4 mins: hQps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yx34VewJ0bU Picasso and his bulls SyntheJc cubism The main characteris?cs of synthe?c cubism are: • Brighter colours • Simpler lines and shapes • Collage is used alongside paint. Previously cubism had broken objects down to a grid of complicated planes (flat shapes). Now the ar?sts built up their pictures using collage and simple shapes. So instead of looking closely at an object such as a boQle in order to analyse its shape and structure they created a boQle-like shape from their imagina?on, making this shape from a simple paper cutout or drawn outline • A range of textures: as well as collage, the cubist ar?sts used a wider range of painted and drawn marks. A smooth surface might appear next to collaged newspaper or paQerned paper; or next to lots of roughly doQed brush strokes. hQp://www.tate.org.uk/learn/online-resources/cubism/analy?c-vs-synthe?c SyntheJc cubism • Pablo Picasso - S?ll Life with Chair Caning, 1912 hQps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6Hw_SOAitg SyntheJc cubism hQps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Etys15cFsI Futurism hQps://www.khanacademy.org/humani?es/art-1010/wwi-dada/artgreat-war/a/italian-futurism-an-introduc?on Futurism • Futurism (Italian: Futurismo) was an ar?s?c and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. hQps://www.khanacademy.org/humani?es/art-1010/wwi-dada/art-great-war/a/italianfuturism-an-introduc?on Futurism • Futurism art movement was a 20th-century product of the need for breaking off with the tradiJonal styles and the insa?able desire for modernity. • It was a celebra?on of technology, power and modern life and an aQempt to demonstrate the beauty of the machine, speed, violence and change. Portrait (1915) by Lyubov Popova (Pic: State Museum of Contemporary Art - The G Costakis Collec?on) Futurism • Socialists have oken felt rather uncomfortable with Futurism. This Italian art movement, founded in 1909, sang the praises of new technology, aeroplanes and the mass media – but it also exalted war and colonialism. hQps://socialistworker.co.uk/art/10829/The+Russian+ar?sts+who+drew+Futurism+to +the+lek Futurism Futurism was launched when the Italian poet Filippo MarineQ published his manifesto of Futurism in the Paris Newspaper Le Figaro on on February 20, 1909. Filippo Marineu Filippo Marineu • Marineu started this poetry journal in 1905, and it follows his trajectory from poet rooted in the Symbolist tradi?on to exponent of more radical and belligerent expression. hQps://www.moma.org/interac?ves/exhibi?ons/2009/futurism/ Poem of Marineu on a wall in Leiden • Lewis Carroll • Lewis Carroll, Typographic Image, 1866. This graphic experiments in figura?ve typography has received both design and literary acclaim. A precursor to cinema • The Futurists were par?cularly excited by the works of late 19thcentury scien?st and photographer ÉJenneJules Marey, whose chronophotographic (?me-based) studies depicted the mechanics of animal and human movement. hQps://www.khanacademy.org/humani?es/art-1010/wwi-dada/art-great-war/a/ italian-futurism-an-introduc?on Giacomo Balla • A precursor to cinema, Marey’s innova?ve experiments with ?melapse photography were especially influen?al for Balla. • In his pain?ng Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, the ar?st playfully renders the dog's (and dog walker's) feet as con?nuous movements through space over ?me. hQps://www.khanacademy.org/humani?es/art-1010/wwi-dada/art-great-war/a/ italian-futurism-an-introduc?on Giacomo Balla • Giacomo Balla (18 July 1871 – 1 March 1958) was an Italian painter, art teacher and poet best known as a key proponent of Futurism. In his pain?ng he depicted light, movement and speed. Giacomo Balla hQp://www.italianways.com/casa-balla-a-color-explosion/ Dada Cover of the first edi?on of the publica?on Dada by Tristan Tzara; Zürich, 1917 Dada • Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich, Switzerland at the Cabaret Voltaire (circa 1916), in New York (circa 1915), and aker 1920, in Paris. Dada Techniques • • • • • • • • • • Photomontage Collage Assemblage Readymade Typography Sound Poem Abstrac?on Chance Photography Overprin?ng hQp://www.nga.gov/exhibi?ons/2006/dada/techniques/ Photomontage Collec?vely developed by the Berlin Dada group, photomontage is a varia?on of collage in which pasted items are actual photographs or photographic reproduc?ons culled from the press. hQp://www.nga.gov/exhibi?ons/2006/dada/techniques/ Photomontage • Ar?sts outside of Berlin also experimented with the new technique. In Cologne, Max Ernst frequently used military photographs as source material for photomontages. Max Ernst German, 1891–1976 Un3tled, 1920 photomontage, collage, and pencil on photographic reproduc?on mounted on board Collage • The dadaists further developed the collage technique recently discovered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braques in Paris. Like the cubists, the dadaists pasted papers, fabric and other two-dimensional materials to their works, breaking down the barrier between art and everyday life. Kurt SchwiLers French, 1887–1946 Die heilige Sa7lermappe (The Holy Saddlers' Porxolio), 1922 Collage • Dada was developed in reac?on to World War I. • The art of the movement spanned visual, literary, and sound media, including collage, sound poetry, cut-up wri?ng, and sculpture. Hannah Höch, Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany, 1919, collage of pasted papers Assemblage • Assemblage refers to a three-dimensional work of art comprising found elements. These works can be sculptural objects that are seen in the round, as well as pictures that are hung on walls. Raoul Hausmann, Mechanischer Kopf (Der Geist unserer Zeit) (Mechanical Head [The Spirit of Our Age]), c. 1920 Readymade Readymades are everyday manufactured goods that are deemed to be art merely by virtue of the ar?st's selec?on of them as such. They were invented by Marcel Duchamp who wanted to test the limits of what qualifies as a work of art. Marcel Duchamp French, 1887–1968 L.H.O.O.Q., 1919 rec?fied readymade: pencil on reproduc?on of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa Readymade • New York City was a refuge for writers and ar?sts from the First World War. Soon aker arriving from France in 1915, Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia met American ar?st Man Ray. By 1916 the three of them became the center of radical an?-art ac?vi?es in the United States. Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917. Photograph by Alfred S?eglitz Typography • Dadaists delighted in uncoven?onal typographic design, frequently mixing fonts employing unorthodox punctua?on, prin?ng both horizontally and ve?cally on a single sheet, and sprinkling texts with randomly chosen printers' symbols. Tristan Tzara Romanian, 1896–1963 Poster for Salon Dada, Exposi3on Interna3onale, Galerie Montaigne, 1921 lithograph Sound poem • The German ar?st and poet Hugo Ball's final performance at the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich marked the beginning of a new genre variously known as sound poems, poems without words, or abstract poems. To construct them language is broken down into its abstract parts (syllables and individual leQers) and then reconfigured as meaningless sounds. hQp://www.nga.gov/exhibi?ons/2006/dada/techniques/sound.shtm Abstrac?on Abstrac?on played an important role in the Dada movement from its beginnings at the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. Influenced by Vasily Kandinsky, Zurich dadaists understood abstrac?on as a way of gaining access to a more ins?nc?ve inner consciousness. Hans Arp and Sophie Taeuber French, 1886–1966; Swiss 1889–1943 Un3tled (Duo-Collage), 1918 collage of paper, board, and silver leaf on board Chance Crea?on • "The 'law of chance,'" Hans Arp wrote, "can be experienced only in a total surrender to the unconscious." Using chance as a technique for making works of art also presented a cri?que of the tradi?onal no?on of ar?s?c mastery and technical excellence. Ar?s?c crea?on was no longer firmly in the control of the ar?st, but instead was instead given over to arbitrary decision making. hQps://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/themes/dada/marcel-duchamp-andthe-readymade Photography As a form of mechanical reproduc?on, photography was maligned as being more technological than crea?ve. Dadaists, in contrast, embraced photography, relishing its modern means of crea?on. Max Ernst. The Hat Makes the Man. 1920 Chance Crea?on • Skep?cal of reason in the wake of the war, dadaists turned to chance as an an?dote. The random and the accidental offered a way of leung go of conscious control. Photgraphy Overpain?ng • The Cologne dadaist Max Ernst created a series of works in which he painted or drew over pages of found print materials. He overpainted or embellished wallpapers, kniung and croche?ng instruc?on sheets, pages from handicrak booklets, and a printer's vigneQe catalogue. Max Ernst German, 1891–1976 la bicycle7e graminée...(The Gramineous Bicycle...), c. 1921 gouache and ink on botanical chart with ink inscrip?on "Everybody can Dada" —Dada-Fair, Berlin, poster, 1919 Dada blasted onto the scene in 1916 with earspliung enthusiasm: rowdy, brazen, irreverent, and assaul?ng. Its sounds were clamorous, its visions were shocking, and its language was explosive. Yet Dada was not aimless anarchy. Rather, the ar?sts were responding to the violence and trauma of World War I—and to the shock of modernity more generally—by developing shock tac?cs of their own. hQp://www.nga.gov/exhibi?ons/2006/dada/ci?es/index.shtm ...
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1) What are the key concept of Analytical Cubism and Synthetic Cubism? Who was the key
artist of each Cubism concept? The artist in the Cubism concept was Pablo P...

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