Media Theory

timer Asked: Mar 29th, 2019
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Question Description

Using Stuart Hall and Antonio Gramski, analyze media sources with social/cultural issues and apply their theories in connection to underlying themes represented and portrayed in media.

An article to discuss is "How to Wear Makeup for Your Job Interview—Men’s Edition" found on the wall street journal.

possible themes:



-Gratification Theory

-Dependency Theory




You are welcome to use additional media to make connections to their theories and any additional research is welcomed but must be cited.

2-3 pages double spaced, size 12 font.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

2-4-19 Hall is upset where media theory is going, he claims that 1. Behaviorism – American communication theorists give us too much freedom (perfect cognition, were never duped) 1970s and onwards Encoding/decoding Use and gratification theory – we are free, autonomous human being, use media for pleasure - Dependency theory – depending on the use value of the medium, we use the most o We have dependency in the sense we are always on Facebook, get information from there because pleasing, easiest way to reach gratifications, but never duped o Hall does not agree Classical Marxism - Hall thinks people are reading Marx the wrong way Economic determinism – we are culturally duped so have no agency or autonomy Hall does not like this either Agenda setting - First principle: media filters social representation – we don’t get to reality o Become more duped Second principle: media professionals concentrate on a few topics and manipulate public opinion Gramski Formulated prison notebooks Notion that the biggest problem for Marxism is why didn’t the revolution come? Anti-classical Marxism and spontaneousism and Lenin - Thinks something needs to happen through mass mobilization Hegemony – social/cultural influences of dominant representation of the world which become the accepted norms of the status quo - - Works through multiple institutions o Media o Education o Religion o Politics o Mores and taboos o Deviance Establish a world view through all of these institutions working together, but at the same time there is a lot of contradiction between them - Give us a “field of forces” Not completely top down, but rather mixed through society For this to work, need intellectuals – a function that consists of the fabrication of “real life” as natural through ‘common sense representations’ - Function in hegemony to give us our common sense Sociology, psychology 2 types: o Type A: traditional intellectual – entrenched in dominant institutions, they have the longest monopoly on common sense ▪ History, nobles, scholars, researchers, specializations, crafts of the mind ▪ Fellowship principle– priests and teachers and philosophers are tightly wound within their education, hegemonic thinking is engrained in them, project themselves as being autonomous subjects → they see the truth ▪ Recruitment from lower classes o Type B: Organic Intellectuals – emotional questioning ▪ Thinks through their immediate context ▪ Become more and more aware of dominant hegemony ▪ “that didn’t feel right” – stepping away from status quo ▪ Start inserting themselves into culture, the fields of production, with this hunch that something is not right ▪ They learn the craft of the traditional intellectual • When they have the tools of the traditional, product a counter hegemony o Theory = all men are intellectuals, but not all men have the function of the intellectuals ▪ Hegemony is so powerful that ▪ Can filter through using our emotions and common sense • Good sense = emotional suspicion vs common sense = hegemony ▪ Give us a little thought process Hall If there is no escaping control thought… Enunciation – we are implicated in representation practices AND objectification of human labor - Our labor and constant practices and creating actually creates the world that we see Life activity Representation practices are in a field of contest – lodged into identity formation - In identity formation as a politic, we can relate to the message as a o Gender o Sexuality o Class position o Ethnic and racial position Media messages are encoded with hegemonic-common sense beliefs – we have the task of decoding these beliefs - Agenda setting Broadcasters pre-select (professionals) and pre-arrange topics and issues for us to think about Will provide us our preferred readings Media professionals are within this ‘common sense’ o Cultural capital – have self-development of taste, education and social networks, what you can buy (class) o Media professionals are all hanging out with each other, when you look at who creates media representations (business leaders, editors, media professionals, politicians, celebrities → upper class) and they do not see the common sense that they are producing, are all speaking the same language and have the same taste o They see the world a certain way, they have the means and platform to convey these messages, how we gain common sense ▪ Not trying to dupe, ends up happening Decoding – all have different backgrounds - Self-reflection mode Infinite semiosis Contested terrain: 1. Feminism 2. Critical rare theory 3. Queer theory The codes 1. Dominant hegemonic code: without critical reflectivity (dope like status, but participating audience fills in gaps with ideology) a. Closes infinite semiosis – no longer working with some type of creative function b. Where we find the ideological effect – will fill in gap with their i. Oh it’s because everyone is heterosexual ii. The wall = seal border because terrorists are coming from here iii. Seals any potential difference others could feel with this 2. Professional code: media industry to transmit message a. News preaches impartiality, objectivity, and discourse of facts (not true, but how it should be presented) b. Hides hegemony c. Provides more and more common sense d. Justice, inclusion, freedom e. Elite cultural constructions 3. The negotiated code (hope) a. Space for political agency b. Situated logics – contexts/identity formation i. That is not how I live my life, that is not fair representation c. Ambivalence – see inconsistency within the code i. Exposes fact vs. bias ii. Race, gender, class, trans generational, viewing context iii. Decode – is to pull on your multiple social selves 4. Oppositional code – decoding through another dominant hegemony or common sense a. Pitted republican vs democracy b. No negotiation c. Alternative ideological effect d. Political, radical sub cultures ...
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