The Feeling Mind Assignment 3

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The Complete sections should have a minimum word count (total per week) of 1200 words and three scholarly sources.

Approved sources for this course include the course textbook and scholarly articles from the Bethel library databases. No other source information is acceptable. EVERYTHING NEEDS TO BE IN OWN WORDS.

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1. How does life experience contribute to “perception” discussed in chapter five on pages 181-187? 2. Consider this statement “Helen Keller, who was both blind and deaf was asked which disability affected her the most, she replied that blindness separated her from things, while deafness separated her from people” (Cacioppo and Freberg, 2013, p. 209). As people age, hearing loss is a normal developmental change. (A). How does loss of hearing relate to loss of relationships? (B). What do you think? (C). Does this create a new sense of empathy in the aging process? 3. Ackerman (1990) stated, “Infants who are touched regularly sleep better, remain more alert while awake, and reach cognitive milestones at earlier ages (Cacioppo & Freberg, 2013, p. 219). (A). Why is touch important in the human experience? (B). Does this provide clarity on how nurture and nature interplay? 4. Zuscho (1983) stated, “People who have lost their sense of smell due to head injury often experience profound depression” (Cacioppo & Freberg, 2013, p. 223). This in opposition to Immanuel Kant’s position on smell. Why do you think this occurs? Axons from the sympathetic nervous system form connections in the gut, contributing to those butterflies we feel at times of excitement. W I L L I S , K A S S A N D R A 2 1 6 1 T S 9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. The Feeling Mind W I L L Learning Objectives I 1 Differentiate emotion and S motivation, and analyze their relationship to each other. , environmental factors that influence hunger and eating. 2 Analyze the physiological and ea Motivation and Emotion 3 Assess ss the the roles roles off ev evo evolved olved d pr pref preferences e ereences an and d ph phys physiological ysiologiicall and environmental envi en viro ronm nmentaal fa fact factors cto in sexual moti tiva vation, cons sid der erin ing ho ow th this is m otivvat ation varies w ith h ge gende er aand nd over time me. motivation, considering how motivation with gender time. K A implic cat atio ion n for fo life fe outcomes. out utcome mes. implication 5 Associate aspects of emotional with activation of central and autonom autonomic nervous S responding wi system m structures. S 6 Evalu Evaluate uatte thee rroles olees o ol off na natu nature, ture, nu nurture, urturre,, an and nd ttheir heeirr in interaction nteeracction n iin n eexplaining xpl plai aining human Aba comm municattio on of eemotion, motiion on, based on rese earrch h eevidence. vid den ncee. communication research 7 Differentiate major theories relationship elaatiion nship between phys physical Nof emotion in terms of the re sensations and subjective feelings feelings. D R Motivation and emotion, the topics of this chapter, A that often operate below the level of our conscious involve neural circuits © Argosy Publishing, shing, Inc. 4 Comp Compare mpaare and cont contrast trast achie achievement eveme men nt and d aaffiliation ffi iatiion m ffil motivation otiv ot ivat atio on in tterms erms off pr predictors red dicto and awareness. We don’t decide consciously to feel happy or sad or hungry or thirsty, but instead, we react somewhat automatically to the 2 environment around and within us. We can zoom in to1look at these neural circuits, like these sympathetic axons 6 (in blue) forming connections with the gut. We have all had the feeling of butterflies in our stomach 1 when we are excited, and neural pathways like this one T responsible for such feelings. are S Zooming out, we can examine motivation and emotion in the larger context of the individual using the example of elite athletes at the Olympic Games. The 2008 Beijing Olympics featured 11,028 athletes who represented the very best in their respective sports, just a tiny fraction of the millions of people who compete in athletics worldwide. To stand out among these elites takes even more © Michael Steele/Allsport/Getty Images 9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 287 © Alan lan Wi Willi Williams/Axiom/Aurora lliams am /Ax /A iom Photos extreme motivation, not to mention talent and hard work. Many athletes competing at this level have focused on their sport to the exclusion of most other activities since they were in elementary school. Yet of the over 11,000 participants, only 1,881 (or 17%) went home with a medal. Given the odds of obtaining a medal, you would think that any athlete winning one would be absolutely ecstatic, but that is not always the case. As you can see in the photograph on the preceding page of Olympic swimmers on the medal stand, the athletes are showing a range of emotions. Look for a moment at the way the three athletes are holding their flower bouquets. The gold and bronze medalists are holding their bouquets straight up, but the silver medalist is close to dropping his bouquet. His entire demeanor Wsays dejection and disappointment. Why wouldI a silver medalist be disappointed with such an exceptional achievement? To answer this question, we must zoom out evenLfarther from the individual to consider the social context. Psychologists have found that the reactions of these L swimmers are quite typical (McGraw, Mellers, & Tetlock, 2005; I Medvec, Madey, & Gilovich, 1995). Apparently, silver medalists are more likelySto compare themselves to gold medalists, which , leads to disappointment, while bronze medalists are comparing compar themselves fourth-place not medal them th emseelv lves es to th thee fou urth t -p pla lace ce finishers fini fi n sherrs who do n ot gett a m e at all, which leads whic wh ich h lead adss to t joy. joy. In thi this wee wi his chapter, chap pK ter, w will l explore explo lorre tthe he mechanisms mec echa han nismss responsible resp ponsi A and for for ourr motivations moti mo t vaati tions and emotions, em mot otio ions ns, beginning beginn be nin ing with with the the underlyund nder er ing physical mechanisms zooming individual and out to look at individ S and, ultimately, y social influences influen nce ces on these behaviors. behavviors. E Emotions are autom automatic, matic, spontaneous reactions tto o the world around d us. We do not wake up in the morning rning and consciously decide to be happy or sad. emotion A combination of arousal, physical sensations, and subjective feelings that occurs spontaneously in response to environmental stimuli. 288 S A N D R A How Are Motivation and Emotion Related? Motivation and emotion are tightly related processes that share the experience of subjective feelings and engage similar processes and structures in 2 the brain. Efforts to differentiate between motivation and emotion can be somewhat frustrating, given their overlapping characteristics and similar 1 definitions. 6 An emotion is defined as a combination of physical sensations, such as a rapid heartbeat, and1conscious, subjective feelings, like feeling afraid. Emotions are spontaneous, T automatic responses to situations. We do not wake up in the morning and decide to feel happy or sad in the same way we S decide which clothes to wear. Instead, our emotional reactions occur automatically in response to our perceptions of surroundings and situations. We often communicate our emotions to others through behaviors such as facial expression, body language, gestures, and tone of voice. Chapter 7 9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. What Does It Mean to Be Motivated? © Steve Cole/Photodisc/Getty Images Emotions can be distinguished from moods. A mood is a more general state than an emotion. You can be in a good mood while feeling a variety of specific emotions, such as happiness, pride, or relief. A mood generally lasts a longer time than a single emotion. For example, when we discuss disorders of mood in our chapter on psychological disorders, we note that criteria for depression specify that depressed mood should characterize at least half a day every day for a period of two weeks (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). Because emotions are responses to the ongoing and ever-changing flow of environmental information, it is unlikely that a single emotion would last this long. Motivation is defined as a process that arouses, maintains, and guides behavior toward a goal. For example, we are motivated to seek a drink W of water in response to thirst. The process I of motivation is accompanied by distinct L emotional states. Thirst is generally quite unpleasant, and taking a drink of water can L produce positive emotions like relief and I happiness. S Motivation and emotion share the abil, ity to o arouse an an organism orrganism and stimulate behavior, vior, but motivation mo otivaati t on does so in in a more morre directt an and precise do. nd pre ecise se fashion fash hion than em emotions d o.. K People le who feel feel motivated motivaated d by thirst th hirs rst are likely lik kely ly A to do o one one thing—seek t ing—seek th ek outt something somethi hing ng to to drink. drin ink. k. In contrast, experiencing ontr on trast, experienc cin ing the emotion of sad- S ness stimu stimulates mullattes behavior, beha be havi vior o , but that at behavior mayy take manyy diff different forms. people respond ffere rent n fo orms. Somee peopl plee re resp pon ond d S If we aree thirst thirsty ty ffollowing olllow wing a toug tough ugh h wo workout, ork rkout, we are motivated motiva to to sadness byy crying in a room themselves, adness b m by th themse elv lvess, A se eek a drink drrink off w ater. It is u nlikel elyy th that a thirsty person wo seek water. unlikely would be whilee others will seek out the com company off fr friends. mpa pan ny o friend ndss. N motivated to fifind instead. nd d a hamburger in nsttead a . D R A 2 Animals, including human beings, do not have 1 unlimited time and resources, and a state of arousal is expensive in terms of the energy it 6 requires. Motivational systems allow an animal to be aroused only when 1 necessary, such as when it needs food, and then reduce arousal following the solution of a problem, such as after a meal. Preventing the waste of preT cious energy resources provides a significant survival advantage. MotivaS tion also provides the benefit of helping an animal prepare to meet future needs. Most animals are motivated to explore their environments, because familiarity with an environment allows them to act more effectively when a need arises. motivation A process that arouses, maintains, and guides behavior toward a goal. WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE MOTIVATED? 9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 289 © Iain Masterton/Alamy Many animals are motivated to explore their surroundings even when they have no immediate needs, because being familiar with your neighborhood saves time when a ise, whether that th hat is food, fo ood, need does arise, water, shelterr from orr a ga gas m a st storm, o as nolog gy to h elp u al station. Technology help uss dea deal with unfamiliar popular. ar places is very popular ar. homeostasis A steady internal balance, or equilibrium. set point A value that is defended to maintain homeostasis. drive A state of tension and arousal triggered by cues important for survival. drive reduction The state of relief and reward produced by removing the tension and arousal of the drive state. incentive A reward that pulls an organism’s behavior in a particular direction. intrinsic reward A reward that arises internally. extrinsic reward A reward from an outside source. 290 Chapter 7 | We can think of motivation as a process that maintains homeostasis, a term introduced by psychologist Walter Cannon to describe a steady internal balance or equilibrium (Cannon, 1932). To achieve homeostasis, organisms actively defend certain values known as set points. Under normal circumstances, we carefully regulate such variables as core body temperature, fluid levels, and body weight around set points. Deviations from these set points stimulate behavior by the organism that is designed to reestablish the original values. You might think about this process as Wanalogous to your home’s temperature control. I A set point of air temperature is established using your thermostat. If your home’s temperaLture drops below that set point, the furnace is activated until the set point L is once again established. If your home’s temperature rises above theIset point, the air conditioning system is activated until the set point is regained. Similarly, if your core body temperature S C), your body initiates a number of processes drops below 98.68 F (378 , designed to increase its temperature, such as producing heat by the muscle m contractions core contract ctio ions n wee know kno kn ow as as shivering. shivver ering. g. IIff yo your co oree body dy ttemperature emp em peraatu ture re rises abovee its point, it set poin nt, cooling coolling ng mechanisms mec echaani nisms are activated. acti ac tiva vated. d. You You sweat, sweaat, and an the K evaporating moisture evapo oraating mois sture cools coo ools your you ourr skin. sk kin in. Blood Bloo Bl ood is diverted div iveerteed to the the outer outter parts p of flushed of the body, bod ody, y, leading leadi ding ng to to aA flush fl hed appearance. app pea eara ranc nce.. Motivation begins with ext S a stimulus, from either the internal or external environment organism, behavior. environm nment of the org ganism, that serves servves as a cue for motivated mo beha Stimuli survival, presence predator Stimulli tthat hatt aare re iimportant mpor mp ortaaS ntt tto o su surv rviv ival a , ssuch uch ch aass th thee pr pres esen ence of a pred en A generate or a defi deficit eficit in body body dy fluids, fluid flu ids, geneeraatee arousal arou ousaal and an nd tension, teens nsio ion, a state frequently frequ referred Being drive propels organism ed tto o as as drive driv dr ive (Hull, (Hul (H ull, 943)). Bein ing in a d rive ve sstate tate ta te p ropels the orga N11943). into some sort of action related to the stimulus, stimulus whether whet eth her that means runD to safety or perhaps pulling a bottle of water ning away from the predator R thirst. If actions are successful in regaining from a backpack to quench equilibrium, we experience A drive reduction, accompanied by a rewarding feeling of relief. Drive theories of motivation are often described as “push” theories, as drive is seen as pushing2an organism toward a goal. However, not all psychologists agree that motivation requires the “push” of drive. Instead, they 1 suggest that rewards, or incentives, have the capacity to “pull” an organism 6 in a particular direction. According to this view, animals are viewed as natu1 environment, rather than waiting passively for rally inclined to act on their a need to arise (Deci & T Ryan, 2000). In incentive theories, no reference to unpleasant internal drive states is required to explain motivated behavior. S Incentives or rewards may be intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic rewards arise internally, such as feelings of accomplishment when a goal is met. Extrinsic rewards come from outside sources, such as money for completing work or praise from a supervisor. These different types of reward can interact in complex ways (see ● Figure 7.1). In some cases, certain extrinsic THE FEELING MIND: MOTIVATION AND EMOTION 9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. rewards can have negative effects on intrinsic motivation. For example, if a child who enjoys reading suddenly gets paid for each book completed, the child’s enjoyment of reading might decrease because the motivation shifts from intrinsic (the love of reading) to extrinsic (the love of reward money; DeCharms, 1968). Psychologists have studied a wide range of motives, ranging from the mostly physical motives of temperature control and thirst to the much more cognitive and social motives to achieve and affiliate with others. We will explore this range by discussing some specific motives in detail, including hunger, sexuality, achievement, and affiliation. After discussing these examples, we will examine the ways human beings set priorities when faced with competing motives. © Sonia Moskowitz-Globe Photos, Inc./Newscom W I L Figure 7.1 L Economist Roland Fryer Asks Whether Incentives Work. HarvardI economist Roland Fryer overcame a very tough childhood in Daytona, Florida, to become the youngest tenured African American professor in the history of Harvard University. Drawing onS his personal experiences, Fryer experimented different mented with differen nt incentives for a variety of school-related school related , behaviors. His results suggest Locatio on Location DALLAS What hat students were ere paid for Reading Grade level participating Second-graders How much $2 per book Average student earned $13.81 Study size* 1,780 from 22 schools Results Very Positive Paying kids to read dramatically boosted readingcomprehension scores. *Not including control groups K A S S CHI HICAG HICAG CAGO O CHICAGO A N Grades D R Ninth-graders A $50 for A’s $35 for B’s $20 for C’s 2 1 6 4,396 from 20 schools 1 Mixed T Kids cut fewer classes and got S slightly better grades. $695.61 Standardized test scores did not change. WASH WAS WASHINGTON HINGTO GT T N NEW YORK CITY Various† Test scores Sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-graders Fourth- and seventh-graders Up to $100 every two weeks $25 (fourth-graders) to $50 (seventh-graders) per test $532.85 $139.43 (fourth-graders) $231.55 (seventh-graders) 3,495 from 17 schools 8,320 from 63 schools Positive Rewarding five different actions, including attendance and behavior, seemed to improve reading skills. No Effect Paying kids for higher test scores did not lead to more learning or better grades — or any measureable changes. © Cengage Learning 2013 that thee relationshipss among ng intrinsic rewards rewards, s, extrinsic extr ex trin insic re rewa rewards, ward rds, and nd behavio behavior or can bee quite qui uite te complex. complex ex. Although rewards gh previous pre revi viou ouss research rese search has has shown thatt extrinsic exxtrinsic rew warrds can undermine un ndeerm rmine intrinsic in ntrin nsicc motivation, iitt is important this occurs ortant nt to to remember reemem mberr that tha hat th his i result o cccurs only when wh hen behavior beh ehavio or iiss iintrinsically ntri nt r nsiccallly motivated mottiv ivat ated ed in th thee first place. suggests paying might ace. If children do not intrinsically intrinssic i ally enjoy enj njoy oy reading, Fryer Fryyer sugges stss pay yin ing g tthem hem m tto o read dm igh ht work. Unfortunately, has been death threats simple Unfortu Un unately, Fryerr h as bee en the target et of of de dea ath th thre reat atss for su suggesting ng this si simp mple le ssolution oluttio ol ion to illiteracy. cy. cy † A combination of metrics that varied from school to school but always included attendance and behavior WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE MOTIVATED? 9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 291 Hunger is a very complex motive. In comparison to the regulation of body temperature through processes ...
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1. How does life experience contribute to “perception”?

Perception is more than anything that affects how we view life. Perception can be
described as an unconscious process of taking in sensory information from our surroundings and
use it to construct our form of reality. Therefore, past experiences such as values, education,
culture, and other factors affect what we perceive as reality (Cacioppo & Freberg, 2013). These
influences affect how people organize, interpret the information and what they pay particular
attention to. Past education and experience lead to preconceived notions and assumptions.
Sometimes people perceive what they want to be true rather than what is real and true.
Subconscious expectations determine how to interpret what is seen and what is heard.
Constant exposure or repeated expectations create a pattern of expectations. Therefore, people
form a mindset which predisposes their way of thinking. The context in which experiences occur
also influences a person’s perception. Different conditions conjure a different set of expectations.
One tends to expect danger at night more than during the day. If one hears footsteps behind them
at night, they will automatically perceive danger. And if they have had a bad experience of let's
say being mugged, they will think they are about to be mugged. Therefore, our experiences shape
what we perceive to be true (Cacioppo & Freberg, 2013).

How does the loss of hearing relate to the loss of relationships?
The key to any healthy rel...

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