Liberalism and Conservatism Questions

Oct 17th, 2015
SoccerBoss
Category:
Political Science
Price: $30 USD

Question description

1. As an ideology, conservatism is largely a m

atter of temperament, of a disposition to preserve

the tried-and-

true ways of life.

a. True b. False

____ 2. Conservatives place a higher value on the a

uthority of established government than on individu

al liberty.

a. True b. False

____ 3. Thomas Hobbes is considered the founding fa

ther of conservatism.

a. True b. False

____ 4. As used by Burke, "prejudice" is a disposit

ion to prefer the familiar habits and traditions of

one's own society.

a. True b. False

____ 5. Winston Churchill was a Tory democrat.

a. True b. False

____ 6. Despite the fact that the United States had

no experience of feudalism, hereditary aristocracy

, monarchy, nor

a national church, American conservatism and Europe

an conservatism are strikingly similar.

a. True b. False

____ 7. Many conservatives took fascism to be the l

ogical result of the democratic excesses of mass so

ciety.

a. True b. False

____ 8. According to many conservatives, to check t

he excesses of mass society more power must be give

n to those

who rise above the mass in terms of ability, experi

ence, and temperament to govern.

a. True b. False

____ 9. Leveling is the effort to diminish or elimi

nate the gap between the wealthiest and poorest mem

bers of a

society.

a. True b. False

____ 10. In the conservative conception of freedom,

the agent that is or should be free is...

a. common working people.

b. the individual.

c. interconnected individuals.

d. the nation-state.

____ 11. In the conservative conception of freedom,

the goal the agent must be free to pursue is...

a. the power and glory of the state.

b. order, stability; harmony, continuity.

c. to live as one chooses.

d. fulfillment of human needs, e.g., satisfying wor

k, fair share of product.

____ 12. In the conservative conception of freedom,

the main obstacle/barrier/restraint encountered by

the agent is...

a. laws, customs, or conditions that block individu

al choice.

b. radical ideas, innovation; passions, desires, la

ck of restraint.

c. class divisions, economic inequalities, unequal

life-chances, false consciousness.

d. individualism, independent groups, class divisio

ns.

____ 13. Conservatives understand human beings to b

e...

a. emotional, defined by their differences, and loc

ked in conflict.

b. imperfect, weak, and marked by original sin.

c. rational, self-interested, and competitive.

d. communal creatures, cooperative, and perfectible

.

____ 14. Which of the following statements about co

nservatives is

TRUE

?

a. All conservatives share a desire to preserve som

ething.

b. All conservatives want to preserve the same thin

gs.

c. Anyone who wants to preserve something is a cons

ervative.

d. All of the answers to this question are true.

____ 15. As an ideology, conservatism began as a re

action against the liberal elements of...

a. the American Revolution.

b. the French Revolution.

c. the Glorious Revolution.

d. all of the answers to this question.

____ 16. According to Edmund Burke...

a. society is a living and changing organism, a who

le that is greater than the sum of its parts.

b. private property is an important stabilizing for

ce in society because it strengthens one's

attachment to the society and government that surro

und and protect this property.

c. the traditional authority of churches, families,

and other groups must be respected.

d. all of the answers to this question.

____ 17. Which of the following is

NOT

a concept Edmund Burke shared with early liberals?

a. the social contract

b. an atomistic view of society

c. government as a necessary evil

d. Edmund Burke did not share any of the concepts i

n the answers to this question with early

liberals.

____ 18. Edmund Burke believed...

a. democracy is absolutely necessary to the health

of representative government.

b. elected representatives should always vote as th

eir constituents want them to vote.

c. an individual's interests cannot be well represe

nted unless that individual has the right to

vote.

d. none of the answers to this question.

____ 19. For Edmund Burke...

a. change must be brought about carefully and gradu

ally through reform.

b. all power should be placed in government so that

government is strong enough to protect

society.

c. freedom is always a destructive force and theref

ore freedom is never a good thing.

d. all of the answers to this question.

____ 20. Which of the following is

NOT

a belief held by Edmund Burke?

a. The "true natural aristocracy" is the rare few w

ho have the ability, the experience and the

inclination to govern wisely in the interest of soc

iety.

b. The "true natural aristocracy" and the hereditar

y aristocracy are one and the same.

c. A society deprived of its hereditary aristocracy

is a society deprived of many of its best

and brightest members.

d. All of the answers to this question are beliefs

held by Edmund Burke.

____ 21. Liberalism reacted to the Industrial Revol

ution with welfare liberalism; conservatism reacted

to the Industrial

Revolution with...

a. Burkean conservatism.

b. cultural conservatism.

c. individualist conservatism.

d. reactionary conservatism.

____ 22. Which of the following American Founders i

s considered to be more Burkean in his conservatism

?

a. Alexander Hamilton

b. Benjamin Franklin

c. Thomas Jefferson

d. James Madison

____ 23. Which of the following did

NOT

contribute to the rise of mass society in the 20th

century?

a. the expansion of voting rights

b. the spread of public education

c. the increase in mass production/affordability of

consumer goods

d. all of the answers to this question contributed

to the rise of mass society in the 20th

century

____ 24. Which of the following is a conservative a

ssertion about the effects of leveling?

a. Leveling leads to economic and social stagnation

.

b. Leveling causes serious literature, music, and a

rt to be overwhelmed by fads and fancies.

c. Leveling produces a loss of local variety and di

versity.

d. All of the answers to this question are conserva

tive assertions about the effects of

leveling.

____ 25. Twentieth-century conservatives were most

unified in their fear/hatred of....

a. atheists.

b. communists.

c. fascists.

d. liberals.

____ 26. Log Cabin Republicans are...

a. environmental conservatives.

b. gay conservatives.

c. individualist conservatives.

d. traditional conservatives.

____ 27. Despite their differences, all conservativ

es agree on...

a. the importance of private property.

b. laissez-faire capitalism.

c. prayer in public school.

d. all of the answers to this question.

____ 28. In its explanatory function, conservatism

understands social, political and economic conditio

ns to be as they

are because of...

a. economic and class relations.

b. the frailty of imperfect human nature.

c. individual choices and actions.

d. those who conspire to keep the nation weak in or

der to serve their own personal interests.

____ 29. In its evaluative function, conservatism a

dvises that...

a. the more freedom people have, the better; the mo

re restrained/controlled people are, the

worse.

b. the more harmonious the social relations, the be

tter; the more conflictive the social

relations, the worse.

c. the more slight the class divisions, the better;

the more sharp the class divisions, the

worse.

d. the more unified the nation, the better; the mor

e fragmented the nation, the worse.

____ 30. In its orientative function, conservatism

explains that...

a. each of us is part of a greater whole.

b. we find ourselves in a particular position in th

e class structure.

c. we are the nation.

d. our identity is an individual identity.

____ 31. In its programmatic function, conservatism

directs us to....

a. cherish and conserve what we already have.

b. promote individual liberty and opportunity.

c. create a society that is as nearly classless as

possible.

d. give everything to the state, keep nothing from

the state, and do nothing against the state.

____ 32. Conservatives...

a. reject democracy altogether.

b. support a chastened/modest form of representativ

e democracy in which the people have

limited power and make limited demands.

c. favor democracy so long as it protects individua

l rights and interests in privacy and free

action.

d.

are committed to democracy that is

truly

of, by, and for the people.

[Matching Questions Found on Next Page]

Match each of the ideologies listed in answers a-e

with the correct statement listed in 33-1 to 33-5.

Each correct match is worth 0.20 points; Question 3

3 is worth up to a total of 1 point.

a. individualist conservatives

b. neoconservatives

c. traditional conservatives

d. reactionaries

e. religious right

____33-1. Want to preserve the traditional features

of existing society through cautious reform.

____33-2. Advocate less reliance on government, an

assertive foreign policy, and an emphasis on the va

lue of work,

thrift, family, and self-restraint.

____33-3. Favor reducing the size of government in

order to free individuals to compete for profits in

the free market.

____33-4. Want to reverse social change and return

to an earlier form of society and politics.

____33-5. Push for biblical morality in government

and society.

Match each of the authors listed in answers a-e wit

h the correct statement listed in 34-1 to 34-5. Ea

ch

correct match is worth 0.20 points; Question 34 is

worth up to a total of 1 point.

a. Edmund Burke

b. Benjamin Disraeli

c. Joseph de Maistre

d. Clemens von Metternich

e. Pope Pius IX/the Catholic Church

____34-1. Devised the plan for restoring hereditary

monarchs and the old aristocratic order in Europe

after the defeat of

Napoleon in 1815.

____34-2. Understood society to be like a fabric -

the "social fabric" - and its individual members ar

e like the interwoven

threads of a richly textured tapestry.

____34-3. Pursued the policies of Tory democracy: a

ddress the needs of the working class while instill

ing in the workers

a respect for the traditional order.

____34-4. His

Syllabus of Errors

sharply criticized liberalism for undermining reli

gion and the traditional order.

____34-5. Saw the Enlightenment as an age of arroga

nce that led to the downfall of the most sacred and

necessary

institutions of "throne and altar."

  1. The word "liberal" derives from the Latin

liber

, meaning "free."

a. True b. False

____ 2. Liberals believe that everyone can and shou

ld be equally successful.

a. True b. False

____ 3. The British parliament gave little attentio

n to the American colonists' complaints of being ta

xed unfairly

because although the colonists may not have been "a

ctually" represented in the British parliament they

were

"virtually" represented by the members of parliamen

t who looked after the interests of the entire

commonwealth.

a. True b. False

____ 4. The American Revolution began as an effort

by the colonists to restore their rights under the

Crown and only

later transformed into a fight for independence fro

m the Crown.

a. True b. False

____ 5. While the American revolutionaries were inf

luenced both by classical republicanism and liberal

ism, the French

Revolution was a purely liberal revolution.

a. True b. False

____ 6. When the French revolutionaries attacked ar

istocratic privilege, they were attacking a form of

political

absolutism.

a. True b. False

____ 7. As used by Utilitarians, the concept of "ut

ility" means seeking pleasure in immediate gratific

ation.

a. True b. False

____ 8. Social Darwinism uses Darwin's theory of na

tural selection as "scientific" support for the pol

icies and practices

of laissez-faire capitalism.

a. True b. False

____ 9. Most neoclassical liberals today base their

arguments on evolutionary premises.

a. True b. False

____ 10. By the mid 1900s, neoclassical liberals we

re being referred to as "conservatives."

a. True b. False

____ 11. Welfare liberals want to replace capitalis

m with a system of publicly owned and democraticall

y controlled

enterprises.

a. True b. False

____ 12. In the liberal conception of freedom, the

agent that is or should be free is...

a. common working people.

b. the individual.

c. interconnected individuals.

d. the nation-state.

____ 13. In the liberal conception of freedom, the

goal the agent must be free to pursue is...

a. the power and glory of the state.

b. order, stability; harmony, continuity.

c. to live as one chooses.

d. fulfillment of human needs, e.g., satisfying wor

k, fair share of product.

____ 14. In the liberal conception of freedom, the

main obstacle/barrier/restraint encountered by the

agent is...

a. laws, customs, or conditions that block individu

al choice.

b. radical ideas, innovation; passions, desires, la

ck of restraint.

c. class divisions, economic inequalities, unequal

life-chances, false consciousness.

d. individualism, independent groups, class divisio

ns.

____ 15. Liberals understand human beings to be...

a. emotional, defined by their differences, and loc

ked in conflict.

b. imperfect, weak, and marked by original sin.

c. rational, self-interested, and competitive.

d. communal creatures, cooperative, and perfectible

.

____ 16. Which of the following statements about li

fe in medieval Europe is

FALSE

?

a. The Church understood its mission to be saving s

ouls for the kingdom of God by

upholding "correct belief."

b. Secular rulers were unwilling to join forces wit

h the Church to suppress those whom the

Church considered heretics or infidels.

c. People from all ranks of society could hope to f

ind a place among the clergy.

d. All of the statements about life in medieval Eur

ope in the answers to this question are true.

____ 17. Which of the following statements about li

fe in medieval Europe is

TRUE

?

a. A person's social standing was fixed by birth an

d there was little that s/he could do to

change it.

b. Feudalism was the main form of social and econom

ic organization.

c. Different liberties attached to different levels

of status in society.

d. All of the statements about life in medieval Eur

ope in the answers to this question are true.

____ 18. Which of the following is a social, econom

ic, or cultural change that disturbed the medieval

order in Europe?

a. the Black Death

b. the Renaissance

c. the Protestant Reformation

d. all of the answers to this question

____ 19. During the Protestant Reformation, Martin

Luther....

a. wanted people to be able to believe and worship

in whatever way they chose.

b. agitated to separate church from state.

c. counseled his followers to resist their rulers i

n the name of God.

d. none of the above.

____ 20. When we compare/contrast Hobbes'

Leviathan

to Locke's

Second Treatise

, we see that both believed that...

a. the state of nature is a state of war.

b. government is founded on the consent of the peop

le.

c. the only reason for government is to provide sec

urity.

d. all of the answers to this question.

____ 21. Which of the following statements comparin

g/contrasting classical republicanism and early lib

eralism is

TRUE

?

a. Classical republicans were more concerned about

civic virtue than were early liberals.

b. Early liberals understood freedom as a matter of

governing oneself whereas classical

republicans understood freedom as a matter of being

left alone by the government.

c. Both early liberals and classical republicans wo

rried about the corruption of the people as

much as they worried about the corruption of the go

vernment.

d. All of the statements comparing/contrasting clas

sical republicanism and early liberalism in

the answers to this question are true.

____ 22. Which of the following is

NOT

a tactic used by mercantilist countries?

a. colonies

b. high tariffs

c. monopolies

d. all of the answers to this question are tactics

used by mercantilist countries

____ 23. The Utilitarians were most concerned with.

..

a. economic liberty.

b. the right to vote.

c. religious tolerance.

d. equal opportunity.

____ 24. Many blamed the (global) Great Depression

of the 1930s on capitalism and turned to _______ in

stead.

a. fascism

b. socialism/communism

c. welfare liberalism

d. all of the answers to this question

____ 25. According to John Maynard Keynes, during p

eriods of inflation (rising prices) government shou

ld...

a. do nothing.

b. raise taxes.

c. increase spending.

d. both raise taxes and increase spending.

____ 26. President Lyndon B. Johnson's "Great Socie

ty" programs in the 1960s are an example of...

a. communitarianism.

b. libertarianism.

c. utilitarianism.

d. welfare liberalism.

____ 27. In its explanatory function, liberalism un

derstands social, political and economic conditions

to be as they are

because of...

a. economic and class relations.

b. the frailty of imperfect human nature.

c. individual choices and actions.

d. those who conspire to keep the nation weak in or

der to serve their own personal interests.

____ 28. In its evaluative function, liberalism adv

ises that...

a. the more freedom people have, the better; the mo

re restrained/controlled people are, the

worse.

b. the more harmonious the social relations, the be

tter; the more conflictive the social

relations, the worse.

c. the more slight the class divisions, the better;

the more sharp the class divisions, the

worse.

d. the more unified the nation, the better; the mor

e fragmented the nation, the worse.

____ 29. In its orientative function, liberalism ex

plains that...

a. each of us is part of a greater whole.

b. we find ourselves in a particular position in th

e class structure.

c. we are the nation.

d. our identity is an individual identity.

____ 30. In its programmatic function, liberalism d

irects us to....

a. cherish and conserve what we already have.

b. promote individual liberty and opportunity.

c. create a society that is as nearly classless as

possible.

d. give everything to the state, keep nothing from

the state, and do nothing against the state.

____ 31. Liberals...

a. reject democracy altogether.

b. support a chastened/modest form of representativ

e democracy in which the people have

limited power and make limited demands.

c. favor democracy so long as it protects individua

l rights and interests in privacy and free

action.

d.

are committed to democracy that is

truly

of, by, and for the people.

Match each of the authors listed in answers a-e wit

h the correct statement listed in 32-1 to 32-5. Ea

ch

correct match is worth 0.20 points; Question 32 is

worth up to a total of 1 point.

a. Calvinists

b. Thomas Hobbes

c. John Locke

d. Martin Luther

e. Thomas Paine

____32-1. Said that life in the state of nature is

"solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."

____32-2. His desire to debate the sale of "indulge

nces" by the Catholic Church sparked the Protestant

Reformation.

____32-3. The first to argue that people have a rig

ht to overthrow any ruler who denies them the free

exercise of their

religion.

____32-4. Argued for religious tolerance and limite

d government.

____32-5. Believed monarchy to be absolutely incomp

atible with individual liberty.

Match each of the authors listed in answers a-e wit

h the correct statement listed in 33-1 to 33-5. Ea

ch

correct match is worth 0.20 points; Question 33 is

worth up to a total of 1 point.

a. Jeremy Bentham

b. Bernard Mandeville

c. John Stuart Mill

d. Physiocrats

e. Adam Smith

____33-1. Argued that human beings are merely pleas

ure seekers and pain avoiders; therefore, what we n

eed to do is

figure out how to be more efficient pleasure-seeker

s and pain-avoiders.

____33-2. Compared the operation of the free market

to the workings of an "invisible hand."

____33-3. One of the first to argue that the best w

ay to promote the good of society as a whole is to

let people pursue

their private (economic) interests.

____33-4. Used the phrase "laissez faire, laissez p

aser" to express the idea that governments should r

emove

regulations and leave people alone to compete in th

e marketplace.

____33-5. Formulated the "harm principle" that peop

le should be free to do what they want as long as t

hey do not harm

or threaten harm to others.

Match each of the authors listed in answers a-d wit

h the correct statement listed in 34-1 to 34-4. Ea

ch

correct match is worth 0.25 points; Question 34 is

worth up to a total of 1 point.

a. Robert Nozick

b. Murray Rothbard

c. Herbert Spencer

d. William Graham Sumner

____34-1. Argued that "freedom" meant the freedom t

o compete including the freedom of the victors to k

eep and enjoy

the fruits of their victory without having to share

them with anyone else - certainly not with the poo

r, who were

poor precisely because they had lost in this life-a

nd-death competition.

____34-2. Coined the phrase "survival of the fittes

t" when he argued that helping the poor and the wea

k impedes

individual freedom and retards social progress by h

olding the strong back.

____34-3. Believed that using taxation to take mone

y from some people for the benefit of others is "on

par with forced

labor."

____34-4. Considered government to be an

un

necessary evil that should be abolished in favor of

free-market

anarchism.

Match each of the authors listed in answers a-d wit

h the correct statement listed in 35-1 to 35-4. Ea

ch

correct match is worth 0.25 points; Question 35 is

worth up to a total of 1 point.

a. Otto von Bismark

b. T.H. Green

c. John Maynard Keynes

d. John Rawls

____35-1. Argued that freedom is more than just neg

ative freedom (the right to be left alone); freedom

also includes

positive freedom (the ability to realize or achieve

our ideal/higher selves).

____35-2. Believed that the welfare state was the b

est way to oppose socialism.

____35-3. Used the idea of writing a social contrac

t with everyone behind a "veil of ignorance" to unc

over fundamental

principles of social justice.

____35-4. Argued that governments should use their

taxing and spending powers to prevent depressions a

nd maintain a

healthy economy.

Match each of the economic theories listed in answe

rs a-c with the correct statement listed in 36-1 to

36-3. Each correct match is worth 0.33 points; Que

stion 36 is worth up to a total of 1 point.

a. capitalism

b. feudalism

c. mercantilism

____36-1. An economic system in which the major mea

ns of production are privately owned and operated f

or the profit

of the owners or investors.

____36-2. The economic policy of promoting a countr

y's wealth at the expense of others by establishing

monopolies and

regulating foreign trade to favor domestic industry

.

____36-3. An agricultural society in which a relati

vely small number of people control the land while

most others work it

as tenants or serfs.

Match each of the ideologies listed in answers a-e

with the correct statement listed in 37-1 to 37-5.

Each correct match is worth 0.20 points; Question 3

7 is worth up to a total of 1 point.

a. communitarians

b. new left

c. neoclassical liberals/libertarians

d. utilitarians

e. welfare liberals

____37-1. Government's only legitimate business is

to protect the person and property of individuals a

gainst force and

fraud.

____37-2. Government should encourage people to be

active citizens through "participatory democracy" r

ather than

reducing them to mere consumers in a capitalist mar

ket.

____37-3. Government, in addition to respecting/pro

tecting individual rights, must encourage citizens

to fulfill individual

responsibilities to promote the common good.

____37-4. Government should always act to promote t

he greatest happiness of the greatest number.

____37-5. Government should rescue people from pove

rty, ignorance, and illness.


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