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Running head: GLYCOLYSIS AND FERMENTATION
Glycolysis and Fermentation
GLYCOLYSIS AND FERMENTATION
Fermentation of carbohydrates in yeast is affected by several factors depending on the
environment. The experiment focuses on evaluating four main factors that affect the rate of
fermentation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results obtained from the experiment show
that the type of carbohydrate available affects the rate of reaction. The optimal organic
compound was glucose because yeast could not ferment all the compounds. The optimal pH of
fermentation is at 4.5 which is acidic. The most effective metal activator was the magnesium
available in the form of salt. Sodium was an inhibitor metal ion in the experiment.
Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose using universal cellular mechanisms into
pyruvate. The energy from glucose bonds is transferred during glycolysis to form ATP from
ADP. NADH is produced as a result of reduction during glycolysis in the absence of oxygen.
Fermentation refers to the process of converting NADH into NAD+ in lack of oxygen. During
fermentation, conversion of products formed during glycolysis occurs where pyruvate is
converted into acetaldehyde.
The experiment aimed at the study of fermentation of alcohol in Saccharomyces
cerevisiae, an organism on determining the availability of a carbohydrate. The study will involve
the determination of the effects of carbon source, salts, and pH in the yeast.
The materials used in the experiment were test tubes, graduated cylinders, smith
fermentation tube, tape, marker, and serological pipettes. The reagents used were the NaOH
solution, four pH solutions, and HCL, glucose, and yeast...