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Please read the attached reading to answer the question below

Review the articles assigned to you this week pertaining to Marital Interaction in Iranian Couples; Key Issues to Consider in Therapy with Muslim Families; and Culture and Spiritual Assessments in Counseling Muslim Americans. What are the takeaways you feel are key for you to understand and how will you implement them in your future work as a marriage and family therapist?

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Copyright @ 2016. Wiley. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. 19 Counseling Arab Americans and Muslim Americans Chapter Objectives 1. Learn the demographics and characteristics of Arab Americans and Muslim Americans. 2. Understand the differences between these two populations 3. Identify counseling implications of the information provided for Arab Americans and Muslim Americans. 4. Provide examples of strengths that are associated with Arab and Muslim Americans. 5. Know the special challenges faced by Arab Americans and Muslim Americans. 6. Understand how the implications for clinical practice can guide assessment and therapy with Arab Americans and Muslim Americans. 573 EBSCO : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 4/7/2019 3:20 PM via TOURO COLLEGE - LOS ANGELES AN: 1110445 ; Sue, Derald Wing, Sue, David.; Counseling the Culturally Diverse : Theory and Practice Account: ns011983.main.ehost Copyright @ 2016. Wiley. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. 574 COUNSELING THE CULTURALLY DIVERSE Democrats were forced to defend their appointment of Rep. Andre Carson of Indiana, a Muslim, to the House Intelligence Committee after anti-Muslim protests erupted on Twitter and other social media with complaints that exposing American secrets to Carson could be dangerous. (Associated Press, 2015) Teenagers were asked to identify what role in a movie or on television people from various ethnic backgrounds would most likely play. For Arab Americans, the roles selected were that of a terrorist or a con­ venience store clerk. This result was obtained even though the study predated the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. (Zogby, 2001a) “Nice to see a movie where the Arabs are portrayed for who they really are—vermin scum intent on destroying us,” said one Twitter post in response to the movie American Sniper. Nineteen year old Yusor Mohammed, a Muslim, felt like a “proud and blessed” American who fit in. “That’s the beautiful thing here, is it doesn’t matter where you come from . . . But here we’re all one.” She, her 23-year-old husband Deah Shaddy Barakat, and her 19-year­ old sister Razan Mohammad Abu-Salha were later shot to death by an angry neighbor (Botelho & Davis, 2015). More than 1000 Muslims formed a human shield around Oslo’s synagogue on Saturday, offering symbolic protection for the city’s Jewish community and condemning an attack on a synagogue in neighbouring Denmark last weekend. Chanting “No to anti-Sem­ itism, no to Islamophobia,” Norway’s Muslims formed what they called a ring of peace a week after Omar Abdel Hamid El-Hussein, a Danish-born son of Palestinian immigrants, killed two people at a synagogue. (Reuters, 2015) CHARACTERISTICS AND STRENGTHS In the following sections we discuss the characteristics, values, and strengths of Arab and Muslim Americans and consider their implications in treatment. Remember that these are generalizations and their applicability needs to be assessed for each client. EBSCO : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 4/7/2019 3:20 PM via TOURO COLLEGE - LOS ANGELES AN: 1110445 ; Sue, Derald Wing, Sue, David.; Counseling the Culturally Diverse : Theory and Practice Account: ns011983.main.ehost CHARACTERISTICS AND STRENGTHS 575 Copyright @ 2016. Wiley. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. Arab Americans Arabs are individuals who originate from countries located in the Middle East and North Africa and whose primary language is Arabic. Arabs began immigrating to the United States in the late 1800s. Arab Americans, descending from about 20 different countries, are heterogeneous in terms of race, religion, and political ide­ ology. The majority of Arab Americans are native-born U.S. citizens. Arab Americans can have African, Asian, or European ancestry. Approxi­ mately 56% of Arab Americans trace their ancestry to Lebanon, while 14% are from Syria, 11% from Egypt, 9% from Palestine, 4% from Jordan, 2% from Iraq, and 4% from other countries (El-Badry, 2006). Although the populations of Ara­ bic-speaking countries include large numbers of Muslims, only about one-quarter of Arab Americans are Muslims (Jackson & Nassar-McMillan, 2006). Because of categorization systems used in the U.S. Census, it is difficult to determine the precise size of the Arab American population. The U.S. Census estimates that there are 1.8 million Arab Americans. However, the Arab Ameri­ can Institute believes the U.S. Census severely underestimates the number in the group and that there are actually 3,665,789 Arab Americans, with 94% living in metropolitan areas such as Los Angeles, Detroit, New York, Chicago, and Wash­ ington, D.C. (Arab American Institute, 2012). The majority of Arab American immigrants arrived in two major waves (Nassar-McMillan & Hakim-Larson, 2003; Suleiman, 1999). The first lasted from 1875 to World War II and primarily involved Arab Christians from Leb­ anon and Syria who immigrated for economic reasons. The second wave began after World War II and included Palestinians, Iraqis, and Syrians, who left in order to escape the Arab-Israeli conflicts and civil war. This latter group included larger numbers of Muslims. The aftermath of the September 11 attacks initially reduced Arab immigration. However, it has once again increased, and more than 40,000 immigrants from Muslim countries such as Egypt, Pakistan, and Morocco, were admitted to the United States in 2005 (Elliott, 2006). In comparison with the U.S. population as a whole, Arab Americans are more likely to be married (61% versus 54%), male (57% versus 49%), young, and highly educated (46% have bachelor’s degree versus 28% of the total adult population) (Arab American Institute, 2011). Sixty-nine percent indicate they speak a language other than English at home, but 65% speak English “very well.” The majority work as executives, professionals, and office and sales staff. Forty-two percent work in management positions. Arab American income is higher than the national median income ($59,012 versus $52,029) (Arab American Institute, 2011). However, the EBSCO : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 4/7/2019 3:20 PM via TOURO COLLEGE - LOS ANGELES AN: 1110445 ; Sue, Derald Wing, Sue, David.; Counseling the Culturally Diverse : Theory and Practice Account: ns011983.main.ehost Copyright @ 2016. Wiley. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. 576 COUNSELING THE CULTURALLY DIVERSE poverty rate is also higher (17% versus 12%; U.S. Census Bureau, 2005). Arab Americans participate in a variety of religions. More than 33% are Roman Cath­ olic, 25% are Muslim, 18% are Eastern Orthodox, 10% are Protestant, and 13% report other religion or no affiliation (Arab American Institute, 2003). Muslim Americans It is estimated that about 2 to 3 million Muslims—followers of Islam—are living in the United States. The Qur’an, the Islamic holy book, is considered to be the literal word of God. Islam is one of the fastest growing religions in the United States, with approximately one-fourth of U.S. Muslims being converts to the faith (U.S. Department of State, 2002). Within Islam, there are two major sects—Sunni and Shiite. The Sunnis are the larger group, accounting for about 90% of Muslims worldwide. The remaining 10% are Shiites. Most Muslims in America are Sunni, whereas those in Iraq, Bahrain, Lebanon, and Iran are mainly Shiite. Although many conflate Muslims with Arabs, most Muslims do not descend from Arabic-speaking countries. While there are about 1 billion Muslims worldwide, only about 200 million are Arab (Amri, 2010). The global Muslim population will increase by about 35% and reach 2.2 billion by 2020 or about 26.4% of the world’s projected population. It is increasing at twice the rate of the non-Muslim population. The percentage of Muslims currently found in different regions of the world comprise Asia-Pasific (62.1%), Middle East–North Africa (19.9%), Sub-Saharan Africa (15%), Europe (2.7%), and Americas (0.3%) (Pew Research Center, 2011a). Over a third of Muslim Americans were born in the U.S. and although there is a large percentage of Muslims who are immigrants, about 81% are citizens of the U.S. including 70% of those born outside the U.S.—a higher citizenship rate than in other immigrant groups. First-generation Muslim Americans come from a wide range of countries around the world. About 41% are immigrants from the Middle East or North Africa, while about 26% come from South Asian nations including Pakistan (14%), Bangladesh (5%), and India (3%). Others came to the United States from sub-Saharan Africa (11%), European countries (7%), Iran (5%), or other coun­ tries (9%). In the United States, 30% of Muslim Americans report their race as White, 23% Black, 21% Asian, 6% Hispanic, and 9% other or mixed race (Pew Research Center, 2011b). The Muslim American population is much younger than the non-Muslim population—59% of adult Muslims are between the ages of 18 and 39 versus 40% of other adults in the U.S. EBSCO : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 4/7/2019 3:20 PM via TOURO COLLEGE - LOS ANGELES AN: 1110445 ; Sue, Derald Wing, Sue, David.; Counseling the Culturally Diverse : Theory and Practice Account: ns011983.main.ehost Copyright @ 2016. Wiley. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. CHARACTERISTICS AND STRENGTHS 577 Muslim Americans have liberal attitudes on a number of current political issues. In general, they are highly religious and about half think of themselves first as Muslim and then American. This is similar to Christians, of whom about 46% think of themselves as Christian first and then American. Muslim Americans appear to be highly integrated into American society and they are largely content with their lives (Pew Research Center, 2011a). Cultural and Religious Values The lives of Muslims are governed by Islamic laws derived from the Qur’an, which deals with social issues, family life, economics and business, sexuality, and other aspects of life. The name of their religion means “submission to God.” Adherence to Islam is demonstrated by individual accountability and a declaration of faith (“There is no god but God and Muhammad is his messenger”). Muslims engage in the ritual of prayer five times a day and annually fast during daylight hours throughout the holy month of Ramadan—a time for inner reflection, devotion to God, and spiritual renewal. Almsgiving and a pilgrimage to Mecca are additional signs of devotion (Nobles & Sciarra, 2000). Some Muslim women, particularly those of Arab descent, wear traditional clothing because of the Islamic teachings of modesty. Family Structure and Values Family structure and values of Arab Americans and Muslim Americans differ widely, depending on the specific country of origin and acculturation level. An Arab American engineer living in San Francisco made the following observation: “American values are, by and large, very consistent with Islamic values, with a focus on family, faith, hard work, and an obligation to better self and society” (U.S. Department of State, 2002, p. 1). Some generalizations can be made about the values of Arab Americans. Hos­ pitality is considered an important aspect of interpersonal interactions (Nobles & Sciarra, 2000). Family obligations and interdependence among members are very important. This group orientation can result in pressure for conformity and high expectations for children. Parents expect to remain part of their children’s lives for as long as possible. In traditional Arab American families, there is a strong sense of a community and an identity that revolves around culture and God. The family structure tends to be patriarchal, with the men being the authority and head of the family. Women are responsible for raising the children and instilling cultural values EBSCO : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 4/7/2019 3:20 PM via TOURO COLLEGE - LOS ANGELES AN: 1110445 ; Sue, Derald Wing, Sue, David.; Counseling the Culturally Diverse : Theory and Practice Account: ns011983.main.ehost Copyright @ 2016. Wiley. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. 578 COUNSELING THE CULTURALLY DIVERSE in the offspring. In general, boys are advised by older males, and girls are advised by older females. The maintenance of traditional gender roles has resulted in lower employment levels for even highly educated Arab women (Al Harahsheh, 2011). Arab culture tends to be collectivistic, hence the success or failure of an indi­ vidual reflects on the entire family. This personal responsibility for social behavior sometimes leads to stress and anxiety. Arab college students appear to have higher than expected rates of social anxiety, which may result from internalized norms of social responsibility for their conduct (Iancu et al., 2011). Personal problems are often disclosed only to close family or friends. Opposite-sex discussions with other than a family member may be problematic (Jackson & Nassar-McMillan, 2006). Seeking treatment for emotional problems may be considered shameful, so outside help is likely to be sought only as a last resort. In traditionally oriented Muslim families, the oldest son is prepared to become the head of the extended family. Family roles are complementary, with men serving as pro­ viders and head of the family and women maintaining the home and rearing children. Mothers are likely to behave affectionately toward their children, whereas fathers may be aloof, generating both fear and respect (Dwairy, 2008). Many Muslim women avoid physical contact with nonrelated males, such as shaking hands or hugging (Tumma­ la-Narra & Claudius, 2013). However, wide variations exist. Some Muslim American women shake hands with men, support gay marriage, and consider themselves devout even though they do not wear a Hijab or head covering (Lawrence, 2014). Contrary to public opinion, U.S. women who have converted to Islam do not consider themselves to be “brainwashed” or having forfeited their “free will” (Aleccia, 2013). Implications Counselors should be aware that traditional Arab American and Muslim fami­ lies tend to be hierarchical, with men considered to be the head of the family. Although Western media often portray women as powerless victims of emotional and physical abuse, in most Arab and Muslim families, women are treated with honor and respect (Ibrahim & Dykeman, 2011). Problems can occur with accul­ turation conflicts involving the struggle between adhering to traditional familial patterns (culturally collective support) and seeking individual fulfillment. Cultural Strengths Arab Americans and Muslim Americans tend to be collectivistic rather than indi­ vidualistic in orientation. Family and community supports can be protective EBSCO : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 4/7/2019 3:20 PM via TOURO COLLEGE - LOS ANGELES AN: 1110445 ; Sue, Derald Wing, Sue, David.; Counseling the Culturally Diverse : Theory and Practice Account: ns011983.main.ehost Copyright @ 2016. Wiley. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. SPECIFIC CHALLENGES 579 factors in dealing with prejudice and discrimination from the larger society. Family resources can be brought to bear on personal issues and problems. Newer immi­ grants receive support and acceptance within Arab communities. Arab Americans have high levels of educational and economic success, partially due to their ability to acculturate and assimilate quickly (Nassar-McMillan, 2011). Similarly, being part of a religious community can provide guidance in dealing with problems and issues. Being a Muslim provides not only religious beliefs but also a code of behav­ ior that encompasses cultural, racial, gender, and familial considerations. SPECIFIC CHALLENGES In the following sections we discuss the challenges often faced by Arab Americans and Muslim Americans and consider their implications in treatment. Stereotypes, Racism, and Discrimination During the Texas Muslim Capitol Day, Texas Rep. Molly White, R-Belton, commented to the anti-Islam protestors who were gath­ ering, saying: “I did leave an Israeli flag on the reception desk in my office with instructions to staff to ask representatives from the Muslim community to renounce Islamic terrorist groups and publicly announce allegiance to America and our laws.” (McGaughy, 2015) When an Indian American, Nina Davuluri, won the Miss America crown, social media responses included: “Congratulations Al-Qaeda. Our Miss America is one of you,” “So miss america is a terrorist,” and “How the f—k does a foreigner win miss America? She is a Arab! #idiots” (Golgowski, 2013). Rita Zaweidah, the co-founder of the Arab American Community Coalition of Washington State explains, “When somebody is picked up or arrested or they’ve done something, they don’t just mention that it is a male that was picked up. It’s a Muslim male. You never see them saying a Christian male or an Irish male or an English male or female or whatever else. But for some reason when it’s anything regarding the Middle East, the religion is the first word somewhere in that sentence.” (Zaki, 2011) EBSCO : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 4/7/2019 3:20 PM via TOURO COLLEGE - LOS ANGELES AN: 1110445 ; Sue, Derald Wing, Sue, David.; Counseling the Culturally Diverse : Theory and Practice Account: ns011983.main.ehost Copyright @ 2016. Wiley. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. 580 COUNSELING THE CULTURALLY DIVERSE In recent years, Muslims and “Arab-appearing” individuals have been sub­ jected to increased discrimination and attacks. Although Arab Americans and Muslims have always encountered prejudice and discrimination, negative behav­ ior directed toward these groups accelerated following the September 11, 2001, attacks, the Boston marathon bombings in 2013, and the murders of political cartoonists at the offices of the Charlie Hebdo magazine in France in 2015. Hate crimes against Muslims are now second only to those perpetrated against Jewish Americans (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2010). Arabs, Arab Americans, and Muslims are often stereotyped in movies as sheiks, barbarians, or terrorists (Nassar-McMillan, Lambert, & Hakim-Larson, 2011). As was mentioned in the poll of teenagers at the beginning of the chapter, Arabs are frequently associated with terrorism. Arabs are so commonly stereotyped as being violent or terrorists that, in one study, individuals who played a terrorist-themed video game showed an increase in negative attitudes toward Arabs—even though the game involved Russian characters. This finding clearly demonstrates a “strong associative link” between Arabs and terrorism (Saleem & Craig, 2013). Further, Islam has been portrayed as a violent religion. In fact, in 2006, Pope Benedict XVI created a storm of protests from the Muslim world when he read a quote from a 14th-century emperor: “Show me just what Muhammad br ...
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There are various takeaways from the article. First, there is a lot of misinformation about
Arabs in the United States. From the article, there is a difference between Arab Americans and
Muslim Americans. Whe...

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