Hydrostatic Force Equation Lab Report Paper

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YOU MUST BE GOOD AT FLUID MECHANICS LAB.

First thing you need to do is see the attachment picture then do only the Third part which is create a lab report based on what I did at the first 2 parts ( I already did the first 2 parts). Basically all I want you to do is to write the report based on the sample that I upload down below (JUST DO THE SAME STEPS ON THE REPORT OLD sample do not use copy anything from the sample or I will get zero for plagiarism because THAT SAMPLE REPORT IS FOR OLD REPORT.

SO JUST YOU NEED CREATE A NEW REPORT USING THE FIRST 2 STEPS IN THE PICTURE WHICH I ALRADY DID TO GET THE NUMBERS.

THATS IT .

THANKS.

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Running Head: HYDROSTATIC FORCE EQUATION LAB Hydrostatic Force Equation Lab Submitted to: Submitted by: Date 1 HYDROSTATIC FORCE EQUATION LAB Abstract The goal of this laboratory experiment was to experimentally locate the center of pressure of a submerged plane surface as well as to determine the hydrostatic thrust acting on the plane surface that is immersed in a liquid (water). In this experiment, computations of moments were used in the determination of the center of pressure. From the results, it was found that there was a slight difference between experimental and theoretical results with the percentage error ranging from 4.936% to 9.947%. The percentage errors were partly due to the slight difference between the water density used for theoretical calculations and the actual water density. 2 HYDROSTATIC FORCE EQUATION LAB Nomenclature yc Location of the center of pressure of submerged area ycp Distance between center of pressure and liquid surface FR Hydrostatic force A Area of submerged surface Ixc The second area moment γw Specific weight of liquid 3 HYDROSTATIC FORCE EQUATION LAB Contents Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................... 2 Nomenclature ............................................................................................................................................... 3 Table of Figures ............................................................................................................................................. 4 List of Tables ................................................................................................................................................. 4 1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 5 2 Experimental Setup ............................................................................................................................... 6 3 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 7 4 Results ................................................................................................................................................... 8 5 Conclusions and Recommendations ..................................................................................................... 8 5.1 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 8 5.2 Recommendation.......................................................................................................................... 9 References .................................................................................................................................................. 10 Table of Figures 1 Figure 1: Experimental Setup .................................................................................................. 7 List of Tables Table 1: Theoretical and Experimental Results………………………………………….. 8 4 HYDROSTATIC FORCE EQUATION LAB 1 Introduction The calculation of hydrostatic forces and pressure is very fundamental in marine engineering and naval architecture. Surfaces submerged in fluids experience various forces due to the fluid. The hydrostatic force equation is used to determine these forces. The determination of the hydrostatic forces is very useful in the design of ships, storage tanks, dams and all other types of hydraulic structures. A great majority of the hydraulic structures are constructed are used to provide irrigation and water supply that are very essential for the survival of mankind. Consequently therefore, the design of these hydraulic structures calls for an in-depth understanding of the working of fluid forces. The designs do not only require the calculation of the magnitude of the resultant force but also the point of action of the force (center of pressure). It is with this knowledge that different hydraulic structures can be designed to withstand different hydrostatic forces. For fluids at rest, shearing stress is zero and therefore the force is perpendicular to the surface. For incompressible fluids, the pressure developed varies linearly with depth. In case of a horizontally submerged surface, the magnitude of the resultant force is simple to calculate and is given by 𝐹𝑅 = 𝑝𝐴 where A is the area of the surface and p the uniform pressure on the surface. However, the calculation of the hydrostatic force on an inclined submerged surface is much involving. In this lab, a single equation for the measurement of the hydrostatic force was developed. The equation was then used in the calculation of theoretical heights for different weights. Normally, hydrostatic force acts at the center of pressure. According to Munson, Okiishi, Huebsch & Rothmayer (2013), the center of pressure is given by; ycp = Ixc + yc … … … … … … … … … … . (i) yc A And the hydrostatic force 𝐹𝑅 is given by F = γw yc A … … … … … … … … … . (ii) 5 HYDROSTATIC FORCE EQUATION LAB These equations formed the foundations for the development of other equations that were used in the calculation of theoretical weights for both partially submerged and fully submerged cases. The center of pressure is determined through the computation of moments that are required to counter the moments induced by the hydrostatic force due to the liquid acting on the container. Measurements of momentum from the experiment formed a basis for comparison with the theoretical results. The main aim of this experiment is to determine the magnitude of the resultant force acting on a plane surface that is immersed in a liquid as well as to experimentally determine the position of the center of pressure from which the resultant force is assumed to act and to compare the experimentally determined position with the theoretically determined position. Like in any other experiment, errors were expected in this experiment. The percentage error was therefore calculated using the following formula Theoretical Value − Experimental Value Percentage error = | | × 100 Theoretical Value 2 Experimental Setup The apparatus were arranged as shown in figure 1 below 6 HYDROSTATIC FORCE EQUATION LAB Figure 1: Experimental Setup The container was installed on the hydraulic bench and adjusted to achieve a perfect horizontal orientation. The pivot ram used for hanging the weight was installed at the edge of the bench and the weight hanged on it. The arm was then adjusted to achieve a perfect horizontal orientation as is shown in figure 1 above. From the figure above, it is crystal clear that the cylindrical sides coincide with the axis about which the measurements of the turning moments are taken. In this way, zero moment is exerted at the pivot as a result of the fluid pressure on the curved surface so that only the pressure on the plane surface contributes a moment at this point. The lever arm with a suspended weight in the set up is used for the measurement of the moment. In this experiment, a clear Perspex glass container was used to allow for easy observation. 3 Procedure I. The experiment was set up according to the diagram of figure 1. II. The counterweight was then adjusted such that the beam balance was in a horizontal orientation even with the tank empty. III. A weight of 50g was then placed on the weight tray thus displacing the balance arm from its equilibrium position. 7 HYDROSTATIC FORCE EQUATION LAB IV. 8 Water was then added to the tank until the beam was restored to a horizontal equilibrium position. V. The height h above the bottom of the submerged face was then measured and recorded. The mass of the weight was also recorded. VI. 4 The above steps were repeated for different masses, that is, 100g, 250g and 387g. Results The results of the experiment are as shown in the table below. The table also shows the percentage error for the different measurements. Table 1: Theoretical and Experimental Results Experimental Experimental (h) in m Mass in g 0.047 50 0.067 Experimental Theoretical weight % error Weight (W) in N (W) in N hY 3.79647 3.9936 4.936 5 5.1 condition Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusion From the results, it is apparent that the theoretical results slightly differed from the experimental results with a percentage error that ranged from 4.936% to 9.947%. These errors are small and have very little effect on the credibility of the experimental results. These HYDROSTATIC FORCE EQUATION LAB percentage errors can be attributed to errors in measurement as well as slight differences in water density. 5.2 Recommendation Since there was a slight difference in the actual density of water to that used in theoretical calculations, some small percentage errors were recorded. To reduce these percentage errors, it is recommended that the actual density of water is used in the theoretical calculations. Also, effort should be made to reduce systematic errors in measurement. 9 HYDROSTATIC FORCE EQUATION LAB References Munson, B. R., Okiishi, T. H., Huebsch, W. W., & Rothmayer, A. P. (2013). Fundamentals of fluid mechanics. Hoboken, NJ John Wiley et Sons, Inc. 10 Scanned with CamScanner Report Writing • Laboratory Note or Technical Memo – – – – • Very limited audience Immediate supervisor May be only one page Sufficient information so you could reconstruct the situation possibly up to 5 years later Full Report – Wider audience – Most likely still in your field – Format Example • • • • • • • Abstract Introduction Experimental Setup Procedure Results Conclusions and recommendations Technical Paper – To make know the work of the writer – SAE papers or some other professional organization Passive Voice • I prefer lab reports to be written in the Passive voice rather than the Active Voice. Do not use I, me, he, she, him, her or any names. http://essayisay.homestead.com/passive.html I broke the window. (Active) The window was broken. (Passive) Full Report Requirements Format: Abstract Introduction Experimental Setup Procedure Results Conclusions and recommendations Abstract • Summary of the entire report • Usually one page • Results and conclusions included Introduction • “Tell them what you are going to tell them” • Overview of the work that is going to be presented • History and reason for work • No results or conclusions • Objectives or thesis statement – What you are setting out to do Report Body • • • • “Tell them” Experimental Setup Procedure Results Experimental Setup • Describe the equipment used in the experiment • Theory behind equipment operation • Theory behind sensor operation Procedure • Physical test procedure – Calibration – Readings that will be taken • Test matrix – Describe what parameters and conditions will be used for each test • Describe how the results will be analyzed • Equations • No results Results • Tables and Graphs – Possibly Raw data – Values obtained from raw data – Comparisons to theory or other methods • Narrative of what is in each graph or table • Narrative of trends and comparisons Conclusions and Recommendations • “Tell them what you told them” • Restate objectives or thesis statement • Summary of results – comparisons • Possible improvements • Sources of error • Ideas for future work Figures, Tables, and Equations • Figures and tables – Include figures and tables when ever possible – Figures and tables can be used in any section of the report. Most will appear in the results section. – Figures and tables are very useful to the reader and help to summarize data and findings • Equations – The equations used to obtain results are normally found in the procedures section. • Make reference to and explain all figures, tables, and equations in the narrative of the report References • Include a separate reference page in your lab report. • All sources of information used should be referenced. “Give credit where credit is due.” – – – – – Lab Manuals Web Sites Books Periodical (magazines, journals, other publications) Technical papers (SAE paper), Thesis or Dissertations
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Running head: HYDROSTATIC FORCE EQUATION LAB

Hydrostatic Force Equation Lab
Your name
Institution

1

HYDROSTATIC FORCE EQUATION LAB

2

Abstract
The objective of the experiment was to establish the position of the center of pressure of the
submerged plane by experiment as well as establish the magnitude of the resultant force that is
produced on a submerged plane surface. The center of pressure in the experiment was arrived at
by calculating the moments. The results of the experiment depicted that, there was a slight
difference in the theoretical and experimental results whereby the percentage errors ranged
between 4.0851% and 9.947%. The experiment was of course not an ideal one and as such, it had
some errors which could have been due to inaccurate measurements and may be a slight
variation in the density of water used.

HYDROSTATIC FORCE EQUATION LAB
Nomenclature
yc

Location of the center of pressure of
submerged area

ycp

Distance between center of pressure and
liquid surface

FR

Hydrostatic force

A

Area of submerged surface

Ixc

The second area moment

γw

Specific weight of liquid

3

HYDROSTATIC FORCE EQUATION LAB

4

Contents
Abstract ........................................................................................................................................... 2
Nomenclature .................................................................................................................................. 3
Table of Figures .............................................................................................................................. 5
List of Tables .................................................................................................................................. 5
1

Introduction ............................................................................................................................. ...


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