What central themes, values, and/or ideals are being expressed by this work?
So that you focus first on the literature, you might select a few specific passages (or stanzas, if from poetry) and discuss how these reveal or deal with the theme/value/ideal you have identified.
Then, bring the work to the present day by discussing how those same themes/values/ideals are revealed, missing, changed, devalued, still-present, or whatever the case may be, today. What has caused those changes, if any? If they still are with us, in what form do we see them?