Chem 485 Arsenic In Rice Research Paper

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Running Head: ARSENIC AND RICE 1 Arsenic and Rice Sajad Alsadah Chem 485 2 ARSENIC AND RICE Introduction Rice is a type of grass. It is usually grown in a swampy area. Rice is a type of food and it is very common in Asia. Arsenic is a chemical element. It is present in many minerals. The paper below focusses on arsenic in rice, the effects of arsenic in rice, the maximum tolerable level of arsenic and the recommendation of arsenic in rice. Studies have shown that rice has higher amounts of arsenic than in any other food. There are two types of arsenic which include organic arsenic and inorganic arsenic. Organic arsenic is found in animal tissues while inorganic arsenic is found in air, water or in rocks and soil. Inorganic is more toxic than organic arsenic. Inorganic arsenic is solid. It is impossible to remove all the arsenic as it naturally occurs in the air, sand and even in water. Research shows that about thirty three percent of arsenic comes from natural sources. This includes the volcanoes while the rest of the arsenic comes from manmade sources Arsenic compounds Arsenic is a chemical element. It is a group fifteen element and is found in period four of the periodic table. Arsenic is present in many minerals. They are usually combined with sulfur and many other metals. They exist also in pure form which is crystalline in nature. Arsenic has allotropes. Most of the arsenic compounds do not have many uses but the gray form which has a metallic appearance is important. At standard temperature and pressure, the element is usually very solid. The element was discovered three hundred years before Christ error. One of the most common uses of the element is in alloys mostly in lead. It is used a dopant in the electronic devices. Apart from being used in alloys, it has other applications which include, agriculture, medicine use and even in the military. ARSENIC AND RICE Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is be found in air, water and on the soil. Although it is naturally occurring research shows that it is as a result of human activities. Mining is the most common activity that leads to the rise of arsenic. Use of pesticide also leads to this. Inorganic arsenic is harmful to one’s health. It is usually found in rice. Research shows that it finds its way into rice as it absorbed when rice grows. The area of cultivation plays a big role in determining the level of arsenic in rice. Research shows that rice absorbs the most arsenic among all the other eaten foods. Brown rice as compared to white rice has a higher level of arsenic. The reason behind this is that brown rice contains bran. Arsenic is found in bran. In white rice, however, bran is usually removed and hence low level of arsenic. Nutritionally however, brown rice is considered to be better (Hojsak et al., 2015). The findings of this study are consistent with those of Signes et al., (2016) where effects of arsenic is highlighted. The biggest issue of arsenic is the health issue. There are many health risks to those who consume rice on a regular basis especially to those who rely on it as their staple food. Arsenic in high doses is very toxic. This is because it causes harmful symptoms and even sometimes causes death. Little arsenic that is found in the diet is generally low and therefore does not really cause poisoning or any immediate symptoms. Arsenic, when taken in the long term, causes health problems and an increased risk of chronic diseases. The chronic diseases include cancer, blockage of blood vessels eventually leading to high blood pressure, heart disease and type two diabetes. This finding also explains why so many people suffer from lung and stomach cancer. Arsenic is also associated with impaired concentration and reduced intelligence in teenagers. On pregnant women, high intake of rice with a high level of arsenic has an adverse effect on the fetus. This has led to increased defects during birth. Research has shown that toxic symptoms of arsenic take a long period of time to develop (Signes-Pastor et al.,2016). 3 ARSENIC AND RICE Changes in the arsenic level are inevitable. However, there is usually a maximum tolerable level that can be accepted. Regulators, however, are trying to reduce the level of arsenic that is found in rice. The main aim of this move is to reduce the number of harmful health effects that it has on people. The European Union regulation did their own research and published limits on rice and derived products for inorganic arsenic. Milled rice should be 0.2 mg/ kg. Steamed and husked rice should be 0.25 mg/kg. Rice cakes together with puffed rice paper should be 0.3 mg/kg. Rice that is produced for infants and young children should be 0.1 mg/ kg. This was set three years ago. Arsenic is affecting more than one hundred and fifty million people worldwide. This provides a fascinating insight to the tolerable levels of arsenic in rice. Regulation bodies should be more aware of the arsenic levels in rice. The best way to reduce arsenic is during the planting period. Attempts to reduce arsenic should be done during the plantation time. Arsenic is usually absorbed during this time. Rice should be planted in aerobic conditions. This will help reduce arsenic levels. Cooking rice with large amounts of water also reduces the arsenic in the rice. This reduces by forty-five percent (Deng et., 2018). There is a high chance for one to consume arsenic when eating rice. However, there are options that one can have to avoid consuming large amounts of arsenic. One alternative is farmers should consider alternative crops. Given that rice has the most intakes of arsenic, farmers should try to adopt other crops that have low arsenic. Another option is to take organic rice. Consuming organic rice will mean that you are consuming rice that contains a few pesticides. Although brown rice is generally healthier than white rice, it is important to eat white rice which has less arsenic. Brown rice has eighty percent more arsenic than white rice (Ranjam, Talat, Hasan 2009). Farming methods go a long way in determining the amount of arsenic in the rice. Incorporating rice husks to the soil decreases the arsenic levels by up to fifty percent. This is also 4 ARSENIC AND RICE a positive because the yields will remain the same (Price et., 2013). The major factor for inorganic arsenic is the anaerobic cultivation. An alternative source which is the wetting and drying reduces the arsenic levels by varying the amount of water (Diaz et., 2017). Testing for arsenic levels in rice is important. Research shows that using an analytical way is the safest and sure way of ensuring the levels of arsenic is below the accepted levels (Hojsak et al., 2015). Previous methods have often brought errors and jeopardized the lives of people. The new method has been approved worldwide by scientists. To test for arsenic in rice you will need a test safe detector kit a timer, distilled water, and rice sample. The first step is to mix the distilled water and rice. In the detector kit, there is a solution to put a drop on the cover of the vile. Put the rice solution in the vile and cover it with the cover of the vile. Let the solution settle for thirty minutes. After thirty minutes the cover of the vile is dark meaning that there is high arsenic content in the rice. If the cover of the vile is white this shows that the level of arsenic is low (Deng et., 2018). In conclusion, the result of this study show fascinating insights into the cognitive understanding of arsenic and how it specifically affects rice. Contrary to what we had predicted, I found out that inorganic arsenic has much worse effects that organic. Research also showed that it is unavoidable to remove all the arsenic in rice. However there were methods in which arsenic could be reduced. Given how harmful it is, discoveries show that it is mostly present in rice and therefore can be avoided if one chooses to eat other food. The effects of arsenic on the body take a long time to manifest and research has shown that eating white rice could give a person a higher chance of living a healthy life. Understanding the maximum accepted level of arsenic in rice will help everyone pick the right type of rice to consume. This research and other research 5 ARSENIC AND RICE that will follow will contribute to the solving of arsenic in rice. The research above shows that we have a long way to go in solving the problems of arsenic in rice. 6 7 ARSENIC AND RICE References Substance Priority List | ATSDR. (2018, November 13). Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/spl/ Deng, F., Yamaji, N., Ma, J. F., Lee, S., Jeon, J., Martinoia, E., … Song, W. (2018). Engineering rice with lower grain arsenic. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 16(10), 1691-1699. doi:10.1111/pbi.12905 Díaz-Gómez, J., Twyman, R. M., Zhu, C., Farré, G., Serrano, J. C., Portero-Otin, M., … Christou, P. (2017). Biofortification of crops with nutrients: factors affecting utilization and storage. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 44, 115-123. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2016.12.002 Hojsak, I., Braegger, C., Bronsky, J., Campoy, C., Colomb, V., Decsi, T., … Van Goudoever, J. (2015). Arsenic in Rice. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 60(1), 142-145. doi:10.1097/mpg.0000000000000502 Price, A. H., Norton, G. J., Salt, D. E., Ebenhoeh, O., Meharg, A. A., Meharg, C., … Davies, W. J. (2013). Alternate wetting and drying irrigation for rice in Bangladesh: Is it sustainable and has plant breeding something to offer? Food and Energy Security, 2(2), 120-129. doi:10.1002/fes3.29 Ranjan, D., Talat, M., & Hasan, S. H. (2009). Rice Polish: An Alternative to Conventional Adsorbents for Treating Arsenic Bearing Water by Up-Flow Column Method. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 48(23), 10180-10185. doi:10.1021/ie900877p ARSENIC AND RICE Signes-Pastor, A. J., Carey, M., & Meharg, A. A. (2016). Inorganic arsenic in rice-based products for infants and young children. Food Chemistry, 191, 128-134. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.078 8 ...
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Running Head: ARSENIC AND RICE

1

Arsenic and Rice
Sajad Alsadah
Chem 485

2

ARSENIC AND RICE
Introduction

Rice is food consumed worldwide by over half of the world’s population and is usually
grown in a swampy area. This type of food is very common in Asia. On the other hand, arsenic
(As) is one of the most toxic chemical element. According to the International Agency for
Research on Cancer (IARC, 2004), As was classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to humans. It is
present in many soil minerals. This paper dealing with the arsenic determination in rice samples,
as well as explains the potential of As to manifest negative effects on human health. Also, some
regulations were reviewed relating the maximum tolerable level of arsenic in certain food.
According to the obtained results, the presence of As in rice appears to be higher than in any
other food. More specific, two types of arsenic: (i) include organic arsenic (iAs) and (ii) organic
arsenic could be found in food.
The toxicity of inorganic As is higher than the organic As. Aslo, their distribution is different.
Organic arsenic is mainly found in animal tissues while inorganic arsenic is found in
environmental matrices like as air, water, and road dust or in rocks and soil. It is important
mentioning that As is natural occurring substances which constitutes the soil. Previously
published papers showed that about 33% of arsenic comes from natural sources. This includes
the volcanoes while the rest of the arsenic comes from industrial activities.
One of the most common uses of the element is in alloys, mostly in lead alloys. It is used as a
dopant in the electronic devices. Apart from being used in alloys, it has other applications which
include, agriculture, medicine use and even in the military.

ARSENIC AND RICE
Arsenic is a naturally occurring element, primarily in soil and as a consequence of
weathering processes; it could be presented in air, water and on the soil. Although it is a
naturally occurring element, human activities especially industrial activities contribute to
enrichment the air, water and food with this toxic element. Mining is the most common activity
that leads to the rise of arsenic. Use of pesticide also leads to the introduction of As into the
environmental matrices. It is clearly demonstrated by the numerous studies that the inorganic
arsenic has potential adverse effects on human health.
Research showed that As can easily be up-taken by plants, i.e. rice during its growing period.
Furthermore, as rice is one of the most commonly consumed foods, it is obvious that this element
would have huge adverse effects. Brown rice as compared to white rice has a higher potential to
up-take As, as a consequence of the hig...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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