Role Of The United Nations In International Relations From Liberal Realist

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Theories of International Relations (TIR) Spasimir Domaradzki Sem VIII, Spring 2019 MAIR, level 7 Written assignment for the class (60% of the final mark) The Assignment Each student is to choose one of the topics below for a written essay (within first two weeks of classes). The paper is to present a critical analysis of an event, phenomenon or process in international relations from two of the theoretical approaches discussed in class. The paper should contain a brief explanation of the theoretical approach’s main arguments followed by critical assessment of their strengths and weaknesses. The paper should have 3500 words and have a form of a scholarly paper, with proper referencing and bibliography. Theories discussed in class: Classical Realism, Structural Realism, Liberalism, Neoliberalism, Critical Theory, Constructivism, Feminism, the English School, Marxism. Paper topics: Explain the process of European integration from the English School and Constructivist perspectives; Explain the President Trump’s foreign policy from Structural Realist and Liberal perspectives; Explain the role of the United Nations in international relations from Liberal and Classical Realist perspectives; Explain the conflict in Ukraine from Constructivist and Critical Theory perspectives Students can also propose their own paper proposals of the same comparative character, but they need the explicit approval of the Module Leader. Length Your review should have around 3500 words. Format & Evidence The paper has to meet all formal standards as presented in ‘IR Essay Writing Standard’ and Thesis Manual available on student resources (zasoby) under course1 and course 2. These include: • Requirements relating to a scholarly paper, such as providing evidence that supports your theses, statements and claims, as well as proper referencing. Bibliography should have a sufficient number of academic sources (at least 10 for papers of 1500 words and 20 for 2500 or more words) • Editing rules: title page; font, Times New Roman 12; margins, 2,5 cm; double space between verses; italics for book/periodical titles; single quotation marks, etc. The paper must be logically structured (introduction; the main body subdivided into paragraphs; conclusions) and meet the minimum language standards. • Plagiarism: be aware that anything copied without quotation marks and references is treated as plagiarism Digital and printed copies Your paper has to be submitted in two versions, printed and digital. The printed version must be stapled (handwritten papers will be dismissed). The digital version is to be in the Word format (no pdf). The docs should have a name that include: (1)student’s last name and ID, (2)an abbreviated name of the module and of (3)the title of your paper. For example, tkachuk_1000_AFP_Cold war (Tkachuk, ID no, for American Foreign Policy writing on the Cold War). Papers which do not meet the standards above will be dismissed. Deadline (means deadline!) The paper must be delivered by the deadline as indicated below. Failure to deliver any version (digital and printed) on time will lower your mark by 5% per day. If the delay is longer than 6 days, your paper gets 0 point and you will have to submit it as a re-sit paper. Marking scheme 20% each for: (1)for the quality of writing; (2)use of evidence; (3)quality of argument and analysis; (4)context and facts; and (5)for use of references and citations. See below the table of assessment criteria for details. PAPER DUE date is April 18, 2019; paper version should be submitted by the end of our class or delay penalty will apply on that day; electronic version can be emailed by 12:00 midnight. Re-sit exam A student who fails a paper (mark below 35% and the total for the coursework below 40%) writes a new paper on the same topic. This will be a re-sit for a paper assignment. The paper must meet all the criteria and requirements as described above. The deadline is any time prior to the scheduled re-sit examination. Student ID: ____________ Date: ____________________ 1st attempt / re-sit Mark: ____________ Module: _______________ level/sem: ________________ The paper is assessed according to the following criteria: Brief description: [for ex., A review of a given book on political thought (2500 words), worth 30%] Very poor Weak Satisfactory / Good Quality of Very poor, Sufficient, but Good, writing problems with problems with understandable grammar, structure paragraphs and with some and coherence structure mistakes Use of Poor use of Mixed use of evidence evidence; quotes Very Good Superb Very good Publishable Sufficient use of Very good use of Outstanding, sources & quotes; relevant sources; quotes and well not relevant; do not rather ineffective quotes and paraphrasing, documented; support the paraphrasing paraphrasing sources advance flawless use of generally support the argument quotes and argument the argument paraphrasing Quality of Poor, no clear Barely sufficient Good arguments, Clear. effective Outstanding, argument arguments, arguments used but some analysis, with very clear and and confusing; no with mixed problems in either little or no very persuasive analysis attempt at analysis effects; little clarity or problems with attempt at analysis effectiveness clarity Context Very poor in terms Mixed in terms of Good use of the Very effective Complete and factual of facts and context; use of context; material with use of the understanding of issue descriptive, not often descriptive; some errors of material with no the material, supporting analysis little support and fact; supportive of factual errors; with no factual argument argument context supports errors argument Use Very poor, not Mixed, with errors Satisfactorily references properly done in style and form done with minor references errors advance and Very few errors citations Outstanding; arguments Together Marker’s comments: Turnitinuk checked % for each column
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Explanation & Answer


The Role of The United Nations in International Relations from Liberal and Classical Realist
Perspectives - Outline
Thesis Statement: The UN leverages a wide variety of opportunities among its member states to
promote its effectiveness in the promotion of international relations across the world; a fact that
can be explained from liberal and classical realist perspectives.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Liberal and Classical Realist perspectives


Role of UN in International Relations


Classical Realist Perspective


Liberal Perspective

Role of The UN In International Relations 1


Student’s Name


Role of The UN In International Relations 2

The Role of The United Nations in International Relations from Liberal and Classical Realist
Since its inception, the United Nations has played a critical role in the initiation and
steering of massive international relationships’ initiatives; some of which have succeeded while
others failed. The role of the organization in the context of international relationships can,
therefore, be examined from different perspectives to ascertain the justification for the
underlying success or failure. Different states act differently in the international scope due to the
substantial differentiation if policy and ideological principles pursued by different nations. On
the other hand, the UN has continuously served as a mediating agent between diverse national
and regional cultural orientations in a bid to maintain strong international bonds among states
and regional establishments. This is despite the fact that international relations posit that nations
exist in a state of anarchy (Barnett, 1997, p.526). Proponents of the classical realist school of
thought present states as opportunistic entities whose primary interests are centered on their
affairs as per the dictates of international anarchy (Clarckson, 2011, p.4). As such, all states and
their actors’ actions in the international scene are centered on the desire to satisfy their interests.
Liberalists, on the other hand, exceed the relevance of total gains from international
relationships; and exhibit substantial concerns for relative gains (Barnett, 1997, p.527). The
school of thought presents states as potential risk-takers for the sake of immense benefits. The
UN leverages a wide variety of opportunities among its member states to promote its

Role of The UN In International Relations 3
effectiveness in the promotion of international relations across the world; a fact that can be
explained from liberal and classical realist perspectives.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Liberal and Classical Realist perspectives
The fact that the two approaches explain international relationships differently implies
that different strengths and weaknesses characterize them. Among the greatest strengths of
classical realism is its recognition of the similar features exhibited by the domestic and global
political arenas. According to classical realists, stability is substantially determined by the
community and shared values among states. On the downside, classical realism has been
centered on the premise of perpetual conflict-seeking nature of humans. The challenge posed by
the classical realist belief that political relationships within and among nations become
competitions for different gains. Third, the theory does not rely on any theoretical justifications
for the government's decision-making procedures. Overall, classical realism presents a
pessimistic explanation for human nature as informed by the perpetual evil nature of people.
The liberal approach to international relations, on the other hand, exhibits substantial
strengths. First, it presents the world as a mutually coexistent body in which all states can derive
substantial benefits from each other. It argues that states are oriented towards unending
cooperation for prosperity maximization and conflict minimization. On the downside, liberalism
has been criticized for its unrealistic dependence on the presumptive mutual coexistence of states
in the world. The theory is significantly challenged by classical realism in that all states have
specific unique orientations; therefore, ideological differences are inevitable. The aggressive
nature of states cannot be overlooked in international relations; a fact that liberalists ignore. The
presentation of the world as a peaceful environment centered on similar goals and objectives for

Role of The UN In International Relations 4
nations is an illusion that reduces the reliability of the liberal approach (Ikenberry, 2009, p.205).
Therefore, despite that the school of thought presumes the existence of a just global political
system; it overlooks factual variations among nations
Role of UN in International Relations
Classical Realist Perspective
The primacy of the role of the United Nations in International relations can be objectively
examined through the classical realist perspective. First, it is critical to highlight that the
proponents of classical realism argue that individual states across the world exist in a state of
anarchy. As such, the different nations exhibit substantial levels of aggression in a bid to meet
their needs; a situation which makes war an inevitable phenomenon among nations (van de Haar,
2009, p.127). Therefore, the role of the United Nations in international relations from this
perspective can be evaluated from the point of maintaining global peace by intervening in
different conflicts between nations and regions. According to UN (2019), the birth of the
organization dates back to 1945; a time when the world had experienced substantial devastation
as a result of World War II. Therefore, the institution was established to prevent conflict, assist

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