PHIL 108 Differences of Active vs Passive Euthanasia Comparison Paper

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Question Description

The assignment attached is what you will reference

This second written assignment is a four-part exercise comprised of the following sections:

  1. Ethical Question
  2. Introduction
  3. Explanation of the Ethical Theory
  4. Application of the Ethical Theory

For sections (1) and (2) revise and expand on what you did in the first assignment.

Sections (3) and (4) are new.

The main purpose of this paper is to define the nature and scope of the ethical theory in a way that shows how the core principle(s) of that theory lead to a specific moral conclusion on your ethical question. Another way to think of this is to explain how someone who is fully committed to the moral reasoning of the ethical theory would answer your ethical question (even if it is not necessarily how you would answer the question).

The assignment should be 900 to 1,000 words, written in essay form with clearly labeled sections as indicated below, and include a title page and reference page.

Part 1: Ethical Question

State the ethical question beneath this heading.

  • This question should be on the same topic as the question presented in the week one assignment, and if necessary, revised based on your instructor’s comments and the additional insight and information you have gained from research on the topic. If you would like to switch topics, you should first consult with your instructor.

Place your ethical question beneath the Part 1: Ethical Question heading.

Part 2: Introduction

Provide an introduction to the topic and question.

  • This should be revised and expanded from the Week 1 Introduction in light of your instructor’s comments and the additional insight and information you have gained from research on the topic.
  • For instance, you may find that your original ideas about the issue have changed and clarified, that the focus of the ethical question has shifted or become more specific, and/or that there are important background and contextual details that need to be explained.
  • The revised introduction should reflect your additional thinking on the scope and significance of the ethical issue, and address any feedback provided by your instructor.
  • The introduction should be at least 300 words in one or two paragraphs.

Place the introduction material under the Part 2: Introduction heading.

Part 3: Explanation of the Ethical Theory

Ethical theories provide accounts of how to reason well about moral questions and of what justifies answers to those questions. In this section of the paper, you will discuss either the ethical theory of utilitarianism, deontology, or virtue ethics.

You should not discuss your topic in this section, but focus only on the ethical theory.

The discussion should include the following elements:

  • A brief account of the historical background of the theory and the philosopher(s) associated with it.
  • An explanation of the core moral principle of the theory, or if there is more than one, the principle that you will focus on in applying that theory to your question.
  • A brief, general explanation of how the theory and its core moral principle applies to moral questions, using an example different from the issue that is the main focus of your paper. (For example, if your focus is on how deontology applies to using animals in medical research, you could explain Kant’s moral theory by discussing how it would apply to an issue like lying for the sake of the greater good.)
  • This section should focus only on the ethical theory. For instance, if you are discussing physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective, this section should only discuss utilitarianism in general terms; you should not discuss physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia, or other related topics until the next section.
  • The discussion should be around 300 words and must incorporate at least one quote from the required resources on the ethical theory you have chosen to discuss. Required resources include the textbook chapter focused on that theory (3, 4, or 5) or the “Primary Sources” listed at the end of Chapters 3-5.

Place this section under the Part 3: Ethical Theory heading.

Part 4: Application of the Ethical Theory

Now that you have explained in general terms the core principle of the ethical theory you are focusing on in this paper, you will apply that theory and its core principle to your ethical question.

  • Explain as clearly and precisely as you can how that principle leads to a particular conclusion.
  • You can think of that conclusion as the answer someone would most likely give to your question if they were reasoning along the utilitarian, deontological, or virtue ethics lines you explained in Part 3.
  • Note: This conclusion does not need to be the same as the position you stated in the Week 1 assignment. In fact, it could be the opposing position you discussed there. See the remarks about main purpose of the paper above.
  • This section should be around 300 words.

Place this section under the Part 4: Application of the Ethical Theory section.

In your paper,

  • Identify the ethical question.
  • Introduce the topic and question.
  • Explain the ethical theory of utilitarianism, deontology, or virtue ethics.
  • Apply the selected ethical theory to the ethical question.

The Applying an Ethical Theory paper

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Running head: ACTIVE VS PASSIVE EUTHANASIA Ethical Question Savannah Silva PHI/208 Cora Moore April 1, 2019 !1 ACTIVE VS PASSIVE EUTHANASIA !2 Active vs Passive Euthanasia Ethical Question Active and passive euthanasia are two aspects of getting patients out of their pain when facing a possibly deadly conditions and are approaching death or are in a condition where keeping them alive will not improve the quality of their life in any way and will instead increase their suffering. The moral question here is that should euthanasia be done by intentionally ending the individual’s life or by letting the patient die by removing their medical support or is there a way of reconciling the two points of view? Introduction The ethical question in either active or passive euthanasia has to do with the individuals making the decision about death of a patient. At the point of euthanasia, the individuals representing the one too sick to make the decision are already in agreement that the individual can be placed off medical care. The manner in which such an action takes place also forms part of their agreement which can be either active or passive forms of euthanasia. Passive forms of euthanasia have to do with letting the individual die by; for instance, removing all the professional health support that adds to their lives and letting the individual pass on while active euthanasia has to do with instigating the individual’s death by ending their survival. Position Statement ACTIVE VS PASSIVE EUTHANASIA !3 My position is that passive euthanasia will be the most ethical approach based on the notion that we should assume the patient does not have death in their best interests and thus would decline euthanasia in any ideal context. Reasons in Support of Your Position The main reason behind support for the position has to do with the fundamental right of the person to have power over their lives. While the rest of the world may consider that the individual was unable to survive this earth and that their life would be an unending and unbearable suffering, the individual has not made any decision and that, too should be respected. Further there is a need to consider the intention when dealing with forms of euthanasia such as active euthanasia (McLachlan, 2008). However, in most such cases, those responsible for the patient will not make it the case that the form of euthanasia will be active euthanasia. Opposing Position Statement The opposing statement is that active euthanasia is more effective because it can be done faster and leads to a cleaner easy way of dealing with the situation. The rationale here is that the individual may be undergoing such a suffering that they may not endure and it may be even more traumatizing letting them go through the suffering again before their death. Reasons in support of position The strongest reason for supporting active euthanasia involves the emergence of diseases that considerably change the body’s physical form and those that lead to unbearable pain or suffering for the individual. The argument is that during the times toward death that the disease is ACTIVE VS PASSIVE EUTHANASIA !4 advanced, the individual is in increased pain and suffering and ending their pain in any way is their actual desire at the time. For instance, there could be disease conditions that lead to a depletion of the body that is difficult to handle such as HIV/AIDS. Additionally, the clinicians suggest that removal of medical support returns the individual to the pain that they are trying to avoid and may be a moment of trauma instead of a peaceful passing on that active euthanasia may avail. Opposing Position One counterargument is that the physician may have the chance for an alternative intervention that may assist the patient during the time that they are let die (McLachlan, 2008). Reasons in Support of Opposing Position The meaningfulness of letting the patient die may thus sometimes pave way for some lifesaving solutions. However, it is important to let individuals out of their suffering and if removing their medical and life support will return them into suffering the physician may advice the caregivers for the option of active euthanasia. ACTIVE VS PASSIVE EUTHANASIA References McLachlan, H. V. (2008). The ethics of killing and letting die: active and passive euthanasia. Journal of Medical Ethics, 34(8), 636-638. !5 ...
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Chancellor_Ivy
School: UC Berkeley

Attached.

Running head: ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE EUTHANASIA

Active vs. Passive Euthanasia
Name
Institution

1

ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE EUTHANASIA

2

Active vs. Passive Euthanasia
Ethical Question
The main ethical question surrounding the topic of euthanasia is whether it is morally
right or wrong to end the life of a person, regardless of the complexity of the situation. The topic
about euthanasia has been and continues to raise many questions as to whether its practice should
continue or stop, and whether it is ethically acceptable, as far as ethics and morals are concerned.
This has caused divisive controversy between its proponents and opponents. Those that back it
up have given out several reasons to explain why they support euthanasia, and so have its
antagonists
Introduction
Euthanasia, also sometimes called “good death” or “mercy killing,” refers to the practice
of deliberately ending the life of an individual, so that he or she is relieved from suffering and
pain caused by a terminal illness (Stolberg, 2007). Euthanasia can also be defined as killing with
intent, by omitting the life of an individual whose life is perceived to be no longer worth living.
Many societies across the world have had and continue to have divisive controversy over the
ethical, legal and moral issues associated with the practice. Euthanasia can be categorized into
different types, including voluntary, involuntary or non-voluntary. Other classifications of
Euthanasia include active ...

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