Africa’s Decolonization and Independence ?History Paper

Anonymous
timer Asked: Apr 12th, 2019
account_balance_wallet $20

Question Description

Topic: Africa’s Decolonization and Independence

Please write 8 pages paper about my topic with minimum 10 secondary sources (6 books and 4 journal articles)

I already did Annotated Bibliography for 5 sources you can use them for the paper + adding 5 sources more

OR

You can look some for 10 new sources

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Annotated Bibliography Student`s Name Institutional Affiliation Course Date 1 ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 2 Annotated Bibliography: Africa’s Decolonization and Independence Bradshaw, Richard, and Juan Fandos-Rius. Historical Dictionary of the Central African Republic. Rowman & Littlefield, 2016. According to (Bradshaw, 2016), the struggle for independence in Africa involved the use of both negotiations with outgoing colonial rulers, while others preferred armed struggle. Both this movements in a way guaranteed most African countries their independence. Initially, the Africans resorted to non-violent protests in a bid to have themselves decolonized, however the African nationalists became increasingly frustrated by the constant state repression approaches. Bradshaw therefore feels that in 1960’s the African countries had abandoned the non-violent approach, and most had adopted the armed struggle approach. This two movements either way guaranteed Africa’s independence. Makinda, S. M., Okumu, F. W., & Mickler, D. (2015). The African Union: Addressing the challenges of peace, security, and governance. Routledge. Makinda, et al. 2016 posited that with the burst in colonization, European Countries competed to establish their African protectorates, in what came to be known as the Scramble for Africa between 1880 and 1900. By 1900, African had already been partitioned, with only Liberia surviving the partitioning. After the 2nd world war however, there emerged various movements who sought to have Africa decolonized. The movements include the Malagasy Uprising in Madagascar, the Namibian war of independence in Namibia, the Rhodesian Bush war in Zimbabwe and by extension the Mau Mau uprising in Kenya. Makinda therefore feels that these movements heralded the decolonization of African States with Ghana becoming the first sub-Saharan Country to attain its independence in 1957. Nathan, L. (2016). Community of insecurity: SADC's struggle for peace and security in southern Africa. Routledge. According to Nathan, after decolonization of many African states, a number of independent states came together, to form Africa’s first continental association, the Organization for African Unity. The association which initially comprised of 32 states at its inception in 1963 became operational that same year. It was viewed as a big step towards achieving African unity, and PanAfricanism in its entirety. The association was in 2002 replaced by the African Union. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 Pingali, P. L. (2012). Green Revolution: Impacts, Limits and the Path ahead. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America . According to Pingali, after decolonization, Africa had many tools to ensure industrial revolution. One of the tools included the green revolution, which aimed at ensuring a massive increase in crop production. In the spirit of Pan Africanism, Africans were urged to control their riches for their people. This interpretation can extend to agricultural reproduction. Therefore, in his opinion, PanAfricanism sought to ensure that Africa was soaring up high through initiation of various projects aimed at achieving mass food production which would serve Africa. Arowolo, O. O. (2017). Return migration in Africa. In International Migration in the New Millennium (pp. 108-130). Routledge. Regarding, Pan-African unity, which represents the coming together of all Africa states in a political union, Arowolo feels that it is a form of liberation from exploitation and marginalization from the imperialists. Pan-Africanism is characterized by among others, a call to have Africans control their riches for their people, and to have their views respected since, according to Arowolo, the world needs Africa, and Africa needs the world. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 4 References Bradshaw, Richard, and Juan Fandos-Rius. Historical Dictionary of the Central African Republic. Rowman & Littlefield, 2016. Makinda, S. M., Okumu, F. W., & Mickler, D. (2015). The African Union: Addressing the challenges of peace, security, and governance. Routledge. Nathan, L. (2016). Community of insecurity: SADC's struggle for peace and security in southern Africa. Routledge. Pingali, P. L. (2012). Green Revolution: Impacts, Limits and the Path ahead. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America . Arowolo, O. O. (2017). Return migration in Africa. In International Migration in the New Millennium (pp. 108-130). Routledge. ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment

Tutor Answer

DrWood
School: University of Virginia

Attached.

Running head: AFRICA’S DECOLONIZATION AND INDEPENDENCE

Africa’s Decolonization and Independence

Student’s Name
Institution Affiliation
Date

1

AFRICA’S DECOLONIZATION AND INDEPENDENCE

2

Introduction
In the process of decolonization and independence of Africa, nationalists faced a lot of
challenges as they opposed the imperial rule. In Africa, Egypt is identified as the first country to
oppose the activities of British colonialists. It was after World War II that most of the African
countries started nationalist movements that advocated for decolonization and attainment of
independence. Ghana used a non-violent movement to push for decolonization while Kenya used
violent movement to oppose British rule. Europeans because of their knowledge on industrial
revolution exploited African resources, captured energetic Africans for slavery and established a
strong army to defend their colonies. Colonialists who explored Africa came from states like
Germany, Great Britain, Italy, France, and many others. Colonial rule was fully witnessed in most
Afrthe can regions from 1914-1945 and resulted in both economic and political changes
(Birmingham & Birmingham, 2008).
In most cases, Africans were exploited by Europeans hence organized for decolonization and
attainment of independence.

After World War II, the African continent experienced rapid

decolonization because Europeans were unable to meet the post-war goals they had set with
African soldiers. African ex-soldiers had collected several facts concerning their colonialists,
including their vulnerability to death when shot. Therefore, ex-soldiers were confident after World
War II to attack Europeans and oppose their destructive imperial rule (Nathan, 2016). Imperial
rule was implemented after the Berlin conference conducted from 1884-1885 in Germany.
Therefore, the paper discusses the decolonization and independence of African countries.
Africa’s Decolonization and Independence

AFRICA’S DECOLONIZATION AND INDEPENDENCE

3

The African countries which were earlier infuriated because of European’s greediness to
exploit resources and grab the African land include South Africa and Egypt. South Africa was led
by nationalist leaders and first gained independence in 1910 after the end of ruthless Boer war.
Afterward, Egypt became independent in 1922. Residents of Cape Town and Natal region in South
Africa had earlier identified Europeans as greedy people with evil targets of exploiting raw
materials like gold found in South Africa. At around 1950s-1970s, many African countries attained
independence. The central African Republic became independent in 1960, Kenya 1963, and Ghana
1957 (Bradshaw, Richard & JuanFandos-Rius, 2016). Europeans exploited fertile lands of
Africans, extracted resources for their industries and also imposed taxes to Africans. African
traditional leadership was abolished by Europeans leaving all native African under foreign rule.
The ruthlessness of Europeans influenced Africans who had received formal education to
coordinate with ex-soldiers in fighting Europeans.
Nationalism and independent movements started in Africa after the realization that Europeans
targeted to benefit their interests and not cater to African needs. Nationalists advocated for
reclamation of African land, respect to African culture and conducting traditional religious events
without interference from colonialists. World War II was an event that le...

flag Report DMCA
Review

Anonymous
awesome work thanks

Brown University





1271 Tutors

California Institute of Technology




2131 Tutors

Carnegie Mellon University




982 Tutors

Columbia University





1256 Tutors

Dartmouth University





2113 Tutors

Emory University





2279 Tutors

Harvard University





599 Tutors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology



2319 Tutors

New York University





1645 Tutors

Notre Dam University





1911 Tutors

Oklahoma University





2122 Tutors

Pennsylvania State University





932 Tutors

Princeton University





1211 Tutors

Stanford University





983 Tutors

University of California





1282 Tutors

Oxford University





123 Tutors

Yale University





2325 Tutors