Self-Assessment Organizational Leadership

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Business Finance


Take the following self-assessments:

1. The Power of Followership – located in your book, page 201 (Screenshot attached)

2. Leadership Style Assessment – (attached below) (there are two files here, one for the assessment and another for further information for learning, you do NOT need to do anything with links, etc. that are in the files)

3. What is your Conflict Style –(attached below)

When complete, put your results in the Self-Assessment template and reflect on your learning. Drop box in the Module 5: Self-Assessment folder when complete.

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LEADERSHIP style self-assessment This self-assessment profile will help you assess your preferred leadership style. LEADERSHIP style self-assessment Read the following descriptions and rate yourself on the following scale from 1 to 5: 5 = I always do this. 4 = I often do this. 3 = I occasionally do this. 2 = I seldom do this. 1 = I never do this. Interacting with my team members, I: 1. Have responsibility for problem solving and decision making. 5 4 3 2 1 2. 3. Give instructions and share information. Set out work procedures and standards. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 4. Evaluate performance. 5 4 3 2 1 5. Identify problems and develop actions plans to resolve them. 5 4 3 2 1 6. Set people objectives. 5 4 3 2 1 7. Control decision making. 5 4 3 2 1 8. Allocate resources. 5 4 3 2 1 9. Provide direction. 5 4 3 2 1 Ask for opinions and information. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 10. 11. Coordinate what team members are doing, but not how they are doing it. 12. Build trust in the team. 5 4 3 2 1 13. Facilitate communication with and between others. 5 4 3 2 1 14. Ask for and am receptive to ideas. 5 4 3 2 1 15. Encourage participation. 5 4 3 2 1 16. Reconcile difficulties if reported. 5 4 3 2 1 17. Monitor performance directly. 5 4 3 2 1 18. Focus on what the team members are feeling. 5 4 3 2 1 19. Encourage a good team spirit. 5 4 3 2 1 20. Show confidence in team members’ abilities. 5 4 3 2 1 Page 1 of 2 2/18/08 LEADERSHIP style self-assessment scoring Total your scores for questions 1 to 10. These questions relate to task-related leadership behaviors—the horizontal axis in the graph below. These behaviors include telling people what to do, explaining, giving information and directing. Score for task-related behaviors (horizontal axis): _____________ Now, total your scores for questions 11 to 20. These questions relate to people-related leadership behaviors—the vertical axis in the graph below. These behaviors include asking people for ideas, encouraging and building trust. Score for people-related behaviors (vertical axis): ______________ Plot your score on the graph below by putting an X where your scores for the horizontal axis and the vertical axis meet. 50 High 45 40 35 30 25 People- 20 Related 15 Behaviors 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Low Low Task-Related Behaviors High Leadership Style Assessment Score Interpretation Reproduced by permission from HRD Press, Inc., Compendium of Questionnaires and Inventories, Volume 2, Cook, Sarah. dershipStyle.doc Page 2 of 2 2/18/08 SCORE interpretation: leadership style There are four possible leadership styles. Look at the area on the graph where your two scores meet. This represents your leadership style. Page 1 of 2 2/19/08 LEADERSHIP style: typical behaviors Reproduced by permission from HRD Press, Inc., Compendium of Questionnaires and Inventories, Volume 2, Cook, Sarah. reInterpretations/LeadershipStyleScoreInterpretation.pdf Page 2 of 2 2/19/08 We all have a unique style for dealing with conflict. By understanding this style and how others perceive your style, you can improve your skills at managing and resolving conflict. What is Your Conflict Style? Understanding and Dealing With Your Conflict Style Keith Conerly and Arvind Tripathi 16 lthough conflict can arise from many sources, the common causes involve differences between two individuals’ or groups’ values, attitudes, needs, and expectations. These are “filters” through which the parties in a conflict interpret each other’s actions, inactions, or reactions. When an interaction has unexpected or negative results (for example, you make an innocent comment and it is taken as an insult), it is common to fret about what might be wrong with you or gripe about what is wrong with the other person. It is much more productive, however, to focus on what happened. What was it about your respective values, attitudes, needs, or A THE JOURNAL FOR QUALITY & PARTICIPATION Summer 2004 expectations that caused the unexpected response? Instead of worrying or making assumptions about the other person or group, it is far more productive to focus on figuring out differences in values, attitudes, needs, and expectations. If you assume that all parties in a conflict have a valid viewpoint, you can search for ways to combine perspectives and create collaborative resolutions. Conflict Styles Assessment There are basically two things that affect the way you manage conflict in a given situation. One is how much you care about achieving your own goals — how assertive you are. The other is how much you care about relationships — how cooperative you are. No one manages all conflicts the same way. You use different styles to fit different situations. In one conflict, you may feel strongly about satisfying your goals. In another conflict, you may put cooperating and maintaining relationships ahead of your goals. The sidebar (p. 18) contains a simple tool that you can use to assess your conflict style. If you’re interested in obtaining a deeper analysis of your conflict style, ask the people with whom you interact at work (supervisors, peers, subordinates, suppliers, and customers) to rate your behaviors. Or, you can ask members of your family to rate you. Interpreting Your Conflict Style There are five conflict management styles based on how important goals and relationships are to the conflicting parties (low, medium, or high importance for both factors). They are: • Withdrawing. • Forcing. • Smoothing. • Confronting. • Compromising. Each conflict management style has different strengths and weaknesses, and we all display all of the styles to some degree. The column with the highest point total shows your primary conflict style. No single style is appropriate in all circumstances. In fact, teams that are composed of members with all five conflict styles can be very effective and efficient — if they consciously tap into the strengths associated with each style. Withdrawing: Low Relationships, Low Goals People who are willing to give up both personal goals and relationships withdraw from conflict. They are neither assertive nor cooperative. If the group allows them to they will avoid the actual conflict and become outside observers. By listening to their input, the group can gain invaluable feedback on emergent points of discussion, as well as team members’ behaviors that are fostering or inhibiting resolution. They also have the following characteristics: • They are neither assertive nor cooperative. • They stay away from issues where there is conflict. Figure 1: Conflict Styles SMOOTHING: High Relationships, Low Goals Emphasis on Relationships CONFRONTING: High Relationships, High Goals COMPROMISING: Medium Relationships, Medium Goals WITHDRAWING: Low Relationships, Low Goals FORCING: Low Relationships, High Goals Emphasis on Goals They believe it’s difficult to resolve conflict. • They find it easier to withdraw physically or psychologically from a conflict than to face it. • Forcing: Low Relationships, High Goals People who pursue goals at the expense of relationships are competitive and forceful. They are highly assertive and not particularly cooperative. These people can bring progress to a group that lacks direction or is stalled in debate. Their other characteristics include the following: • They keep on track with goals. • They like to win. • They assume conflicts are usually win/lose and winning gives them a sense of pride and achievement. Smoothing: High Relationships, Low Goals People who give up goals to preserve relationships are highly cooperative. They are quick to accommodate and not very assertive or goal oriented. They can bring great insight into the consequences a decision will have on people. The characteristics shown below are associated with these people: • They want to be accepted and liked by others. • They think conflict should be avoided in favor of harmony. • They set aside or compromise goals. • They keep their ideas to themselves. • They worry that people can’t deal with conflict without damaging relationships. 17 Conflict Styles Assessment The proverbs listed below can be thought of as descriptions for different strategies to resolve conflicts. Read each proverb carefully and then using the following scale, indicate how typical each proverb is of your actions in a conflict. 5 = Very typical of the way I act in a conflict. 4 = Frequently typical of the way I act in a conflict. 3 = Sometimes typical of the way I act in a conflict. 2 = Seldom typical of the way I act in a conflict. 1 = Never typical of the way I act in a conflict. 1. It is easier to refrain than to retreat from a quarrel. 2. If you cannot make a person think as you do, make him or her do as you think. 3. Soft words win hard hearts. 4. You scratch my back; I’ll scratch yours. 5. Come now and let us reason together. 6. When two quarrel, the person who keeps silent first is the most praiseworthy. 7. Might overcomes right. 8. Smooth words make smooth ways. 9. Better half a loaf than no bread at all. 10. Truth lies in knowledge, not in majority opinion. 11. He who fights and runs away, lives to fight another day. 12. He hath conquered well that hath made his enemies flee. 13. Kill your enemies with kindness. 14. A fair exchange brings no quarrel. 15. No person has the final answer but every person has a piece to contribute. 16. Stay away from people who disagree with you. 17. Fields are won by those who believe in winning. 18. Kind words are worth much and cost little. 19. Tit for tat is fair play. 20. Only the person who is willing to give up his or her monopoly on truth can ever profit from the truth that others hold. 21. Avoid quarrelsome people, as they will only make your life miserable. 22. A person who will not flee will make others flee. 23. Soft words ensure harmony. 24. One gift for another makes good friends. 25. Bring your conflicts into the open and face them directly; only then will the best solution be discovered. 26. The best way of handling conflicts is to avoid them. 27. Put your foot down where you mean to stand. 28. Gentleness will triumph over anger. 29. Getting part of what you want is better than not getting anything at all. 30. Frankness, honesty, and trust will move mountains. 31. There is nothing so important you have to fight for it. 32. There are two kinds of people in the world, the winners and the losers. 33. When one hits you with a stone, hit him or her with a piece of cotton. 34. When both give in halfway, a fair settlement is achieved. 35. By digging and digging, the truth is discovered. 18 THE JOURNAL FOR QUALITY & PARTICIPATION Summer 2004 Conflict Styles Assessment Scoring Transfer your ratings for each proverb to the appropriate cell in the table below. Then add down the columns to obtain a total for each category. Withdrawing Forcing Smoothing Compromising Confronting 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. Total Total Total Total Total Confronting: High Relationships, High Goals People who place high value on relationships and goals are assertive and cooperative. They are likely to confront others and collaborate to accomplish an objective. They view conflicts as problems to solve and as a way to improve relationships; however, their style is not always ideal, as shown by some of the characteristics listed below: • They take too long trying to find perfection. • They are not satisfied until they find a solution that achieves the goal and resolves any negative feelings. • They can irritate others as a result of their behaviors. Compromising: Medium Relationships, Medium Goals People who place medium value on goals and relationships believe in compromise. They are moderately assertive and cooperative. They spend time looking for solutions but are not looking for perfection. They also have the following characteristics: • They are flexible and adaptive. • They go for splitting the difference, exchanging concessions, or seeking middle ground. • They seem like they are overly political or they can’t make up their minds. Differing Views of Your Conflict Style If you ask others to rate your behaviors during conflicts and compare their scores to your selfassessment, it’s not uncommon to find significant differences. Your ratings may reflect the way you intend to act during conflicts, rather than the way you interact with others during conflicts. For instance, you may intend to be confronting. You want the goal achieved, and you care about the relationships. Others may perceive that you are forceful with a focus on goals and a willingness to sacrifice relationships. There are many potential causes for these discrepancies, but here are a few of the more common ones. • Style collision. Our perspective on the conflict styles of others is based on our own style. For example, to a person who values relationships at the expense of goals (smoothing type), almost anyone who attempts to move the process forward will seem to have a forcing style. • Egocentric interpretation. Although all five conflict styles are associated with both negatives and positives, society has taught us that it’s better to be smoothing that forcing. Similarly, withdrawing or compromising is often viewed as an undesirable style — particularly by people who are managers or leaders. This can bias our self-assessment, as well as the assessment of other raters. • Timing. Our ratings may be influenced more significantly by recent events and so can the ratings of other people. The best assessments are based on ratings that reflect behaviors over a long period of time and in a variety of conflict situations. If different raters focus on different time spans, significant differences in the scores may occur. • Interpersonal history. If you are in the midst of conflict with another person, you can expect your ratings to shift temporarily. If you have a history of conflict 19 with the person, you can expect the ratings to shift permanently. In either case, you’re more likely to be rated as favoring goals over relationships. Can You Change Your Style? By this point in your life, you’ve developed a style, and it comes naturally to you. As with any habit, it takes conscientious effort and time to change the way you behave during conflicts. As previously mentioned, all conflict styles add some value to the resolution process, and all styles inhibit the process; therefore, it’s not so much a matter of changing your style as it is controlling the negative aspects of the style you’ve developed. If you can become more conscious of your style, you can learn to choose which aspects of it to display under specific conditions. You can share the motivations behind your behaviors so other team members understand your perspective and how your style has led to that perspective. At times, you can hold back your comments to offset some of the problems associated with your style. At other times, you can step forward and assert your style to help the group move forward. These approaches — and many others that create balance among the styles of group members — can be very beneficial in creating collaborative solutions in 20 THE JOURNAL FOR QUALITY & PARTICIPATION Summer 2004 an effective and timely manner. They require that team members honor each other’s conflict styles and are willing to exercise restraint on occasion for the good of the group. They do not require that individuals change their styles to conform to the majority. Knowing your conflict style, as well as how others perceive your behaviors during times of conflict, can enlighten your self-understanding and improve your conflict resolution skills. Keith Conerly is a business quality and analytic leader for Dow Chemical Corporation in Midland, MI. He earned his bachelor’s degree from Jackson State University and his master’s degree from Central Michigan University. Conerly is a member of ASQ and has held various leadership positions with the Human Development and Leadership Division, most recently as division secretary. Arvind Tripathi is a Senior Master Black Belt with Smarter Solutions in Austin, TX. Tripathi previously served as a senior quality advisor and Six Sigma Black Belt and Champion for Dell Computers. He is an ASQ Fellow and a member of the board of examiners for the Baldrige Award. Tripathi can be reached via e-mail at . Date: To: From: RE: Self-Assessment: Results: What did you learn from the results of your self-assessment? It can be that you affirmed what you already know but reflect a bit on that affirmation as well. Instructions: For each of the following statements, think of a specific situation in which you worked for a boss in an organization. Then answer whether each item is Mostly False or Mostly True for you in that follower situation. 14. I had the opportunity to do what I do best each day. 15. I understood how my role contributed to the company's success 16. I was willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond what was normally expected Mostly Mostly False True 1. I often commented to my manager on the broader impor- tance of data or events. 2. I thought carefully and then expressed my opinion about critical issues. 3. I frequently suggested ways of improving my and others' ways of doing things. 4. I challenged my manager to think about an old problem in a new way. 5. Rather than wait to be told, I would figure out the critical activ- ities for achieving my unit's goals. 6. I independently thought up and championed new ideas to my boss. 7. I tried to solve the tough pro- blems rather than expect my leader to do it. 8. I played devil's advocate if needed to demonstrate the up- side and downside of initiatives. 9. My work fulfilled a higher personal goal for me. 10. I was enthusiastic about my job. 11. I understood my leader's goals and worked hard to meet them. 12. The work I did was significant to me. 13. I felt emotionally engaged throughout a typical day. Scoring and Interpretation Questions 1-8 measure independent thinking. Sum the number of Mostly True answers checked and write your score below. Questions 9-16 measure active engagement. Sum the number of Mostly True answers checked and write your score below. Independent Thinking Total Score Active Engagement Total Score These two scores indicate how you carried out your followership role. A score of 2 or below is considered low. A score of 6 or higher is considered high. A score of 3-5 is in the middle. Based on whether your score is high, middle, or low, assess your followership style below. Followership Independent Active Engagement Style Thinking Score Score Effective High High Alienated High Low Conformist Low High Pragmatist Middle Middle Passive Low Low How do you feel about your followership style? Compare your style with that of others in your class. What might you do to be more effective as a follower? Sources: Based on Douglas R. May, Richard L. Gilson, and Lynn M. Harter, "The Psychological Conditions of Meaningfulness, Safety, and Availability and the Engagement of the Human Spirit at Work," Journal of Occupa- tional and Organizational Psychology 77 (March 2004), pp. 11-38; Robert E. Kelley, The Power of Followership: How to Create Leaders People want to Follow and Followers Who Lead Themselves (New York: Doubleday, 1992); and Towers Perrin HR Services, "Working Today: Understanding What Drives Employee Engagement," (2003),
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Self-Assessment: Followership Role
Results: 7 mostly true answers on Independent Thinking and 6 mostly true answers for active

What did you learn from the results of your self-assessment? It can be that you affirmed what
you already know but reflect a bit on that affirmation as well.
The high scores in both independent t...

I was struggling with this subject, and this helped me a ton!


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