Mock Test over Ch 7 & 9 Set C SFSU ID ________; Name Printed:________________________
Q1. [30% of test] DeCesare Computers makes 5,200 units of a circuit board, CB76, at a cost of $270
each. Variable cost per unit is $180 and fixed cost per unit is $90. Peach Electronics offers to supply
5,200 units of CB76 for $250. If DeCesare buys from Peach it will be able to save $20 per unit in fixed
costs but continue to incur the remaining $70 per unit. Should DeCesare accept Peach’s offer? Explain.
Q2. [20% of test] A truck, costing $100,500 and uninsured, is wrecked its first day in use. It can be either
(a) disposed of for $13,000 cash and replaced with a similar truck costing $103,000 or (b) rebuilt for
$70,000 and thus be brand-new as far as operating characteristics and looks are concerned. Which action
is less costly? Show your calculations.
Q3. [20% of test] Inglenook Co. produces wine. The company expects to produce 300,000 two-liter
bottles of Chablis in 2015. Inglenook purchases empty glass bottles from an outside vendor. Its target
ending inventory of such bottles is 6,000; its beginning inventory is 5,000. For simplicity, ignore
breakage. Compute the number of bottles to be purchased in 2015.
Q4. [30% of test] The Howell Company has prepared a sales budget of 30,000 finished units for a 3month period. The company has an inventory of 9,000 units of finished goods on hand at December 31
and has a target finished goods inventory of 11,000 units at the end of the succeeding quarter.
It takes 5 gallons of direct materials to make one unit of finished product. The company has an inventory
of 56,000 gallons of direct materials at December 31 and has a target ending inventory of 66,000 gallons
at the end of the succeeding quarter. How many gallons of direct materials should Howell Company
purchase during the 3 months ending March 31?
ETHICS & SOX IN THREE MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING TEXTBOOKS
Professor Jay Kang’s Introduction for his SFSU students
Fall semester, 2016
CODE OF ETHICAL STANDARDS [Weygandt, et al. p.19]
In response to corporate scandals, the U.S. Congress enacted the Sarbanes-‐Oxley Act
(SOX) to help prevent lapses in internal control. One result of SOX was to clarify top
management’s responsibility for the company’s financial statements. CEOs and CFOs
are now required to certify that financial statements give a fair presentation of the
company’s operating results and its financial condition. In addition, top managers
must certify that the company maintains an adequate system of internal controls to
safeguard the company’s assets and ensure accurate financial reports.
Another result of SOX is that companies now pay more attention to the com-‐
position of the board of directors. In particular, the audit committee of the board of
directors must be comprised entirely of independent members (that is, non-‐
employees) and must contain at least one financial expert. Finally, the law sub-‐
stantially increases the penalties for misconduct.
SOX of 2002 [Braun, et al. p.17]
As a result of corporate accounting scandals, such as those at Enron and
WorldCom, the U.S. Congress enacted the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX).
The purpose of SOX is to restore trust in publicly traded corporations, their
management, their financial statements, and their auditors. SOX enhances
internal control and financial reporting requirements and establishes new
regulatory requirements for publicly traded companies and their independent
auditors. Publicly traded companies have spent millions of dollars upgrading
their internal controls and accounting systems to comply with SOX regulations.
As shown in Exhibit 1-7 [omitted by J Kang], SOX requires the company’s
CEO and CFO to assume responsibility for the financial statements and
disclosures. The CEO and CFO must certify that the financial statements and
disclosures fairly present, in all material respects, the operations and financial
condition of the company. Additionally, they must accept responsibility for
establishing and maintaining an adequate internal control structure and
procedures for financial reporting. The company must have its internal controls
and financial reporting procedures assessed annually.
SOX also requires audit committee members to be independent, meaning that
they may not receive any consulting or advisory fees from the company other
than for their service on the board of directors. In addition, at least one of the
members should be a financial expert. The audit committee oversees not only
the internal audit function but also the company’s audit by independent CPAs.
To ensure that CPA firms maintain independence from their client company,
SOX does not allow CPA firms to provide certain non-audit services (such as
bookkeeping and financial information systems design) to companies during the
same period of time in which they are providing audit services. If a company
wants to obtain such services from a CPA firm, it must hire a different firm to do
the non-audit work. Tax services may be provided by the same CPA firm if preapproved by the audit committee. The audit partner must rotate off the audit
engagement every five years, and the audit firm must undergo quality reviews
every one to three years.
Why is this important?
“ SOX puts more pressure on companies, their managers , and their auditors to ensure that investors get financial
information that fairly reflects the company’s operations. ”
SOX also increases the penalties for white-collar crimes such as corporate
fraud. These penalties include both monetary fines and substantial
imprisonment. For example, knowingly destroying or creating documents to
“impede, obstruct, or influence” any federal investigation can result in up to 20
years of imprisonment.8
8 Go to [no longer online] www.AICPA.org to learn more about SOX.
SOX also contains a “clawback” provision in which previously paid CEO and
CFO incentive-based compensation can be recovered if the financial statements
were misstated due to misconduct. The Frank-Dodd Act of 2010 further
strengthens the clawback rules, such that firms must recover all incentive
compensation paid to any current or former executive, in the three years
preceding the restatement, if that compensation would not have been paid
under the restated financial statements. In other words, executives will not be
allowed to profit from misstated financial statements, even if the misstatement
was not due to misconduct.9
9 [no longer online] www.pepperlaw.com/publications_update.aspx?ArticleKey=1868
Since its enactment in 2002, SOX has significantly affected the internal
operations of publicly traded corporations and their auditors. SOX will continue
to play a major role in corporate management and the auditing profession.
Corporate Wrongdoing [Sawyers, et al. p.13]
Although companies establish ethics programs to en- courage employees to act
with integrity, some individuals engage in behaviors that are not only unethical
but also fraudulent. The case of Enron is one example where an ethics program
was not effective. In late 2001, the once high-flying company filed for
bankruptcy protection. Investigations into the company’s failure revealed a
series of questionable transactions designed by the company’s top officials to
enrich them- selves. The company’s former chief financial officer and two former
chief executive officers were found guilty of fraud. Though the actual cost of
Enron’s collapse will never be known, estimates are that shareholders and
creditors lost more than $60 billion.
Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002
As a response to the rash of corporate scandals and frauds that began in the
early 2000s with the implosion of Enron in late 2001, the U.S. Congress passed
the Sarbanes–Oxley Act. Sarbanes–Oxley includes a number of significant
provisions. For example, the law requires management to assess whether
internal controls over financial reporting (ICFR) are effective. In addition, the
company’s external financial statement auditor is required to audit ICFR and
assess whether those controls are effective in preventing and detecting financial
misstatements. These assessments are part of the so-called Section 404 report
called for under the law. Because Congress wanted to include a significant
deterrent, Sarbanes–Oxley also increases the criminal penalties associated with
financial statement fraud to a maximum fine of $5 million and imprisonment for
20 years. Another provision of the law requires companies to establish
procedures to allow employees to lodge complaints about accounting and
auditing matters directly with members of the audit committee. Furthermore,
companies must ensure that employees who make such complaints are not
harassed or otherwise discriminated against by others within the organization. In
sum, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act has increased the level of scrutiny of public
companies’ financial statements. Many observers believe that the law has
improved the quality of financial reporting in the United States and helped to
rebuild the public’s trust in the nation’s financial markets.
Braun, Karen Wilken and Wendy M. Tietz. 2015. Managerial accounting. Fourth
edition. Pearson Education, Inc.
Weygandt, Jerry, Paul D. Kimmel and Donald E. Kieso. 2015. Managerial
Accounting, 7th Edition. John Wiley & Sons.
Sawyers, Roby B., Steven R. Jackson, and J. Gregory Jenkins. 2013. Managerial
ACCT2, Student Edition. South-Western, Cengage Learning.
Your personal paper on Sarbanes-Oxley Act is due the next
The length should NOT EXCEED one  page, singlespaced. “Times Roman” with font size 12 or smaller.
Now, you’d want read the “Instructor’s Check-list” in
Course Activity Schedule [attached], footnote 2[d].
Writing a Concise Paper Assignment – Instructor’s Checklist. ©2015, 2009, 2006 Jay Kang, SFSU
1. Use Active Voice. Use “I” often! And cite your sources, and let them speak
in active voice as well.
2. Cite sources fully, integrating them in your writing. Avoid: It is said . . . . Instead let the
speaker come alive: Braun (p.16) says, “ . . . . ” I am interested in what she says.
3. The cited sources are listed in REFERENCES subsection. Don’t use footnotes to cite.
4. Include: The paper’s TITLE that tells the SPECIFIC, CONCRETE TOPIC or focus of
your interest. Avoid a general, broad topic.
1st paragraph. State, first, your research Question(s): “I question: . . . ?” to
introduce the paper.
2nd paragraph. The main body: Data gathered cite the sources. Analysis, discussion,
and findings in your own words.
3rd paragraph. A concise, yet concrete summary of your paper and conclusions.
4th paragraph.. Under a sub-heading, “REFERENCES”, list the cited sources. [Do
NOT use “Works Cited” in a business-area paper!]
To be concise, your paper must be single spaced [“Times Roman” with font size
12 or smaller, up to 1 page, including your Full Name and REFERENCES on the same
page. [Do NOT use a double spacing.]
So, you’d want to briefly read A SAMPLE SOX Paper [attached] to see
how my grading goes.
My suggestions for your quick & easy paper-writing follow.
To begin, you'd want to READ the attached “Ethics & SOX in 3
textbooks” and “Jiambalvo on SOX”. You should find their introduction to
Enron scandal and Sarbanes-Oxley Act [SOX].
When you find a “specific point” of discussion INTERSTING TO
YOU, this becomes YOUR OWN SPECIFIC research question, as long
as this topic is both within your reach and within your time
budget. My suggested time budget for this paper is about one
hour perhaps, not exceeding two  hours.
3. Open your word processing program, write the paper's TOPIC [in CAPs and
BOLD], and then begin the introductory paragraph that first states your
research question. [Single-spacing only is allowed, with #12 font size in MS
Words.] For example, Braun, et al (p. xx) say, "SOX impacted . . . ." I'd like to
evaluate this statement. My [research] question is: Did it impact . . . ?
Before you move onto the next section of paper, copy and paste the cited
source[s] in the space below REFERENCES subheading. This listing of cited
sources [or your sources of learning] you’re making here will give you the status
of an academic or scholarly paper.
4. As you quickly complete your concise, introductory paragraph, you
immediately begin writing your MAIN SECTION of the paper in a number of
paragraphs and many sentences. I’d recommend you to google the keyword[s]
of your question to find papers on the Web and gather information that can help
you answer your research question, citing your sources individually [while
the sources are put in the REFERENCES section]. Concurrently, you write
your responses to your sources, and further analysis and evaluation in active
voice [you speak out, “I agree with xxx . . .” and proceed to your
conclusion. Make sure you use “I”, “my” often.
5. Your last paragraph should be a concise "restatement" of your research
question, your analysis, evaluations, findings, and conclusion. [Use “I” a lot.]
6. Then, make sure your paper’s last subheading "REFERENCES" [as the title
of this sub-heading] follows your main section, after skipping one blank
line. [Since REFERENCES is an integral part of the paper, it shall NOT be on a
separate page.] The format of references must follow the editorial policy of The
Accounting Review. My Writing A Paper Tutorial [attached] highlights a few key
points of the editorial policy.
All the best,
WRITING A SCHOLARLY PAPER: TUTORIAL / LECTURE OUTLINE
Professor Jay Kang
Revised: October 10, 2017
A. The Tutorials
The tutorials will help you actually write one piece of scholarly paper on a specific topic of
your choice that is within a general topic.
B. References And Citations
The paper that you intend to write documents your research, and ought to have one or more
references and citations, and the documentation format and style must follow the editorial
policy of a journal, such as the Accounting Review. [The Accounting Review editorial policy
statement with my editing is attached.]
C. Writing a Short Paper
If you’d want to write a short research paper, including “References” as a subheading of paper,
here are the guidelines:
Writing a Concise Paper Assignment – Instructor’s Checklist.
Use Active Voice. Avoid: “It is said. . .” Instead let the speaker come alive: “Doupnik
and Perera (p.16) say “. . . . ”
Cite Works Fully, integrating them in your writing with the List of References. No
citation in footnotes. [See Acct Review format]
The Paper includes:
1. The paper’s TITLE that tells the specific, concrete topic or focus of your interest.
Avoid a general, broad topic.
2. Introduction: State, first, your research Question(s) and purpose(s). “I question: .
. . ?” to introduce the paper.
3. Main Subheadings: Data gathered cite the sources. Detailed analysis, discussion,
and findings in your own words.
4. Conclusion: A concise, yet concrete summary of paper and conclusions.
5. Under the last sub-heading, “References”, list the cited sources. (Follow
Accounting Review editorial policy.)
(single spaced, up to 1 page for Acct 101 and 307, or 4 to 6 pages for Acct. 513 at SFSU)
D. Writing a Short Research Proposal [NOT APPLICABLE to SFSU 101 & 307.]
If you’d want to write a short research proposal, say up to 2 to 4 pages, single-spaced, including
“References” as a subheading of paper, here are the guidelines research proposal:
Writing a Short Research Proposal – Instructor’s Checklist.
a. Use Active Voice. Avoid: “It is said. . .” Instead let the speaker come alive:
“Doupnik and Perera (p.16) say . .. .”
b. Cite Works Fully, integrating them in your writing with the List of References. No
citation in footnotes. [See Acct Review format]
c. Include in the research proposal:
1. The Title of your paper, as specific as possible., ending with “— A Research
2. Your specific Research Question(s) and purpose(s). [The opening sentence: “I
will examine: 1. . . . . , and 2. . . . . ” ]
3. Review of Related Literature
4. Methods of analysis and sources of data that will be used.
5. Expected findings and conclusions. [Cite your sources fully.]
6. Summary of the proposal and Expected Conclusions: Summarize your research
question, expected findings and conclusions. (single spaced.)
7. The List of References. (This must follow the format of The Accounting Review
E. Tips for Writing Your Paper
Adapted from “Tips for the Effective Writer” [May & May, p.5]
1. Content: Be sure that the accounting content is correct and complete. Have you addressed all
relevant accounting issues?
2. Critical Thinking: Think carefully and critically about the issues with which you’re dealing.
Anticipate questions and objections your readers might raise.
3. Appropriateness for Readers: Write the document with a particular reader in mind. Check that
issues are discussed on a level the reader can understand. [For most documents, it is better to
focus on practical, explicit information and advice related to the case you are discussing rather
than on general accounting theory].
4. Conciseness: Write as concisely as possible, given the reader’s needs and the issues to be
5. Clarity: Develop a style that is clear and readable. Choose words that convey your meaning
with precision and clarity.
6. Coherence: Structure the document so that it is coherent. The organization should be logical
and the train of thought easy to follow. Summarize main ideas near the beginning of the
document, and begin each paragraph with a topic sentence.
7. Revision: Revise the document so that it is polished and professional. It should be free of all
spelling errors and typos; grammatical errors should not detract from the message.
[Source: May, Claire Arevalo, and Gordon S. May. 2012. Effective Writing: a Handbook for
accountants. 9th Ed. Prentice Hall.]
F. Useful Tips for Effective Writing from the Instructor, Jay Kang
Understandability is your primary purpose. John Dryden said, “The aim of a writer is to be
Only practice makes it perfect.
Write with passion. Bernard Shaw said, “One does best at playing.”
Define your “specific” research question, given a general topic.
Select the question that interest you the most.
Select the question which conclusion is WITHIN YOUR REACH.
Research, research and research.
Take notes, citing the sources.
Draft paper outline ASAP.
Be focused on your specific questions as you write the paper.
Tell, tell and tell.
Revise, revise and revise.
G. Formats of Documentation, Citation, and Style
Before you begin writing a scholarly paper, you’d want to be aware of professional policy
against plagiarism. It occurs when a scholar “misrepresents the work of another as his or
her own.” It often occurs when the scholar uses “the ideas, sentences, paragraphs, or the
whole text of another WITHOUT APPROPRIATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.” [San
Francisco State University Accounting Department, 2 ...
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