The Effect Of PH Level On Germination Of Sunflower Seeds

Anonymous
timer Asked: Apr 14th, 2019
account_balance_wallet $19.99

Question Description

you should go through all the files to have a clear view about writing the discussion. the discussion should be be related to the results, so please read the results carefully before start writing.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Pechenik Citation Style Quick Guide The following are examples based on the 9th edition of A Short Guide to Writing about Biology by Jan A. Pechenik. For further explanation and for more examples, consult Pechenik’s guide. This information is taken from pages 63 to 67. Journal names are usually abbreviated. See http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations/ for title abbreviations. Source Literature Cited Citations in Text Journal article 1 author Wykoff, W.R. 2002. Measuring and modeling surface area of ponderosa pine needles. Can. J. For. Res. 32: 1-8. (Wykoff, 2002) Journal article 2 authors Bassett, T.J., Zueli, K.B. 2000. Environmental discourses and the Ivorian Savanna. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 90(1): 67-95. (Bassett and Zueli, 2000) Journal article 3 or more authors Field, I.C., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Burton, H.R. Sumner, M.D., Hindell, M.A. 2005. Resource partitioning through oceanic segregation of foraging juvenile southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). Oecologia 142: 127-133. (Field et al., 2005) Book 1 author Wagner, F.H. 1980. Wildlife of the Deserts. H.N. Abrams, New York, pp. 231. (Wagner, 1980) Book Specified edition 3 or more authors Roberts, C., Varty, B., Lucas, V. 2004. Writing for the Biological Sciences, 10th ed. Addison-Wesley, Toronto, ON, pp. 73-76. (Roberts et al., 2004) Chapter or article in an Edited Book 2 authors Evans, S and Smith, J. 2000. Ecotourism in tropical rainforests: an environmental management option for threatened resources? In: Forest Tourism and Recreation: Case Studies in Environmental Management. (Font, X., Tribe, J., eds.). CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 127-142. (Evans, 2000) Formal Report available online Lawrence RA. 1997. A Review of the Medical benefits and Contraindications to Breastfeeding in the United States [internet]. Arlington VA: National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health.1997 Oct [cited 2016 Nov 03]. 40 p. Available from http://ncemch.org/NCEMCH-publications/ BreastfeedingTIB.pdf (Lawrence, 1997) Working Paper available online Imberman, S., Kugler, A.D., Sacerdote, B. 2009. Katrina’s children: evidence on the structure of peer effects from hurricane evacuees (Working Paper No. 15291) [Internet]. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2009 Aug [cited 2016 Aug 30]. 55 p. Available from http://www.nber.org/ papers/w15291 (Imberman et al., 2009) Institutional Web Publication National Institute of Mental Health. 2001. Teenage brain: A work in progress [Internet]. [cited 2016 Oct 15]. Available from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health /publications/Teenage-brain-a-work-in-progressfactsheet/index.shtml First Time You Cite Use Full Name: (Research Institute, Government, NGO, non-profit, University) (National Institute of Mental Health, 2001) Thereafter Use the Acronym (NIMH, 2001) Sample Literature Cited list Literature Cited Bassett, T.J., Zueli, K.B. 2000. Environmental discourses and the Ivorian Savanna. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 90(1): 67-95. Cochran, W.W., Mouritsen, H., Wikelski, M. 2004 Apr 16. Migrating songbirds recalibrate their magnetic compass daily from twilight cues. Science 304: 405-408. Evans, S and Smith, J. 2000. Ecotourism in tropical rainforests: an environmental management option for threatened resources? In: Forest Tourism and Recreation: Case Studies in Environmental Management. (Font, X., Tribe, J., eds.). CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 127-142. Field, I.C., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Burton, H.R. Sumner, M.D., Hindell, M.A. 2005. Resource partitioning through oceanic segregation of foraging juvenile southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). Oecologia 142: 127-133. Alternate Hypothesis: If the pH of the sunflower extract is high (above 7) than less sunflower seeds will germinate, and root lengths will be shorter. Null Hypothesis: If pH level is altered than the germination rates and root lengths will not be affected. Materials: 14 Petri Dishes, 140 sunflower seeds, 5 fully grown sunflowers, pH tablets, 2 sets of a Mortar and Pestle, Cheese Cloth, 40 filter paper, 4 jars to hold extracts, 5mL pipette and pipette tips, light source, and a Caliper. Techniques: Observing allelopathic effects of pH by measuring root length of germinated seeds Methods: To commence the experiment, gather the necessary materials. Obtain 15 sunflower leaves which will be used to create the sunflower extract. Cut the sunflower leaves into tiny pieces and place them into a mortar. Add 160 mL of distilled water to the mortar. Use a pestle to grind the sunflower leaves until the water becomes the color of the leaves. Obtain a clean beaker and place a piece of cheesecloth over the beaker. Pour the liquid within the mortar over the cheesecloths so that it filters into the beaker. Label the beaker “sunflower leaf extract” and set it to the side. Grab a clean mortar and 15 more sunflower leaves. Cut the sunflower leaves into tiny pieces and place them into the clean mortar. Add 160 mL of distilled water to the mortar, as well as, an acidic pH tablet. Use a clean pestle to grind the sunflower leaves and the pH tablet until the water is the color of the leaves. Obtain a clean beaker with a fresh piece of cheesecloth placed over the beaker. Pour the liquid inside of the mortar over the cheesecloth so that it filters into the beaker. Label this second beaker “acidic sunflower extract” and set it aside. Obtain a clean mortar and 15 more sunflower leaves and repeat the previous steps, grinding the sunflower leaves in 160 mL of distilled water. Instead of using an acid pH tablet, however, place a basic pH tablet into the mortar to be grinded with the sunflower leaves. Then, follow the previous steps to transfer the liquid within the mortar to a separate clean beaker. Label this third beaker “basic sunflower extract.” Obtain 12 clean petri dishes. Spread three pieces of filter paper across the bottom of each petri dish. Place 10 sunflower seeds within each of the 12 petri dishes. Label three of the 12 petri dishes “distilled water.” Label another three “sunflower extract w/ distilled water.” Label another three “acidic sunflower extract” and the last three petri dishes “basic sunflower extract.” Using a pipette, pour 5 mL of distilled water into the three petri dishes labeled “distilled water.” Then, using a clean pipette tip, pour 5 mL of the sunflower and water extract into the petri dishes labeled “sunflower extract w/ distilled water.” Follow these same steps using the acidic sunflower extract and the basic sunflower extract to place into the petri dishes labeled “acidic sunflower extract” and basic sunflower extract,” respectively. Once all the 12 petri dishes are moistened with the correct extracts, place them under a light where they will grow for one week. Take what is left over of each extract and put them in separate jars that are to be refrigerated. The remainder of these extracts will be used to water the plants for the rest of the week. The plants are to be observed each day of the week and watered with the correct extracts when necessary. Record each day the number of seeds in each petri dish that have germinated and the condition of each sunflower plant. At the end of one week, measure the root lengths of all of the germinated sunflower plants. References: Bower, D., Morgan, D., Phillips, K., & Roeth, B. (2005, May 20). The Effect of pH on the Growth of Green Beans. Retrieved from http://jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu/nsfall05/LabpacketArticles/TheEffectofpHontheGrotwh o.html - We were able to look at how another lab did a similar experiment with green beans. We saw their thought process and their steps taken. Low pH values could create a nutrient deficiency in the cells and could cause the plants to die. Sripad, G., Prakash, V., & Narasing, M. S. (1982, June). Extractability of polyphenols of sunflower seed in various solvents[Scholarly project]. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02702723#citeasv - We were able to see that there is a chemical called chlorogenic acid in sunflower seed that helps to regulate pH values. This chemical can be extracted from the sunflower seed with the assistance of another chemical. Perry, L. (2003). PH for the Garden. Retrieved from http://pss.uvm.edu/ppp/pubs/oh34.htm - From this article the author posted several different pH of the soil of surrounding plants. This can be used to compare natural soil type. Raya-Díaz, S., Quesada-Moraga, E., Barrón, V., Campillo, M., & Sánchez-Rodríguez, A. l02saroa@uco. e. (2017). Redefining the dose of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota, Hypocreales) to increase Fe bioavailability and promote plant growth in calcareous and sandy soils. Plant & Soil, 418(1/2), 387–404. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-017-3303-0 - They added different doses of EF and tested the affects on sunflower growth but also found that it affected the pH levels in the sunflower. Lasa, B., Frechilla, S., Aleu, M., González-Moro, B., Lamsfus, C., & Aparicio-Tejo, P. M. (2000). Effects of low and high levels of magnesium on the response of sunflower plants grown with ammonium and nitrate(1-2 ed., Vol. 225, Rep.). Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1026568329860 - This focuses on the effect of different levels of magnesium on plants. This will help us compare the effects of other chemicals that affect pH level in sunflowers. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf049612j - A study on how heat and pH work hand and hand to affect growth on the sunflower. https://homeguides.sfgate.com/ph-affect-plants-49986.html - How pH levels normally affect plants. It can affect the plants ability to absorb nutrients. http://plantsinmotion.bio.indiana.edu/plantmotion/earlygrowth/germination/sunflower/sun.html - Video on seed germination (maybe for presentation) Allopathic Effects of pH on Roots’ Length Abstract According to research, the pH level of the surrounding environment of a plant is considered to have a significant effect on the root length, especially in legumes (Butnariu & Negrea, 2015). Most studies indicate that acidic soil usually inhibits the range of the roots of a plant. This research is among the several studies that are conducted to determine the allopathic effect of pH on the length of the roots of germinated seeds. The study is performed to determine whether the pH can promote or inhibit the size of roots. In this case, an extract from the petals of sunflower is used where two of the solutions are labeled ‘acidic extract' and ‘alkaline extract.' On the acidic extract, an acid is added while on an alkaline extract, an alkaline it put. The seeds of a leguminous plant known as lettuce are used in the experiment to determine the length of its roots under acidic extract, alkaline extract and in distilled water which is considered to be neutral. The length of the roots will be determined by the consideration of the seedlings in the distilled water. If the range of roots of the seedlings in either the alkaline extract or the acidic extract will be smaller than the roots of the seedlings on the distilled water, it will be concluded that pH level used inhibits the length of roots. However, if the roots-length will be high compared to the roots in the distilled water, it will imply that the pH level enhances the size of roots. Keywords: pH, legumes, acidity, alkalinity, extract, allopathic Introduction PH refers to the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. The pH level ranges from one to fourteen. As the pH of seven represents the neutral pH level such as that of water, the pH above seven represents an alkaline substance while the pH below seven represents the acidity of a surface. This aspect is considered to have a significant effect on the growth of plants especially the roots. Some plants as believed to have allopathic effects in which they limit the growth of other plants since they release the chemicals that are not favorable for plants growth (Bhadoria, 2011). This effect is mostly observed among tall trees that inhibit the growth of other plants below them. The chemical that is released is considered to be retained on the leaves in most cases. Based on that knowledge, most experiments conducted to test allopathic effects of pH, applies to the sunflower extract since it is considered to be favorable for such experiments for its pH lies between the slight acidity of 6.0 to slight alkalinity of 7.5 (Bubna & Ferrarese-Filho, 2011). Due to its pH level, the extract from the sunflower petals can be manipulated into acidity or alkalinity without significant reaction. In the experiment regarding the allopathic effects of pH in root length of germinated seed, an extract from sunflower petals was used where three types of extracts were used. One was acidic, the other was alkaline, and the third was neutral since the distilled water was used. The reason behind the use of the three solutions was to determine whether there is any effect of the acidity to the growth of roots, particularly in legumes such as lettuce seed. The research has explained every step from the extraction of the solutions to the determination of the root sizes after the experiment. Methods Draft Creating the Extract A total of 60 sunflower petals were used to create a sunflower extract. The sunflower petals were placed into a mortar. Two hundred mL of distilled water was poured into the mortar. A pestle was used to grind the sunflower leaves until the water changed its color to the same tint of the leaves. A clean beaker was obtained, and a piece of cheesecloth was placed over the beaker. The extract was poured from the mortar into the cheesecloth, so it was filtered into the beaker. This beaker was then labeled “sunflower leaf extract” and set aside. The process was then repeated two more times. One of the two new beakers was then labeled “acidic sunflower extract” and an acidic capsule was opened and poured into the beaker and was mixed until it was dissolved. The final pH of the solution was 3. Then it was set aside. The second of the two was then labeled “basic sunflower extract” and a basic pH capsule was opened and poured into the beaker and was mixed until it was dissolved. The final pH of the basic solution was 11. Setting Up the Petri Dishes Twelve clean petri dishes were obtained. Three pieces of filter paper were spread across the bottom of each petri dish. Twenty-eight lettuce seeds were placed within each of the 12 petri dishes. Three of the 12 petri dishes were labeled “distilled water.” Another three were labeled “sunflower extract.” Three more were labeled “acidic sunflower extract” and the last three petri dishes were labeled “basic sunflower extract.” Moistening the Petri Dishes Using a clean pipette each time, 5 mL of each extract was placed into the corresponding petri dishes. Each dish was moistened until the filter paper looked damp and all seeds seemed to be covered with their assigned extracts. Setting up for weekly Observation Once all the 12 petri dishes were moistened with the correct extracts, they were then place under a LED light in a controlled room where they were left to grow for one week. Four jars with lids were then labeled “distilled water,” “sunflower extract,” “acidic sunflower extract,” and “basic sunflower extract.” The excess extracts were then poured into their corresponding jars and put away in a refrigerator for preservation. They were preserved for future watering through the week. Data Analysis The lettuce seeds were observed each day of the week and watered with the correct extracts when necessary. Each day the number of seeds germinated in each dish was recorded along with the condition of each plant. At the conclusion of the week, the root lengths of all germinated seeds were measured and recorded. The lab was repeated one more week for more data. A chi-squared test was then preformed for the number of germinated seeds. Along with that the averages for each root length were taken for each day and plotted on a ling graph. Results The following data displayed in Figures 1 and 2, as well as Tables 1 and 2, demonstrate trends in the rate of germination, as well as, root lengths of seeds within the varied solutions. Figure 1 presents the data for the overall rate of germination of seeds for each solution for the first trial. The total average of germinated seeds for each solution was used to obtain a Chi-squared value, which was calculated as 2.35. Since there were four samples, the degree of freedom was three, meaning that the Chi- squared value, 2.35, was compared to the value 7.81. Since the Chi-squared value was not larger than 7.81, the null hypothesis, that all the samples would have the same germination rate, failed to be rejected. Number of Germinated Seeds Figure 1: Number of Germinated Seeds Per Day (Trial #1) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Day # seeds (acidic) # seeds (basic) # seeds (sunflower) # seeds (water) Figure 1: The trend in germination rate for each solution is that the seeds in the acidic extract and basic extract germinate at a slower rate than the seeds in the sunflower extract and distilled water. Figure 2 displays the data for the overall rate of germination of seeds for each solution for the second trial. The total average of germinated seeds for each solution was used to obtain the Chi-squared value for trial two. The Chi-Squared value was calculated as 7.97. Since there were four samples, the degree of freedom was three, meaning that the Chi-squared value, 7.97, was compared to the value 7.81. Since the Chi-squared value was larger than 7.81, the null hypothesis, that all the samples would have the same germination rate, was rejected. Number of Germinated Seeds Figure 2: Number of Germinated Seeds Per Day (Trial #2) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Day # seeds (acidic) # seeds (basic) # seeds (sunflower) # seeds (water) Figure 2: The trend in germination rate for each solution is that the seeds in the acidic extract and basic extract germinate at a slower rate than the seeds in the sunflower extract and distilled water. The following two tables, Table 1 and Table 2, depict the data for the average root length of each germinated individual for each trial. Both tables show that average root length for individuals within the acidic and basic extracts differ significantly compared to the average root length of individuals in the sunflower extract and distilled water. Thus, the null hypothesis, that the root length of each individual does not vary within each was solution, was rejected, as it is evident that the root length of individuals within each extract vary significantly. Table 1: Average Root Length Of Each Germinated Individual For Each Solution (Trial 1) Solution Average Root Length (mm) Acidic Sunflower Extract 0 Basic Sunflower Extract 0.77 Sunflower Extract 35.78 Distilled Water 29.43 Table 2: Average Root Length Of Each Germinated Individual For Each Solution (Trial 2) Solution Average Root Length (mm) Acidic Sunflower Extract 0 Basic Sunflower Extract 0.58 Sunflower Extract 31.40 Distilled Water 37.16 References Bhadoria, P. B. S. (2011). Allelopathy: a natural way towards weed management. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 1(1), 7. Bubna, G. A. & Ferrarese-Filho, O. (2011). Exogenous caffeic acid inhibits the growth and enhances the lignification of the roots of soybean (Glycine max). Journal of plant physiology, 168(14), 1627-1633. Butnariu, M. & Negrea, P. (2015). Allelopathic effects of Pteridium aquilinum alcoholic extract on seed germination and seedling growth of Poa pratensis. Allelopathy journal, 35(2). The Discussion Section When starting the discussion consider the research question first. You posed the research question, explained your methods for answering it, ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment

Tutor Answer

AndrewGrant
School: Carnegie Mellon University

Please let me know if you need more edits.Kindly mark the question complete once you are satisfied with the answer.

Running head: DISCUSSION ACTIVITY

1

Discussion Activity
Student’s Name
Institution of Affiliation

DISCUSSION ACTIVITY

2

DISCUSSION ON THE EFFECT OF PH LEVEL ON GERMINATION OF
SUNFLOWER SEEDS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE ROOT SIZES.

Experiment 1

What was the effect of PH level on the rate of germination of sunflower
seeds?
Basing the on the trend germination rate for sunflower seeds placed under
different solutions is that seeds placed under distilled water and sunflower extract
recorded the highest number of sunflower seeds germinating where, 24 seeds germinated
within two days, 18 seeds for a basic solution, however, the acidic solution recorded no
germination. It was during the 3rd day that the acidic solution recorded 19 seeds that
germinated.
The trend for faster germination of see...

flag Report DMCA
Review

Anonymous
awesome work thanks

Similar Questions
Related Tags

Brown University





1271 Tutors

California Institute of Technology




2131 Tutors

Carnegie Mellon University




982 Tutors

Columbia University





1256 Tutors

Dartmouth University





2113 Tutors

Emory University





2279 Tutors

Harvard University





599 Tutors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology



2319 Tutors

New York University





1645 Tutors

Notre Dam University





1911 Tutors

Oklahoma University





2122 Tutors

Pennsylvania State University





932 Tutors

Princeton University





1211 Tutors

Stanford University





983 Tutors

University of California





1282 Tutors

Oxford University





123 Tutors

Yale University





2325 Tutors