Science
​People of Indian, Turkish, and Vietnamese Heritage.

Question Description

**********APA *********Read content chapter 25, 37 and 38 in Davis Plus Online Website and review the attached PowerPoint presentation. Once done present a 900-word essay without counting the first and last page discussing the cultural health care beliefs of the study heritages and how they influence the delivery of evidence-based health care.

You must cite at least 2 evidence-based references without counting the class textbook.

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Turkish Culture Larry Purnell, PhD, RN, FAAN Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Overview/Heritage ▪ Türkiye, as it is written in Turkish, means “land of Turks.” Referred to as a geographic, religious, and cultural crossroads, the Republic of Türkiye is situated at the geographic intersection of Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. ▪ While Turks have emigrated throughout the world, many live in Western Europe, largely as a result of “guest worker” programs. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Overview/Heritage ▪ Today, the Republic of Türkiye is politically stable and continues to adapt economically to reforms. ▪ Türkiye remains strategically important to the West and is a strong ally of the United States. ▪ The Turkish immigrant population in the US differs significantly from most of the Turkish population in Europe, both in terms of demographic makeup and socioeconomic status and integration. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Overview/Heritage ▪ Over 202,000 people of Turkish descent live in the United States. ▪ They live in 42 states, with over half living in New York, California, New Jersey, and Florida. ▪ Just over half of the individuals in this group were born outside the United States. ▪ Most arrived in the US before 1980. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Overview/Heritage ▪ A high proportion of Turks in the United States come from the elite and upper-middle classes, interspersed with smaller groups of middle-class students and skilled laborers who are supported privately or by the government. ▪ Many Turks sought advanced American education in highly technical fields, leading to more abundant employment opportunities in the United States upon completion of their studies. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communication ▪ A Uralic-Altaic language, Turkish is spoken by 90% of the population and has approximately 20 dialects. ▪ Differences in some of the dialects are so great that they are considered different languages. ▪ The Turkish alphabet is much like the English alphabet, although it does not have a “w” or an “x” and additional sounds are symbolized by an diacritical mark over vowels. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communication ▪ The Turkish language does not distinguish gender pronouns (ie, “he” from “she” or “her” from “his.”) Therefore, Turks when learning English may inadvertently confuse these pronouns. ▪ Turkish distinguishes a formal from an informal “you,” signifying the importance of status in Turkish society. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communication ▪ Speaking in loud voices is common; this does not always signify anger but rather excitement or deep involvement in a discussion. ▪ More than one person may speak at the same time or interrupt another person; this is not necessarily considered rude. ▪ However, someone of lower status should not interrupt someone of higher status. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communication ▪ Group affiliation is valued over individualism in Turkish society. In fact, identity may be determined by family membership or group, school, and work associations. ▪ Turks generally do not desire much privacy and tend to rely on cooperation between family and friends, although competition between groups can be fierce. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communication ▪ Turks value harmony over confrontation. ▪ The outward show of feelings is less restrained. ▪ For women, expressions of anger are usually acceptable only within same-sex friendships and kinship networks or toward those of lower social status. ▪ Generally, women are not free to vent their anger toward their husbands or other powerful men. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communication ▪ Touching, holding hands, and patting one another on the back are acceptable behaviors between same-sex friends and opposite-sex partners. ▪ Same-sex friends, especially among the older generations, are commonly seen holding hands or linking arms while walking. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communication ▪ Very strict Muslims may not shake hands or touch members of the opposite sex, especially if they are not related. ▪ When interacting with someone of higher status, one is expected to maintain occasional eye contact to show attention; however, prolonged eye contact may be considered rude, or may be interpreted as flirting. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communication ▪ Turkish people tend to dress formally; men wear suits rather than sports jackets and slacks on social occasions. ▪ Women tend to dress modestly, wearing skirts and dresses rather than slacks. More traditional Muslim women may wear very modest clothing and cover their heads with a scarf, either black or a colorful print. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communication ▪ However, styles continue to change, and denim jeans and casual dress are becoming common among young people for less formal occasions. ▪ Turks openly display emotions such as happiness, disgust, approval, disapproval, and sadness through facial expressions and gestures. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communication ▪ No” is indicated by raising the eyebrows or lifting the chin slightly, while making a snapping or “tsk” sound with the mouth. ▪ Appreciation may be expressed by holding the tips of the fingers and thumb together and kissing them and is commonly used to express appreciation for food. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communication ▪ Turkish people take pride in keeping their homes immaculately clean, and one is expected to remove one’s shoes inside the home. ▪ Most Turkish hosts in Türkiye and many in the United States offer slippers to their guests. ▪ Whether wearing shoes or not, showing the sole of one’s foot is considered to be offensive in Turkish culture. ▪ Women are expected to sit modestly with knees together and not crossed. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communication ▪ Turks tend to have a relaxed attitude about time; social visits can begin late and continue well into the night. ▪ While punctuality in social engagements is not highly important, in business relationships, punctuality among Turkish Americans is gaining in importance. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communication ▪ Turks value status and hierarchy. Demonstrating respect for those of higher status is mandatory and determines the quality of interactions with a person. ▪ Strangers are always greeted with their title, such as Bey (Mr.), Hanim (Mrs., Miss, or Ms.), Doktor, or Profesör. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communication ▪ When friends or family members greet, it is customary for each to shake hands and to kiss one another on each cheek. ▪ Traditionally, when greeting someone of very high status or an elderly person, one might grasp his or her hand and kiss it, and then bring it to touch one’s forehead in a gesture of respect. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ In a very traditional Turkish home, the father is considered the absolute ruler. ▪ The concept of izin (permission or leave to do something specific) captures this significance. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ Less traditional families show more equality between spouses, especially in nuclear families in which the wife is well educated. ▪ Yet, remnants of traditional family structure prevail; the husband often acts as the ultimate decision maker, especially in financial matters. ▪ Women may work full time outside the home in addition to assuming full responsibility for running the daily activities inside the home. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ Legal marriage in Türkiye does not permit polygamy, although some may practice it outside. ▪ A woman’s age, and the number, age, and gender of her children influence her status in the family and the community. A young “gelin” (woman age 15 to 30) has the lowest status. The “middle-aged” woman (30 to 45) has medium status while the “mature” woman (45 to 65) has the highest status. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ In “old age” (65 or older), a woman is highly respected but is not powerful. ▪ However, this status varies according to education, religious practice, socioeconomic level, urbanization, and professional achievement. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ Children are held very dear in the Turkish family and they are expected to act as young children, not small adults. ▪ They are accustomed to receiving attention from family, friends, and visitors. ▪ Kissing children and pinching their cheeks is quite common. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ Once children enter school, they are expected to study hard, show respect, and obey their elders, including older siblings. ▪ Girls are expected to help care for younger siblings, to help at mealtimes, and to learn to cook. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ Traditionally, children are not allowed to act out or talk back to their superiors. ▪ Light corporal punishment is generally acceptable. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ Male circumcision is a major rite of passage. ▪ This is a time of celebration within the extended family, and newly circumcised boys are honored with gifts. ▪ Traditionally, boys can be circumcised up to the age of about 12, although the modern trend is to perform the circumcision in the hospital shortly after birth. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ Urban adolescents are beginning to date in pairs in addition to the more traditionally accepted practice of group outings. ▪ However, sexual interaction is strongly discouraged among youth and the unmarried, especially for young women. ▪ Virginity in unmarried women is a strong cultural value. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ A key objective among Turks is socioeconomic advancement, including education, better professional opportunities, and material success. ▪ Although financial independence is valued in Turkish culture, independence from the family is not encouraged. ▪ Adult children, especially men, remain an integral part of their parents’ lives, and parents expect their children to care for them in their old age. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ Because respect is highly valued in Turkish society, maintaining or improving status in the community is of key importance. ▪ Individuals must always consider what impact their actions will have on the family and often they consult parents or other family members before making major decisions. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ Young people living in Türkiye generally live in their parents’ home until they are married, unless school or work necessitates other arrangements. ▪ Family-initiated marriages range from rare contractual agreements between parents to the relatively common introduction and gentle encouragement of a newly formed couple. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ Elders in Turkish culture are attributed authority and respect until they become weak or retired, at which time their authoritative roles diminish. ▪ Individuals are socialized to take care of elderly parents, regarding it as normal and not as an added burden. ▪ Grandparents play a significant role in raising their grandchildren, especially if they live in the same home. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ The extended family is very important in Turkish culture. ▪ Even the apparent increase in nuclear households does not rule out the networks among closely related families. ▪ Whether or not they live under the same roof, a young family may still live under the supervision of the husband’s parents or at least maintain an interdependent relationship. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ Divorce is becoming more common in Turkish society, but remains socially undesirable. ▪ Widows, however, are generally taken care of by their late husband’s family and, depending on their age and socioeconomic background, may have the option to remarry. ▪ Premarital cohabitation and unwed motherhood is strongly discouraged. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles & Organization ▪ Homosexuality is only beginning to be received “at a distance.” In fact, one of the most popular entertainers in Türkiye is a homosexual and a transvestite and is accepted as such. ▪ However, most Turks would be hesitant to associate themselves with the gay community. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Workforce Issues ▪ Because Türkiye is a group-oriented culture, the Turkish workplace may be more team oriented. ▪ Turkish relationship orientation may lead to dependence on personal contacts and networks to accomplish tasks. ▪ Developing these relationships and networks may appear as nepotism or as too much socializing from the American perspective. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Workforce Issues ▪ Hierarchical structure is highly pervasive throughout Turkish culture, and the workplace is no exception. ▪ Turkish employees expect an authoritative relationship between superior and subordinates. ▪ However, indirect criticism is expected and appreciated to “save face.” Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Workforce Issues ▪ A Turk may be highly offended if openly criticized, especially if done in front of other people. ▪ They may be reticent about asking questions for fear of exposing a lack of knowledge. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Workforce Issues ▪ Turks perceive that aggressive face-to-face confrontation may cause relationships to deteriorate. ▪ The dominant means of conflict resolution is collaboration reinforced by compromise and forcing. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Workforce Issues Many women do not work because it interferes with child care, the order of the home, and it requires them to be together with men from outside the immediate family. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Biocultural Ecology ▪ Turkish population is a mosaic in terms of appearance, complexion, and coloration. ▪ Appearances range from light-skinned with blue or green eyes to olive or darker skin tones with brown eyes. ▪ Mongolian spots, usually found at or near the sacrum, are common among Turkish babies and should not be confused with bruising. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Biocultural Ecology ▪ Malaria has not been fully eradicated in Türkiye, especially in the southeast. ▪ Endemic goiter associated with iodine deficiency is a major health problem in Türkiye. ▪ Behçet’s disease, a syndrome of unknown etiology, is prevalent in Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, and Japan and primarily affects males between the ages of 20 and 40. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Biocultural Ecology ▪ Common health conditions among Turks are lactose intolerance, thalassemia, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, tuberculosis, and conditions related to high smoking rates among men and women. ▪ The most prevalent food- and water-borne diseases are infectious hepatitis and sporadic cases of salmonellosis and dysentery. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition High-risk Health Behaviors ▪ Cigarette smoking is widespread in Türkiye and tends to start at an early age. Türkiye, a major producer of tobacco in the world, has instituted very limited anti-tobacco activities. ▪ Turks tend to consume less alcohol than Americans or Europeans, perhaps as a result of the Muslim culture that discourages more than moderate alcohol use. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition High-risk Health Behaviors ▪ The tendency of Turkish men to view themselves as strong/immune to disease and the traditional cultural view condoning male promiscuity increases the danger for both the man and his wife. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Nutrition Turkish cuisine is influenced by the many civilizations encountered by nomadic Turks over the centuries, as well as by a mixture of delicacies from different regions of the vast Ottoman Empire. Therefore, food choices are varied and tend to provide a healthy, balanced diet. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition ClickerCheck A common genetic/hereditary condition among Turks is a. Hemophilia. b. Thalassemia. c. Anemia. d. Sickle cell anemia. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Correct Answer Correct answer: B A common genetic/hereditary condition among Turks is thalassemia. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Nutrition ▪ Tea and a snack is always on hand for visitors, and dinner guests may have difficulty finishing everything on their plates ▪ Turkish hostesses may relentlessly offer to replace what has been eaten. ▪ Polite guests refuse the first offer, but the hungry need not worry; offers are made again and again. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Nutrition ▪ Turkish ...
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Final Answer

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Outline
Turkish Culture
o The Turkish people highly regard the medical profession, and their outlook has a
significant influence.
o It is unusual for Turkish residents to cement trusted and established relationships with their
general practitioners.
o Traditional healers in Turkey have been substituted by shamans of the old tradition who
were found in Middle Asia.
o Lokman healer, an Islamic medic, is considered the predecessor of modern folk healers.
o Lokman healer is regarded as the most accepted customary healer in Turkey.
o The Turkish believe that they can protect themselves from such circumstances by having
beliefs and faith through prayer and using the appropriate religious duties.
o The Turkish apply mystical rituals in curing most of their illnesses.
o Biological ailments in Turkey are cured using herbal drugs that are usually made by
herbalists known as Akhtar.
o The traditional healers in Turkey utilise diverse methods of curing physical defects and
other ailments.
Vietnamese Americans
✓ Vietnamese Americans are affected by high rates of mortality and morbidity.
✓ The Vietnamese American society improves the understanding of how the community
tackles disparity concerns in healthcare and why the group is not entirely cultured.

✓ The older generation of Vietnamese Americans struggle with issues of acculturation, and
encounter language and cultural hindrances in the healthcare system weighed against the
younger individuals.
✓ A vast portion of the Vietnamese is vulnerable to chronic sicknesses including stroke, heart
ailments, diabetes and hypertension.
✓ Vietnamese who are not acculturated perceive life in a manner that is collective and
therefore make decisions based on how it affects their relationships and family.
✓ Vietnamese Americans do not consider individuality whenever they are deciding about
their healthcare issues.
✓ Vietnamese Americans do not adopt the individualistic theory, and therefore people think
in their forms and the individual effects of their thoughts and entirely focus on their
wellness.
✓ Young Vietnamese Americans have forgotten their cultural values by associating with
American youths thus generating conflicts within t...

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