Importance Of Nepotism Law And Legal Restrictions Research Paper

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Christian Ethics in the Contemporary World Research Paper You are expected to write a research paper in an argumentative style, that is, a paper in which you make the case for a stance that demonstrates knowledge of your chosen topic and of what others have said and argued about this topic. For this paper, you have some flexibility on your topic. Pick a topic that interests you from one of these broad directions: • • • A further exploration of a topic related to our class themes: ethics in a consumer society, and ethics on the internet and social media. Since we will be covering many of these topics in class, your paper must substantially go beyond what is covered in class. An analysis of some controversial moral issue of interest to you (for example, capital punishment, abortion, lying, etc.), drawing on a Christian view of the topic (whether specifically Catholic or not), and including your own assessment of the moral issue. A deeper exploration of a theme from Christian theology or ethics related to our first unit (e.g., character, free will, social sin, etc.). Since we covered many of these topics in class, your paper must substantially go beyond what is covered in class. Your paper should demonstrate a thorough understanding of your chosen topic and its relevance, present a logical and well-developed argument, and be wellresearched and well-written. These are the criteria on which your paper will be graded. Your paper should contain your own claim and the reasons and evidence supporting it, as well as at least one counter-argument and your response to it. The exact organization of your paper will depend on the topic; consult with the instructor for advice. You should show that you understand your issue, relevant perspectives on that issue, and the implications of the conclusions you draw on your topic. You should also demonstrate the elements of good writing, such as an introduction, a thesis statement, topic sentences, a logical order of paragraphs, and good spelling and grammar. To help you successfully complete your paper, there are two preparatory assignments before the final draft is due: Thurs., Mar. 7 Mon., Mar. 25 Mon., Apr. 15 First Paper Prospectus (Topic, Sources) Second Paper Prospectus (Claim, Main Points, CounterArgument) Final Draft of Paper Your paper should be 8-10 pages in length, double-spaced with 12 point font, regular margins. It should include both footnotes (not parenthetical notes) and a works cited page. The appropriate format for citations (Turabian Style) is provided on the Canvas web site. Name: TRS 351-B Christian Ethics in the Contemporary World Research Paper Total: Category Content (60 points) /100 Grade A (90100%) • • Description Shows thorough and insightful understanding of topic and its relevance Shows thorough and insightful understanding of different perspectives on topic Score ______ B (8089%) • • C (7079%) • • Shows some understanding of topic and its relevance Shows some understanding of different perspectives on topic D (6069%) • • Shows limited understanding of topic and its relevance Shows limited understanding of different perspectives on topic F (059%) • Shows little or no understanding of topic and its relevance Shows little or no understanding of different perspectives on topic • Writing (10 points) Shows thorough understanding of topic and its relevance Shows thorough understanding of different perspectives on topic A (90100%) • • • • • • • • B (8089%) C (7079%) • • • • • • • • Ideas are articulated clearly Language is appropriate, not too slangy or informal Has introduction explaining relevance of topic Has thesis statement expressing claim Each paragraph has a clear topic sentence and paragraphs center on that topic There is a logical order to paragraphs Paper is largely free from spelling and grammar mistakes Footnotes and works cited list are mostly in the proper format Mostly clear, but a few confusing phrases Language is sometimes too slangy or informal Has vague introduction loosely connected to topic Thesis statement does not fully express claim Some topic sentences of paragraphs are vague, and/or paragraphs drift from topic Some paragraphs seem out of order Paper has some spelling and grammar mistakes Many footnotes and citations in improper format ______ D (6069%) F (059%) • • • • • • • • Critical Thinking (30 points) A (90100%) • • • • • • • B (8089%) • • • • • • • C (7079%) • • • • • • • Many confusing phrases Often uses slangy or too informal language Missing introduction Missing thesis statement Many paragraphs missing topic sentences and/or do not have clear topic Very little order among paragraphs Paper is riddled with spelling and grammar mistakes Most citations incorrect, or non-existent Makes specific and insightful claim Thoroughly and insightfully explains reasons backing claim Insightfully uses high quality evidence to support positions Thoroughly and insightfully presents alternative point of view and distinct reasons for it Thoroughly and insightfully evaluates alternative point of view Clearly and insightfully articulates reasonable conclusions and implications Insightfully explains relevant theoretical assumptions or historical context Makes specific and relevant claim Thoroughly explains reasons backing claim Appropriately uses quality evidence to support positions Thoroughly presents alternative point of view and reasons for it Thoroughly evaluates alternative point of view Clearly articulates reasonable conclusions and implications Clearly explains relevant theoretical assumptions or historical context Makes somewhat specific and/or somewhat relevant claim Some reasons explained, some simply stated or indistinct Uses mixed quality evidence to support positions in a somewhat appropriate way Adequately presents alternative point of view and some reasons for it Evaluates alternative point of view, but overlooks clear challenges to own point of view Clearly articulates imprecise conclusions and implications Shows awareness of obvious theoretical assumptions or historical context ______ D (6069%) • • • • • • • F (059%) • • • • • • • Makes sweeping or irrelevant claim Most reasons simply stated or indistinct Uses poor quality evidence with little connection to positions taken Presents obvious alternative point of view and simply states reasons for it Brushes aside alternative point of view and/or fails to recognize challenges it poses to own point of view Presents vague conclusions and implications with oversights Misunderstands or misrepresents theoretical assumptions or historical context Does not present identifiable claim Very few reasons given that support claim Little or no evidence given Ignores alternative point of view or superficially presents it Fails to respond to alternative point of view or does so superficially Presents limited or no conclusions and implications Shows little understanding of theoretical assumptions or historical context nepotism. Section 1: A common controversial topic in the workplace is the issue of nepotism. According to Shaw and Barry, the word nepotism is from the Latin word, "nephew," and it is the practice by powerful people of giving advantages to relatives or friends in the workplace (Shaw, and Barry 393). This practice is common when people who have power and essential positions in a firm or business use their abilities to hire their relatives or close friends. Hiring people based on favoritism might lead to having employees that are not qualified enough for their work positions or less qualified compared to other employees that have applied to the same place. The topic of nepotism goes beyond hiring since employees with authority might give employees that are their relatives or friends promotions and other types of job benefits. There are different arguments when it comes to the ethical issues regarding nepotism. Some people argue that nepotism is not ethically wrong and does not lead to lower business performance. On the other hand, other people think that the practice of nepotism is unethical and against the definition of justice. Justice can be defined as fairness, equality, getting what one deserves, and as an ethical right (Shaw, and Barry 108). Arguments against nepotism also suggest that it decreases the overall performance of the business. People that think that nepotism is not ethically bad, have an argument that the employee who was hired based on favoritism might be qualified for the job and does not hurt the performance of the company. Also, some discussions suggest that hiring relatives and close friends create a friendly work environment with a higher level of morale amongst employees and improves the overall performance of the work (Benjamin). Another reason for supporting this argument is that nepotism leads to a higher level of commitment, loyalty, and a lower turnover for employees (Benjamin). Moreover, a reason for supporting the argument that is in favor of nepotism is that it increases the performance of the business. The idea is that people who have family members in the same firm have more knowledge, background, and experience about the environment of the company and the nature of work compared to others (Benjamin). On the other hand, other people argue that nepotism is an unethical act because hiring employees should be based on job qualifications and not favoritism. Also, the practice of nepotism includes some degree of unfairness since more qualified people may apply for the job but do not get it since employees were not selected based on job qualifications. Another common argument against nepotism is that it hurts the performance of the business and affects the decision-making abilities of the employees ("Nepotism Law and Legal Definition”). In response to the arguments against favoritism, some large companies have prevented hiring relatives in the same firm to avoid nepotism ("Nepotism Law and Legal Definition”). An example of a law against practicing bias in workplace is the 1967 federal nepotism law which states "A public official may not appoint, employ, promote, advance, or advocate for appointment, employment, promotion, or advancement, in or to a civilian position in the agency in which he is serving or over which he exercises jurisdiction or control any individual who is a relative of the public official" (Martin). Nowadays, some states in the US have anti-nepotism laws for some types of firms, like governmental agencies. Also, different states have different rules and penalties (“Nepotism Restrictions”). Besides that, there is a federal law that prohibits federal officials, including the members of Congress, from using their authorities to help or recommend promoting any of their relatives to any agency that is under the control of these officials (“Committee on Standards of Official Conduct”). One ethical problem that might face an employee in a company that practices nepotism is being in a work environment that is unfair. Unfairness as a result of favoritism occurs in different ways, like when qualified employees lose promotions or job opportunities because of less qualified people who are getting jobs and promotions because of their relationships and not based on job qualifications. As a result of unfairness, employees might feel unappreciated and have a lower motivation to work hard and be productive, which will decrease their performance and accomplishments. Another problem that might face employees who work in nepotistic firms is having managers that are less qualified than them because these managers were hired and got promoted based on favoritism and not job qualifications and work achievements. Section 2: The argument about the ethical view of the practice of nepotism can be justified based on different normative theories that have different judging criteria to decide what is right and wrong. An ethical approach that can be used to argue about the moral view of nepotism is Kantian ethics. Based on this type of normative ethics, ethical judgments should be made based on ethical rules in order to be justified (Eby). One moral standard based on this type of ethics is that the action is not wrong if the person who is doing it would be willing to be treated in the same way if places of the parties were reversed (Eby). In the argument regarding the ethical view of nepotism, if the people who got jobs because of favoritism were in the position of the other people who are losing job opportunities or working in a firm where other employees get benefits because of nepotism, they will not like the situation. As a result, nepotism classifies as an ethically wrong act based on the logic of Kantian ethics. Another example where agents who get benefits because of favoritism would not like the situation if the parties were reversed is if they were employees who have managers that are less qualified because these managers were hired and got promoted because of favoritism and not based on job qualifications. Another ethical theory that can be used to justify the argument of the moral view of nepotism is contractarian ethics. One example of an ethical approach from contractarian ethics is the theory of justice. This theory was developed by John Rawls, and it assumes that people are meeting in the original position with a veil of ignorance which makes them not able to know their personal information and select the basic principles to govern their society (Eby). Rawls believes that under these conditions, people would choose to follow the maximum rule, which is to maximize the minimum or the worst that could happen (Shaw, and Barry, 123). As a result, based on Rawls theory of justice, if people in the original position meet to decide if nepotism is good or bad, with a veil of ignorance that makes them not able to know if they will be able to get job opportunities because of favoritism or have problems because of unfairness. The decision that people would make is to maximize the minimum chance of being mistreated and would not accept the act of nepotism. Another ethical view is the theory of utilitarianism which holds that the ethically good practice is what gives the highest amount of utility to the greatest number of people in the society (Eby). In other words, the criteria of deciding if a practice is good or bad should depend on the amount of utility that it will provide to the larger number of people, even if this practice involves negative consequences to a smaller number of people. In the case of nepotism, some people are going to get jobs and promotions based on favoritism, which means that nepotism gives happiness to some people in society. Based on that, utilitarianism approach might be used to justify the practice of nepotism since it pleasures some people. However, the employees who got jobs and promotions using criteria other than job qualifications could be managers of some employees that are more qualified and deserve more than their managers. This fact gives unhappiness to the highest number of people in the workplace who would feel undervalued because of unfairness. In this case, the act of nepotism hurts another group of people. Even though utilitarianism can be used to justify nepotism, the situation is different if this act caused harm to another group of people. Since the number of people who will get benefits because of the act of nepotism is less than the number of people who would not appreciate this act, since it will cause the work environment to be unjust, the act of nepotism should be ethically unacceptable based on the theory of utilitarianism under the condition of unfairness. Section 3: The argument about whether the practice of nepotism is ethically wrong or not is controversial. However, from my perspective, the ethical judgment regarding this practice should be different depending on the work structure. Some small private firms are family based, and their owners prefer to hire employees that are family members even if they can hire other people that are more qualified to work in the firm. In this case, nepotism is not ethically wrong because hiring family members does not affect other people in the workplace since the owners of the firm prefer to run their business this way. On the other hand, the situation is different in public firms and government agencies, where job opportunities are open to the public, and the hiring criteria should be based on job qualifications. In this case, it is ethically wrong that people with authority use their power to hire their relatives and friends instead of giving a chance to other job applicants that might be more qualified for the job. In this case, practicing nepotism includes injustice, creates a bad work atmosphere, and creates a conflict of interest. For these reasons, hiring employees based on favoritism should be banned according to the law in any firm where job opportunities are open to the public. Also, relatives and family members should not be allowed to work in the same firm if one of them has authority and control over their relative’s job situation, in order to avoid nepotism in the workplace. The first reason why nepotism should be banned is that it is against the definition of justice as John Rawls two principles of a justice state. According to Rawls, all people should have an equal right to the most extensive total of the system. In addition, any inequalities in the society should be under the condition of being open to everyone with fair and equal opportunities, with the most benefit to the least advantaged individuals in the community (Shaw and Barry). Hiring people based on favoritism does not satisfy the condition of giving everybody an equal right to compete for the job, and therefore it is an unjust act that should be banned. Moreover, the act of nepotism is not ethically right based on the logic of different normative theories. Based on Kantian and contractarian ethical views, the act of nepotism is not morally acceptable for various reasons that were explained in the previous section. Therefore, it should be unjustified by the law. Another reason that makes nepotism ethically wrong is that it might create an unfair work atmosphere. Some argued that people who got hired based on favoritism might be qualified for their jobs, but the problem of nepotism goes beyond hiring. Being in the same firm with relatives and friends could lead to unfair treatment between employees. However, the situation could get worse if some employees have authorities to give benefits and promotions to employees that are their relatives or friends. Giving promotions to some employees based on favoritism is unfair since other employees might have stronger merit to these promotions. Also, favoritism between employees might create jealousy between workers in the workplace and decrease the motivation of the employees of the firm because they are not feeling appreciated for their hard work. In addition to that, employees who use their authorities to give advantages to their relatives may lose their credibility among other employees since they are trying to use their power to improve their well-being. To avoid favoritism between employees, employees should not have control of any form regarding the situation of their relatives’ jobs. Moreover, being a nepotistic firm could hurt the business morale. Fewer people would like to work for a company where employees are not treated equally. A workplace that ignores employees who have substantial merit, while less qualified workers are getting promotions and benefits, could lose its credibility. Unfairness in the firm leads to a lower business commitment since the employees right of working in a fair place is violated. Practicing favoritism between employees as a result of personal relationships could lead to having other types of ethical problems. A moral issue that could arise because of employees who have relatives with authority in their firms, is being able to practice unethical behaviors in the company without getting penalties because their relationships with the people with power. These people are protecting them from being monitored which would lead to corruption in the workplace. Additionally, there is a conflict of interest that exists between employees who practice nepotism and their employers. Firms are interested in hiring people that are capable of holding their positions as much as possible, and this is the reason why job applicants should take tests, and the most qualified applicant should get the job. In the case of nepotism, people who choose to hire workers based on favoritism do not try to hire the most qualified applicant but try to serve their interests. Employees in firms should not try to look for their well-being if it is against the firm’s interest like the case of nepotism, and thus practicing nepotism is unethical and should be prohibited by the law. However, some anti-nepotism laws already exist in some states in the US, but they restrict this act only in some important governmental firms and agencies. Having laws that prohibit practicing nepotism in some governmental agencies is essential to keep them away from favoritism in the workplace. However, it is not enough to restrict this practice to only some governmental agencies since it exists in a lot of other government-related and non-government public corporations where a large number of shareholders own shares. Nepotism is still unfair and creates problems in the workplace in all public firms where hiring criteria should be based on job specifications and not favoritism. Therefore, it should be prohibited by law in all public corporations to avoid bias in the workplace. Finally, having anti-nepotism laws for all public workplaces will protect the work environment from being unfair. Having strict laws will give employees who feel unappreciated because of nepotism the right to act against it and speak about it. In addition, the restriction of nepotism will lower the level of corruption that might happen as a result of favoritism. In other words, anti-nepotism laws will protect employees' rights to work in a fair environment. For these reasons, the government needs to act against all the individuals who practice nepotism in any form in all public firms and government agencies. Works Cited Benjamin, Tia. "What Is the Importance of Nepotism Policies in The Workforce?". Smallbusiness.Chron.Com, 2018, https://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-nepotism-policies-workforce-34832.html. Accessed 6 Dec 2018. Eby, Lloyd. "Some Important Normative Theories of Ethics (Mostly From Various Philosophers) – A Very Brief Summary". 2018, Accessed 6 Dec 2018. Martin, Micheal. "What Is Nepotism, and Is It Illegal?". Metro.Us, 2018, https://www.metro.us/president trump/what-is-nepotism-is-it-illegal. Accessed 6 Dec 2018. "Nepotism Law and Legal Definition". Definitions.Uslegal.Com, 2018, https://definitions.uslegal.com/n/nepotism/. Accessed 6 Dec 2018. "Nepotism Restrictions". National Conference of State Legislatures, 2018, http://www.ncsl.org/research/ethics/50-state-table-nepotism-restrictions.aspx. Accessed 6 Dec 2018. “Committee on Standards of Official Conduct”. U.S. House Of Representatives, 2008. Shaw, William H, and Vincent E Barry. Moral Issues in Business. CENGAGE Learning. > Normal AaBbCcDdE AaBb AaBbceder AaBbCeDdEx No Spacing Heading 1 Heading 2 Title Subtitle Subtle Emph... S. 3. What are some sources (books, articles, reputable web sites, etc.) you will use for your paper? Please list specific sources you have found in the library catalog, article databases, etc. The first one looks good, I think the second might be dealing with government nepotism rather than business. Benjamin, Tia. "What Is the Import:ince of Nepotism Policies in The Workforce?". Smallbusiness. Chron.Com, 2018, https://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-nepotism-policies-workforce-34832.html . Accessed 7 March 2019. Did you search in the library catalog for books? I think if you don't find anything specifically on nepotism, you might check textbooks on business ethics which might have sections covering the topic. I did find one book you can order called Corporate Affairs: Nepotism, Office Romance, & Sexual Harassment that looks like it might be good. See what else you can find. Martin, Micheal. "What Is Nepotism, and Is It Illegal?". Metre Us, 2018, https://www.metro.us/president-trump/what-is-nepotism-is-it-illegal Accessed 7 March 2019. "Nepotism Law and Legal Definition". Definitions. Uslegal.Com, 2018, https://definitions.uslegal.com/n/nepotism/ . Accessed 7 March 2019. "Nepotism Restrictions". National Conference of State Legislatures, 2018, http://www.ncsl.org/research/ethics/50-state-table-nepotism-restrictions.aspx. Accessed 7 March 2019. "Committee on Standards of Official Conduct". U.S. House of Representatives, 2008. Shaw, William H, and Vincent E Barry. Moral Issues in Business. CENGAGE Learning. O Focus English (United States) de AaBbCcDc AaBbCcDdEk AaBbc Aabbccddet Normal Sh No Spacing Heading 1 Heading 2 AaBbCcDdEe Title Subtitle Subtle Emph... c. Another problem that might face employees who work in nepotistic firms is having managers that are less qualified than them because these managets were hired and got promoted based on favoritism and not job qualifications and work achievements. 3. What is one counter-argument, or alternative point of view, that you think it would be important to include in your paper? Why might someone raise this objection to your claim? (Note: For many topics, it might make sense to explain the counter-argument before going into detail on your own position; for example, if your primary purpose is to argue against a certain point of view, it would make sense to explain that point of view in some detail, and then devote the rest of the paper to your arguments against it.) The counter-argument that is important to include in the paper is that some people may like to argue for nepotism stating, that nepotism is not ethically bad, and that the employee who was hired based on favoritism might be qualified for the job. They believe such an act does not hurt the performance of the company. They also tend to hold the belief that hiring relatives and close friends can create a friendly work environment with a higher level of morale amongst employees which ultimately improves the overall performance of their work and their company. Similarly, people advocating for nepotism believe that nepotism leads to a higher level of commitment, loyalty, and a lower turnover for employees I think this is good. We have the ideal of the family business, so is there a distinction between a family business and nepotism? 4. How would you go about showing that your claim is more reasonable than the counter-argument proposed in #3? To show that the claim presented in the paper is more reasonable than that upheld by the counter-argument, I will present enough irrefutable evidence that nepotism is unethical and detrimental to the overall environment at the workplace as it can result in low performance due to the employment on account of friendship, or relationship ties that are defined by blood affiliation. To do this I will project how hiring of employees should be based on job qualifications and not favoritism, how the practice of nepotism includes some degree of unfairness since employees were not selected based on job qualifications, as well as how nepotism may hurt the performance of the business and affects the decision-making abilities of the employees. I think this is good, but I wonder if it is possible to make a distinction between a family business where family members play an important role and a case where there is nepotism? I don't know the answer, I just wonder what you think. Focus heading Heading 2 Title > Subtitle Subtle Emph TRS 351-B Christian Ethics in the Contemporary World Second Paper Prospectus I Due: Mon., Mar. 25, Before Class Styles Pane A "prospectus" is a plan or outline for a major project. Its purpose is to help you organize your work on that project and to let others know what you are planning to accomplish with that project. This Second Paper Prospectus will help you identify your claim, main points, and counter-argument, and then get feedback from me so that it will be much easier for you to write your paper later on. This prospectus will be worth fifteen points toward your final paper grade. To complete the prospectus, type your responses beneath the following questions, then submit your prospectus in the appropriate place on the class web site. 1. In a complete sentence, what is the thesis, or the claim, for your paper? (Remember, your claim should be a specific, supportable statement of your personal point of view on the topic that is relatively comprehensive of what will be covered in the paper.) The claim held by the paper is that favoritism in the workplace is a contributing factor to the fact that organizations may often than not have a set of unskilled employees that were employed on account of favoritism from the hiring management; this favoritism extends to people affiliated on a friend or blood relation basis. This is a good start, but notice that in your thesis you are only describing the problem, you are not saying what needs to be done about it and by whom. What should be done about the problem of favoritism? 2. What are three reasons or main points you would give to support your claim in #1? (You might have more than three main points in your paper, this is just to make sure you are on the right track.) I think these are good and these arguments should be one part of the paper However, you also need a section making the argument for what needs to be done about the problem and why it would work. EN Focus a. Unfairness as a result of favoritism occurs in different ways, like when qualified employees lose promotions or job opportunities because of less qualified people who are getting jobs and promotions because of their relationshins and not based on inb aualifications English (United States) 2 723 words MacBook Pro = E od
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Nepotism
Section 1:
A common controversial topic in the workplace is the issue of nepotism. According to
Shaw and Barry, the word nepotism is from the Latin word, "nephew," and it is the practice by
powerful people of giving advantages to relatives or friends in the workplace (Shaw, and Barry
393). This practice is common when people who have power and essential positions in a firm or
business use their abilities to hire their relatives or close friends. Hiring people based on
favoritism might lead to having employees that are not qualified enough for their work positions
or less qualified compared to other employees that have applied to the same place. The topic of
nepotism goes beyond hiring since employees with authority might give employees that are their
relatives or friends promotions and other types of job benefits. In order to curb nepotism, the
company should introduce a code of conduct that ensures that all employees are treated
homogeneously and in accordance to their skill and expertise. The code of conduct should be
strictly adhered to in order to breed a culture of inclusivity and to ensure that those violating it
are punished indiscriminately.
There are different arguments when it comes to the ethical issues regarding nepotism.
Some people argue that nepotism is not ethically wrong and does not lead to decreased business
performance. There is a common misconception that the practice of nepotism is unethical and

Surname 2

against the definition of justice. Justice can be defined as fairness, equality, getting what one
deserves, and as an ethical right (Shaw, and Barry 108). Arguments against nepotism also
suggest that it decreases the overall performance of the business.
People that think that nepotism is not ethically bad, have an argument that the employee
who was hired based on favoritism might be qualified for the job and does not hurt the
performance of the company. Also, some discussions suggest that hiring relatives and close
friends create a friendly work environment with a higher level of morale amongst employees and
improves the productivity of the workplace since the employees trust each other (Benjamin).
Another reason for supporting this argument is that nepotism leads to a higher level of
commitment, loyalty, and a lower turnover for employees (Benjamin). Moreover, a reason for
supporting the argument that is in favor of nepotism is that it increases the performance of the
business. The idea is that people who have family members in the same firm have more
knowledge, background, and experience about the environment of the company and the nature of
work compared to others (Thomas, pg 33).
On the other contrary, other people argue that nepotism is an unethical act because hiring
employees should be based on job qualifications and not favoritism. Also, the practice of
nepotism includes some degree of unfairness since more qualified people may apply for the job
but do not get it since employees were not selected based on job qualifications. Another common
argument against nepotism is that it hurts the performance of the business and affects the
decision-making abilities of the employees ("Nepotism Law and Legal Definition”).
In response to the arguments against favoritism, some large companies have prevented
hiring relatives in the same firm to avoid nepotism ("Nepotism Law and Legal Definition”). An
example of a law against practicing bias in workplace is the 1967 federal nepotism law which

Surname 3

states "A public official may not appoint, employ, promote, advance, or advocate for
appointment, employment, promotion, or advancement, in or to a civilian position in the agency
in which he is serving or over which he exercises jurisdiction or control any individual who is a
relative of the public official" (Martin). Nowadays, some states in the US have anti-nepotism
laws for some types of firms, like governmental agencies. Also, different states have different
rules and penalties (“Nepotism Restrictions”). Besides that, there is a federal law that prohibits
federal officials, including the members of Congress, from using their authorities to help or
recommend promoting any of their relatives to any agency that is under the control of these
officials (“Committee on Standards of Official Conduct”).
One ethical problem that might face an employee in a company that practices nepotism
is being in a work environment that is unfair. Unfairness as a result of favoritism occurs in
different ways, like when qualified employees lose promotions or job opportunities because of
less qualified people who are getting jobs and promotions because of their relationships and not
based on job qualifications. As a result of unfairness, employees might feel unappreciated and
have a lower motivation to work hard and be productive, which will decrease their performance
and accomplishments. Another problem that might face employees who work in nepotistic firms
is having managers that are less qualified than them because these managers were hired and got
promoted based on favoritism and not job qualifications and work achievements.
When employees are treated differentially, they lose motivation since they believe the
firm does not have their interests at heart. They become afraid to innovate since they feel their
opinion is not taken into consideration. They therefore shy away from exploring the creativity
leading to a waste of talent. A section of employees might opt to pass their frustrations to

Surname 4

customers leading to a poor customer shopping experience. It affects the business negatively as it
scares customers away.

Section 2:
The argument about the ethical view of the practice of nepotism can be justified based on
different normative theories that have different judging criteria to decide what is right and
wrong. An ethical approach that can be used to argue about the moral view of nepotism is
Kantian ethics. Based on this type of normative ethics, ethical judgments should be made based
on ethical rules in order to be justified (Eby). One moral standard based on this type of ethics is
that the action is not wrong if the person who is doing it would be willing to be treated in the
same way if places of the parties were reversed (Eby).
In the argument regarding the ethical view of nepotism, if the people who got jobs
because of favoritism were in the position of the other people who are losing job opportunities or
working in a firm where other employees get benefits because of nepotism, they will not like the
situation. As a result, nepotism classifies as an ethically wrong act based on the logic of Kantian
ethics. Another example where agents who get benefits because of favoritism would not like the
situation if the parties were reversed is if they were employees who have managers that are less
qualified because these managers were hired and got promoted because of favoritism and not
based on job qualifications. It means that the likelihood of unqualified personal being promoted
is high at the expense of highly trained and qualified individuals.
Another ethical theory that can be used to justify the argument of the moral view of
nepotism is contractarian ethics. One example of an ethical approach from contractarian ethics is
the theory of justice. This theory was developed by John Rawls, and it assumes that people are

Surname 5

meeting in the original position with a veil of ignorance which makes them not able to know
their personal information and select the basic principles to govern their society (Eby). Rawls
believes that under these conditions, people would choose to follow the maximum rule, which is
to maximize the minimum or the worst that could happen (Shaw, and Barry, 123).
Based on Rawls theory of justice, if people in the original position meet to decide if
nepotism is good or bad, they would understand that nepotism locks out the best talent from
getting jobs. The decision that people would make is to maximize the minimum chance of being
mistreated and would not accept the act of nepotism.
Another ethical view is the theory of utilitarianism which holds that the ethically good
practice is what gives the highest amount of utility to the greatest number of people in the society
(Eby). In other words, the criteria of deciding if a practice is good or bad should depend on the
amount of utility that it will provide to the larger number of people, even if this practice involves
negative consequences to a smaller number of people.
In the case of nepotism, some people are going to get jobs and promotions based on
favoritism, which means that nepotism gives happiness to some people in society. Based on that,
utilitarianism approach might be used to justify the practice of nepotism since it pleasures some
people. However, the employees who got jobs and promotions using criteria other than job
qualifications could be managers of some employees that are more qualified and deserve more
than their managers. This fact gives unhappiness to the highest number of people in the
workplace who would feel undervalued because of unfairness. In this case, the act of nepotism
hurts another group of people. Even though utilitarianism can be used to justify nepotism, the
situation is different if this act caused harm to another group of people. Since the number of
people who will get benefits because of the act of nepotism is less than the number of people

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who would not appreciate this act, since it will cause the work environment to be unjust, the act
of nepotism should be ethically unacceptable based on the theory of utilitarianism under the
condition of unfairness.

Section 3:
Whether nepotism is ethically wrong or not is a controversial topic. However, from my
perspective, the ethical judgment regarding this practice should be different depending on the
work structure. Some small private firms are family based, and their owners prefer to hire
employees that are family members even if they can hire other people that are more qualified to
work in the firm. In this case, nepotism is not ethically wrong because hiring family members
does not affect other people in the workplace since the owners of the firm prefer to run their
business this way (Fu, pg4). However, there is a distinct difference between family businesses
and nepotism. A family business would hire family members so as to guarantee continuity but
nepotism locks out potential employees from accessing job opportunities. Some family
businesses hire family members in order to cut costs and to initiate their family members into the
world of business. The justification is to ensure that they are well equipped to handle the
business.
On the other hand, the situation is different in public firms and government agencies,
where job opportunities are open to the public and the hiring criteria should be based on job
qualifications. In this case, it is ethically wrong that people with authority use their power to hire
their relatives and friends instead of giving a chance to other job applicants that might be more
qualified for the job. In this case, practicing nepotism includes injustice, creates a bad work
atmosphere, and creates a conflict of interest. For these reasons, hiring employees based on

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favoritism should be banned according to the law in any firm where job opportunities are open to
the public. Also, relatives and family members should not be allowed to work in the same firm if
one of them has authority and control over their relative’s job situation, in order to avoid
nepotism in the workplace. Nepotism in public firms and government institutions can therefore
be equated to abuse of power.
The first reason why nepotism should be banned is that it is against the definition of
justice as John Rawls two principles of a justice state. According to Rawls, all people should
have an equal right to the most extensive total of the system. In addition, any inequalities in the
society should be under the condition of being open to everyone with fair and equal
opportunities, with the most benefit to the least advantaged individuals in the community (Shaw
and Barry). Hiring people based on favoritism does not satisfy the condition of giving everybody
an equal right to compete for the job, and therefore it is an unjust act that should be banned.
Moreover, the act of nepotism is not ethically right based on the logic of different normative
theories. Based on Kantian and contractarian ethical views, the act of nepotism is not morally
acceptable for various reasons that were explained in the previous section. Therefore, it should
be unjustified by the law.
Another reason that makes nepotism ethically wrong is that it might create an unfair work
atmosphere. Some argued that people who got hired based on favoritism might be qualified for
their jobs, but the problem of nepotism goes beyond hiring. Being in the same firm with relatives
and friends could lead to unfair treatment between employees. However, the situation could get
worse if some employees have authorities to give benefits and promotions to employees that are
their relatives or friends. Giving promotions to some employees based on favoritism is unfair
since other employees might have stronger merit to these promotions.

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Also, favoritism between employees might create jealousy between workers in the
workplace and decrease the motivation of the employees of the firm because they are not feeling
appreciated for their hard work. In addition to that, employees who use their authorities to give
advantages to their relatives may lose their credibility among other employees since they are
trying to use their power to improve their well-being. To avoid favoritism between employees,
employees should not have control of any form regarding the situation of their relatives’ jobs.
Moreover, being a nepotistic firm could hurt the business morale. Fewer people would like to
work for a company where employees are not treated equally. A workplace that ignores
employees, who have substantial merit, while less qualified workers are getting promotions and
benefits, could lose its credibility. Unfairness in the firm leads to a lower business commitment
since the employees’ right of working in a fair place is violated.
Practicing favoritism between employees as a result of personal relationships could lead
to having other types of ethical problems. A moral issue that could arise because of employees,
who have relatives with authority in their firms, is being able to practice unethical behaviors in
the company without getting penalties because their relationships with the people with power.
These people are protecting them from being monitored which would lead to corruption in the
workplace.
Additionally, there is a conflict of interest that exists between employees who practice
nepotism and their employers. Firms are interested in hiring people that are capable of holding
their positions as much as possible, and this is the reason why job applicants should take tests,
and the most qualified applicant should get the job. In the case of nepotism, people who choose
to hire workers based on favoritism do not try to hire the most qualified applicant but try to serve
their interests. Employees in firms should not try to look for their well-being if it is against the

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firm’s interest like the case of nepotism, and thus practicing nepotism is unethical and should be
prohibited by the law.
However, some anti-nepotism laws already exist in some states in the US, but they
restrict this act only in some important governmental firms and agencies. Having laws that
prohibit practicing nepotism in some governmental agencies is essential to keep them away from
favoritism in the workplace. However, it is not enough to restrict this practice to only some
governmental agencies since it exists in a lot of other government-related and non-government
public corporations where a large number of shareholders own shares. Nepotism is still unfair
and creates problems in the workplace in all public firms where hiring criteria should be based
on job specifications and not favoritism. Therefore, it should be prohibited by law in all public
corporations to avoid bias in the workplace.
Finally, having anti-nepotism laws for all public workplaces will protect the work
environment from being unfair. Having strict laws will give employees who feel unappreciated
because of nepotism the right to act against it and speak about it. In addition, the restriction of
nepotism will lower the level of corruption that might happen as a result of favoritism. In other
words, anti-nepotism laws will protect employees' rights to work in a fair environment. For these
reasons, the government needs to act against all the individuals who practice nepotism in any
form in all public firms and government agencies.
In order to curb nepotism, a business should introduce a culture of inclusivity whereby
individuals from diverse backgrounds are considered. It is imperative to ensure that all
employees feel their efforts are treated equally. They would be motivated to work harder since
their efforts are equally appreciated. The result is increased productivity.

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Works Cited

"Nepotism Law and Legal Definition". Definitions.Uslegal.Com, 2018,
"Nepotism Restrictions". National Conference of State Legislatures, 2018,
“Committee on Standards of Official Conduct”. U.S. House Of Representatives, 2008.
Benjamin, Tia. "What Is the Importance of Nepotism Policies in The
Brief Summary". 2018, Accessed 6 Dec 2018.
Eby, Lloyd. "Some Important Normative Theories of Ethics (Mostly From Various Philosophers)
– A Very
Fu, I. "Favoritism: Ethical dilemmas viewed through multiple paradigms." The Journal of
Values-Based Leadership 8.1 (2015): 6. Retrieved from:
https://scholar.valpo.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1115&context=jvbl
http://www.ncsl.org/research/ethics/50-state-table-nepotism-restrictions.aspx. Accessed 6 Dec
2018.
https://definitions.uslegal.com/n/nepotism/. Accessed 6 Dec 2018.
Martin, Micheal. "What Is Nepotism, and Is It Illegal?". Metro.Us, 2018,
https://www.metro.us/president
Shaw, William H, and Vincent E Barry. Moral Issues in Business. CENGAGE Learning.
Thomas, Darlene Thomas. "Minimizing Nepotistic Practices in Family Owned and Operated
Businesses: The Private Sector." (2017). Retrieved from:
https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://scholar.google.com
/&httpsredir=1&article=4647&context=dissertations
trump/what-is-nepotism-is-it-illegal. Accessed 6 Dec 2018.

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Workforce?". Smallbusiness.Chron.Com, 2018, https://smallbusiness.chron.com/importancenepotism-policies-workforce-34832.html. Accessed 6 Dec 2018.

Hello, apart from the additional words, I have corrected your grammar as much as possible. In case of any clarification let me know as soon as possible. Goodbye

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Surname
Instructor’s Name
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Nepotism
Section 1:
A common controversial topic in the workplace is the issue of nepotism. According to
Shaw and Barry, the word nepotism is from the Latin word, "nephew," and it is the practice by
powerful people of giving advantages to relatives or friends in the workplace (Shaw, and Barry
393)1. This practice is common when people who have power and essential positions in a firm or
business use their abilities to hire their relatives or close friends. Hiring people based on
favoritism might lead to having employees that are not qualified enough for their work positions
or less qualified compared to other employees that have applied to the same place. The topic of
nepotism goes beyond hiring since employees with authority might give employees that are their
relatives or friends promotions and other types of job benefits. In order to curb nepotism, the
company should introduce a code of conduct that ensures that all employees are treated
homogeneously and in accordance to their skill and expertise. The code of conduct should be
strictly adhered to in order to breed a culture of inclusivity and to ensure that those violating it
are punished indiscriminately.
There are different arguments when it comes to the ethical issues regarding nepotism.
Some people argue that nepotism is not ethically wrong and does not lead to decreased business
performance. There is a common misconception that the practice of nepotism is unethical and
against the definition of justice. Justice can be defined as fairness, equality, getting what one
deserves, and as an ethical right (Shaw, and Barry 108)2. Arguments against nepotism also
suggest that it decreases the overall performance of the business.
People that think that nepotism is not ethically bad, have an argument that the employee
who was hired based on favoritism might be qualified for the job and does not hurt the
performance of the company. Also, some discussions suggest that hiring relatives and close
friends create a friendly work environment with a higher level of morale amongst employees and
improve the productivity of the workplace since the employees trust each other (Benjamin).
Another reason for supporting this argument is that nepotism leads to a higher level of
commitment, loyalty, and a lower turnover for employees (Benjamin)3. Moreover, a reason for
supporting the argument that is in favor of nepotism is that it increases the performance of the
business. The idea is that people who have family members in the same firm have more

1

Shaw, William H, and Vincent E Barry. Moral Issues in Business. CENGAGE Learning.

2

Shaw, William H, and Vincent E Barry. Moral Issues in Business. CENGAGE Learning.

3

Benjamin, Tia. "What Is the Importance of Nepotism Policies in The

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knowledge, background, and experience about the environment of the company and the nature of
work compared to others4 (Thomas, pg 33).
On the other contrary, other people argue that nepotism is an unethical act because hiring
employees should be based on job qualifications and not favoritism. Also, the practice of
nepotism includes some degree of unfairness since more qualified people may apply for the job
but do not get it since employees were not selected based on job qualifications. Another common
argument against nepotism is that it hurts the performance of the business and affects the
decision-making abilities of the employees ("Nepotism Law and Legal Definition”).
In response to the arguments against favoritism, some large companies have prevented
hiring relatives in the same firm to avoid nepotism ("Nepotism Law and Legal Definition”)5. An
example of a law against practicing bias in workplace is the 1967 federal nepotism law which
states "A public official may not appoint, employ, promote, advance, or advocate for
appointment, employment, promotion, or advancement, in or to a civilian position in the agency
in which he is serving or over which he exercises jurisdiction or control any individual who is a
relative of the public official" (Martin). Nowadays, some states in the US have anti-nepotism
laws for some types of firms, like governmental agencies. Also, different states have different
rules and penalties (“Nepotism Restrictions”). Besides that, there is a federal law that prohibits
federal officials, incl...


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