The quantitative phase of the study will focus on identifying any factors contributing to and/or impeding
the ambulance services delivery. I will be used the cross-sectional survey design, which implies the data
will be collected at one point in time. The primary technique for collecting the quantitative data will be
a self-developed questionnaire, containing items of different formats such as dichotomous answers like
“Yes” and “No”, self-assessment items, multiple choices, asking either for one option or all that apply
and open-ended questions. Some questions in the survey have an open-ended “Other (specify)” option
to provide one correct answer for every subject in the study. The questionnaire consists of twenty-four
questions, which are organised into six sections or scales.
The first section of the survey asks questions related to the personal information and participants’
experiences. The latter are measured on a Likert type scale from “Strongly disagree” to “Strongly agree”
and it will provide data regarding how the ambulance services related any factors impact major trauma
protocol persistence. The second section will measure participants’ comfort level with the training
programs and it will provide additional data about the impact of major trauma protocol related any
factors. A point rating scale from “Very uncomfortable” to“ Very comfortable” will be used. The third
section is focused on participants’ experiences with their academic and it will provide data regarding the
role of major trauma protocol improved. A point rating scale from “Extremely negative” to “Extremely
positive” will be used. The fourth section asks for self-evaluation of how motivated the ambulance
services workers are to pursue improve their skills. The scale from 1 to 5, from “Strongly disagree” to
“Strongly agree”, will be used.
The survey questionnaire will be web-based and accessed through the URL, which will be sent to all
participants and former ELHE-DE students identified by the ambulance service unit manger. One of the
advantages of online surveys is that participants’ responses will automatically be stored in a database
and can be easily transformed into numeric data in SPSS formats or Excel. The e-mail addresses are
available for all the potential participants in the study. An opening page of the survey will be as an
informed consent form on the web. Participants will click on the button below, by saying “I agree to
complete this online survey”, therefore expressing their compliance to participate in the study and
complete this survey.
A week before the survey is available online; participants will be receiving a notification via e-mail from
the ambulance service unit manager about the importance of their input for the study. It will help
escape a low response rate, which is typical for online surveys. For decrease the response rate error and
solicit a relatively high response rate of the survey, a three-phase follow-up sequence will be used.
For who will have not responded by the set date; five days after distributing the online survey URL, an
email reminder will be sent out; ten days later, the second email reminder will be sent; two weeks later,
the third email reminder will be sent stating the importance of the participant’s input for the study.
Before the statistical analysis of the quantitative survey results, the screening data will be conducted on
the univariate and multivariate levels. The data screening will be to help identify potential
multicollinearity in this data. The multivariate tests are sensitive to extremely high correlations among
The data screening will be include the descriptive statistics for all the variables, information about the
missing data, linearity, and normality, homoscedasticity, multicollinearity, multivariate outliers, and
singularity. The descriptive statistics for the online survey items will be summarised in the text and
reported in tabular form. The frequencies analysis will be conducted to identify valid percent for
responses to all the questions in the online survey.
The analysis of results will be reported in the form of the discussion. The eigenvalues will be providing
the information of how much percent of variance is accounted for by the discriminant function. The
Wilks’ Lambda test will yield the Chi-Square value to show the statistical significance for the discriminant
function. The standardised coefficients of the discriminant function will indicate how much relative
unique contribution to the ambulance service units’ differences is provided by the predictor variables.
The statistical analysis of the quantitative results will be conducted with the help of Statistical Package
for Social Sciences software (SPSS), version 11.0.
Reliability and Validity:
In quantitative research, reliability and validity of the instrument are very important for decreasing
errors that might arise from measurement issues in the research study. The stability or test-retest
reliability of the online survey instrument will be obtained through the pilot testing of the instrument.
The reliability refers to the accuracy and precision of a measurement procedure. Test-retest reliability
will show if the same results are obtained with the repeated administration of the same survey to the
similar study participants.
Phase II Qualitative
The primary technique will be conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with five hospital's
participants and the managers of ambulance services units. The participants will be asked for consent to
do interviews, while the information regarding the major trauma protocol and service delivered. The
Interview Protocol will include 15 open-ended questions. The questions will focus on the major trauma
protocol, training program and the details of services delivered. The participants will receive the
interview questions prior to the scheduled and I will be informed the interview will be tape-recorded.
In qualitative analysis, data collection and analysis proceed simultaneously.
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