Jan. 16, 2019
Discussion Worksheet: Week 2
 On Jan. 15, 2019, Professor Cuevas gave a lecture on the European conceptualization of
"man" and "humankind" and how this inherently excluded everyone else who did not meet the
standards of Western European, "civilized," wealthy, "intellectual," white men.  I learned that
those renowned Enlightenment thinkers conceptualized mankind in their image.  I had not
considered that their definition of "mankind" rested on a biased view that actually excluded lots
of human beings across the globe who did not fit within their imagined standards of civilization.
Reading Discussion Questions
1. Do other factors besides race not factor into the creation of property rights in the USA?
2. Why are land and property rights such an important aspect of power in the United States?
Reading Comprehension Paragraph
 Harris and Barrera argue that the competition for property and land rights set the foundation
for the racialization of individuals and their rights in the United States, resulting in a structural
discrimination that historically places non-white peoples at a socioeconomic disadvantage. 
For example, the US Government disproportionately used legal processes that favored Anglo
settler claims over land in Northern California rather than the claims made by the Californio
inhabitants who lived in the land before the Mexican-American War (Barrera, pp. 93-94). 
This evidence demonstrates that discrimination primarily occurs at a structural level, with the
government having a crucial role in imposing an inequality of property rights.  Thereby,
structural discrimination results from the racialization of individuals over property and land
04/ 10/ 2019
Burning Books and burying scholars (Fengshu Kengru焚书坑儒）
Major shift from Qin to Han :
The abandonment of universal military service and the associated direct rule of the peasantry.
Patronage of the arts and literature.
The rise of a new elite that combined a commitment to imperial sercise with local power based
on land and social networks.
Yellow Turban Revolt (184 CE) （黄⼱之乱）
*Cao Cao (155 - 220 CE) （曹操）
Five Major Features of the Classical Period:
1. Distinct regional cultures whose division were transcended, but not eradicated, by the
2. The consolidation of a political structure centered on the person of the emperor.
3. The cultivation of literacy based on a non-alphabet sanctioned the state’s existence.
4. The demilitarization of the interior, with military activity assigned to marginal people at the
5. The flourishing of wealthy families in the countryside who maintained order and linked the
villages to the center of power.
Three kingdoms (220-265)
Significance of the period:
1. The geographic redefinition of China, both its internal structure and its relations with
the outer world;
A. The full-scale colonization and settling of the Yangzi Valley
B. The transformation of this landscape to suit the needs of these settlers
C. The extension of knowledge regarding the outside world, and of China’s place within
D. The creation of intermediate spaces between household and state.
2. The emergence of a new social elite distinguished by a novel set of cultural and
3. The appearance of a discrete, often hereditary, military population and new military
4. The progressive detachment from society of an imperial government underpinned bu
this military power; and
5. The rise of major religions no longer strictly mapped onto the dominant social and
Overlap and Borrowing between buddhism and Daoism.
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