500 Module Report

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8/17/2017 Crusades - Oxford Islamic Studies Online Citation for Crusades Citation styles are based on the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Ed., and the MLA Style Manual, 2nd Ed.. MLA Trumpbour, John . "Crusades." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Aug 17, 2017. . Chicago Trumpbour, John . "Crusades." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e0875 (accessed Aug 17, 2017). Crusades A form of religious warfare initiated by the Papacy in 1095 and pursued actively for the next two centuries, the Crusades sought to confront the rise of Islam by restoring Christian control over Jerusalem and the Holy Sepulcher. Crusading also encompassed Papal authorizations for campaigns designed to extirpate heresy and paganism in Europe from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries, including at various times the Iberian peninsula and the Baltic region, as well as southern France and Italy. Historians are, however, divided between “traditionalists,” who designate as Crusades primarily the campaigns in the Holy Land and the East, and “pluralists,” who place special stress on religious crusades throughout Europe. This article deals with Crusader campaigns in the Holy Land. The term “Crusade” is derived (through a Romance language or languages) from the Latin word crux (cross), a symbol prominently displayed on the military regalia of Crusaders. Many Muslim chroniclers of the medieval era preferred “Frankish invasions,” a term that used the Arabic word alifranj, designating specifically the French but often applied generally to Westerners. Muslims and others in the Middle East regard the Crusades as invasions by Europeans motivated by greed and by scorn for Islam, establishing a paradigm for the perception of future Western incursions into the Muslim world. European colonialism and the modern “war on terror” are seen by many as extensions of the original Crusader impulse. Historical Prelude. http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com.proxy.library.georgetown.edu/print/opr/t236/e0875 1/7 8/17/2017 Crusades - Oxford Islamic Studies Online In 638, the Muslim armies of the caliph ʿUmar secured a series of victories that led the Patriarch Sophronius to surrender the keys of Jerusalem. Though a variety of Christian sects and communities survived under Muslim rule in subsequent centuries, the leadership of Eastern Byzantine Christendom based in Constantinople requested assistance from Rome in the eleventh century to defend against the Seljuk Turks, who were accused of disrupting the travels of medieval pilgrims to the Holy Land. Prominent Western historians such as Hans Eberhard Mayer question whether the Seljuks attacked pilgrims, but there were incidents in which other Muslim groups harmed unarmed Christian travelers en route to Jerusalem. More significantly, in the late eleventh century, the Seljuk Turks had wrested most of Asia Minor away from the Byzantine Empire. Even without Seljuk expansion and provocation, western Christians were growing more assertive in the international arena and had overcome several long-standing obstacles to civilizational resurgence, including attacks by Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, and Maghreb Muslims from the south. Growing population, agricultural output, trade, and movements of people, including the expansion of saintly pilgrimage routes, may also have contributed to Europe 's renewed confidence. In 1095 at the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II called for a combination of warrior commitment and pilgrim piety that would restore the Holy Land to Christian rule. The Pope had five initial aims: 1. curtailing the internal warfare that had wracked parts of Europe by directing military activities outside Christian communities; 2. asserting Papal supremacy over secular kings who had recently challenged papal authority over such matters as lay investiture; 3. ending the disruption of pilgrimages; 4. healing the East-West schism, which had been made official in 1054, by assisting Constantinople to regain control of cities such as Antioch and perhaps bringing Eastern Orthodoxy back into the Roman fold. 5. continuing to reverse the expansion of Islam, following Iberian Muslim defeat in Toledo in 1085, which secured northern and central Spain for Christians, and the Norman defeat of Muslims in Sicily in 1091. History of the Crusades. Crusader campaigns are traditionally identified by historians by Roman numerical titles, Crusades I– V, or, in some accounts, Crusades I–IX. Though conceding that the numerical titles are too neat and despite many variations, most scholars will not dispense with this classification system. Historians frequently list the five Crusades numerically and then add the two crusades of King Louis IX and the final defeat of the Western invaders in 1291 known as “The Fall of Acre.” The First Crusade, 1095–1099. http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com.proxy.library.georgetown.edu/print/opr/t236/e0875 2/7 8/17/2017 Crusades - Oxford Islamic Studies Online Leaders of this Crusade promoted an ideal that combined saintly pilgrimage with chivalric warrior values, although it was marked by atrocities from the outset. Rogue bands of ill-equipped Crusaders, for example, sacked several cities of the German Rhineland and massacred thousands of Jews in 1096. Archbishop Ruthard of Mainz, Archbishop Hermann III in Cologne, and eventually the Papacy itself fiercely denounced the Crusader orgy of terror in the Rhineland. Jews and Muslims fought together, though unsuccessfully, to repel invading Crusaders at Jerusalem. As Crusader forces poured into the breached fortresses of Jerusalem in 1099, Muslim women and children were hacked to death, and Jews perished in a synagogue fire set by exultant Christian warriors. By 1109, the Christians had established four Levantine Crusader states (also known by their collective French name, Outremer (overseas): the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Tripoli. The Second Crusade, 1145–1149. Edessa was the first place to have been seized from Muslim control by the Crusaders, and it was the first to fall. In 1144, Imād al-Dīn Zangī, the Seljuk Turkish ruler of Mosul and conqueror of Aleppo, met Christian talk of holy war with a new spirit of Islamic unity and jihād. The Second Crusade was called by Pope Eugenius III and the Cistercian monk Bernard of Clairvaux to reverse the gains of Zangī: its attack on Damascus failed. Although murdered in 1146 by a disgruntled slave, Zangī had inspired a new tradition of counterCrusaders led by his son Nūr al-Dīn and his Kurdish general Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn, known in the West as Saladin. Saladin had unified Egypt and Syria, effectively surrounding the Crusader states. His forces took back Jerusalem in 1187, securing his legend as a hero and chivalric figure who honored treaties and treated even his enemies fairly. The Third Crusade, 1189–1192. Probably the most legendary of the Crusades because of the participation of three major European monarchs—Richard the Lionheart of England, Philip II Augustus of France, and Frederick Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire—the Third Crusade sought to reverse the triumph of Saladin. This crusade delivered only modest gains, a treaty with Saladin allowing unarmed pilgrims access to Jerusalem and Crusader control over Cyprus. In the early phases, the septuagenarian Frederick Barbarossa drowned crossing a river in Anatolia. Richard then decided against attacking the Muslim forces holding Jerusalem. He preferred to negotiate a treaty with Saladin, who retained control over Jerusalem but allowed access to Christian pilgrims. His forces did seize Cyprus, providing the Crusaders an operational base that might prove valuable in future wars. The Fourth Crusade, 1201–1204. With the ascent to the Papacy in 1198 of Innocent III, who stood at the zenith of medieval Papal power, Europeans remained determined to reverse the victories of Saladin. The previous crusade had established the primacy of sea power in transporting Crusaders to the Levant, as overland travel had resulted in tremendous losses from disease and from attacks during the passage through http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com.proxy.library.georgetown.edu/print/opr/t236/e0875 3/7 8/17/2017 Crusades - Oxford Islamic Studies Online Anatolia. As far back as the First Crusade, ill-provisioned Christian Crusaders wracked with starvation had resorted to cannibalism by pulling slain Turkish troops out of swamps near Maʿarrah, a ghoulish scenario that figured prominently in the chronicles of Raymond of Aguilers and later in Muslim oral traditions. During the Fourth Crusade, the Byzantine emperor had agreed to pay substantial sums to Venice for supplying ships for fighting and transport. When the emperor failed to deliver the promised payments, Crusader armies received permission to sack the great city of Constantinople. This poisoned relations between the Christian East and West, with some of the city 's inhabitants averring that they would prefer to live under the Turkish sultan than submit to Crusader rule. The rampant pillaging further tarnished the honor of the Crusaders in the view of Muslims. The Fifth Crusade, 1217–1221, and the Crusade of Frederick II, 1228–1229. Accusing the Venetians of having hijacked the Fourth Crusade, Innocent III sought to restore Papal control of the Crusading movement in 1213 with the bull Quia maior, a document that also stipulated the conflict with Islam as the movement 's primary raison dʾêtre. The Fifth Crusade tried to reorient Crusader strategy by attacking Egypt to gain access to Jerusalem. When the Egyptian ruler al-Kāmil Muḥammad al-Malik offered the city of Jerusalem to the Crusaders during 1219 in exchange for ending the siege of the Egyptian city of Damietta, the papal legate Pelagius refused, believing that his forces could achieve a greater victory. This bold refusal backfired when al-Kāmil in 1221 breached the levees of the Nile, flooding the Crusaders bound for Cairo. Al-Kāmil then reached an agreement in 1229 with the invading Frederick II, King of Sicily and Holy Roman Emperor, allowing Christian rule over most of Jerusalem for the next ten years. Muslims opposed this concession to the invaders, and certain Crusaders railed against the provisions forbidding them from fortifying the city 's walls. In 1244, Muslim forces took back control of Jerusalem. The Crusades of Louis IX, 1248–1254 and 1270. Louis IX brought the considerable resources of France to support his Crusaders but was unsuccessful in his attempt to subdue Egypt, and his forces eventually had to ransom him from his Muslim captors. During the 1250s, he reinforced fortifications in the Crusader-held towns of Acre, Caesarea, Jaffa, and Sidon; but his invasion of Tunis in 1270 failed, and he and many of his troops succumbed to disease. In 1258, the Mongols rampaged through Baghdad, destroying a city that many regarded as the jewel of the Islamic world. The Mamluk general Ẓāhir Baybars halted the march of these nomadic invaders at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260. The fall of Acre, 1291. Baybars and his successors obstructed the Mongols, a people once thought invincible. Baybars exhibited a ruthlessness shocking to many Muslims who had accepted a measure of coexistence with Christians and Jews. During 1268, he sacked Jaffa and then ran riot in Antioch, where http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com.proxy.library.georgetown.edu/print/opr/t236/e0875 4/7 8/17/2017 Crusades - Oxford Islamic Studies Online thousands of women and children were put to the sword in what historian Thomas F. Madden considers the greatest atrocity of the Crusades. In 1290, newly arrived Crusader troops in Acre killed several Muslim merchants. When the Christians declined to turn over to the Mamluk authorities the soldiers responsible for the murders, alleging that the merchants had provoked the attacks, the Egyptian sultan Qalāwūn assembled one of the Crusade era 's largest armies to retake Acre. The military orders of Hospitalers, Templars, and Teutonic Knights made their last stand. Acre fell to the Mamluk forces—as did the rest of Louis IX 's carefully constructed fortifications throughout the region—and the age of the Crusaders in the Holy Land was over. Results of the Crusades. In his three-volume history of the Crusades, Sir Steven Runciman asserts that among the most devastating results of crusading was its damage to Byzantine civilization, which was weakened and subjected to further Islamic penetration. Early twenty-first century historians have countered Runciman by observing that Islamic expansion may have been crucial to halting the Mongols who, if unchecked, could have delivered fatal damage to Byzantine and Latin Christian civilizations. Meanwhile, the Europeans ’ introduction to the Mongols forced them to rethink their civilizational assumptions. The philosopher and scientist Roger Bacon (d. 1219) observed that before the Mongols, Europeans believed that Islam represented perhaps a third or half of the world, and Christians close to the other half. With an empire stretching from Beijing to the borderlands of Bulgaria, the Mongols gave Europeans a sense of their shrinking status in the world. As has been documented by the medievalist R. W. Southern, Bacon suggested that Christians would have to become familiar with many more languages, cultures, and peoples in order to spread the Gospel. Others retorted with calls for redoubled holy war, a more resolute militarism, and fanaticism to subdue Christianity 's teeming enemies. The Crusades left a lasting impression on the Muslim world. The brutality of their campaigns, particularly in comparison with the noble reputation of Saladin, continues to color Muslim perceptions of the Christian West. Historians sympathetic to the Christian West on occasion rebuke Islamic scholars for their fiercer condemnation of Crusaders than of the bloodstained Mongols, who set fire to Baghdad, killed 90,000 inhabitants, and tossed the caliph in a sack to be trampled to death by teams of horses. But key Mongols converted to Islam and expressed horror at their cousins ’ destruction of Baghdad as a seat of learning. Crusaders generally felt no remorse, and it was only in the late twentieth century that Pope John Paul II issued an apology to Muslims and Jews for the desecration of their holy sites and killing of whole communities. The Muslim world often views Europe 's later colonial conquests as a continuation of the Crusader impulses, beginning with the conquistadores in the New World, many of whom had been profoundly influenced by the reconquista in Spain. Ranging from Columbus—whose frequent calls for a return to Jerusalem revealed the inspiration of his life 's work—to Emperor Charles V, who launched a victorious crusading-style assault on Tunis in 1535, the Crusader filiation is sometimes further extended to the British, French, Italian, Russian, and Dutch colonialists of subsequent centuries. http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com.proxy.library.georgetown.edu/print/opr/t236/e0875 5/7 8/17/2017 Crusades - Oxford Islamic Studies Online Certain Muslims see Israel, established as a state in 1948, as a modern-day Outremer and part of the crusading heritage, and some Muslim radicals believe that the Crusades and contemporary conflicts are part of an endless continuum of fighting. Finding ideological potency in visions of inevitable confrontation, many extremists, both Islamic and Western, seem reluctant to part with the Crusades, thus keeping them an active, volatile component of contemporary political life. Bibliography Abu-Lughod, Janet L.Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250–1350. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. Provides background on the expansion of Mediterranean and world trade. Daniel, Norman. Islam and the West: The Making of an Image. Rev. ed.Oxford, 1993. Surveys Western fears of Muslims. Gabrieli, Francesco. Arab Historians of the Crusades. Translated from the Italian by E. J. Costello. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969. A selection of key Arab texts by a leading Crusade historiographer. Halliday, Fred. Islam and the Myth of Confrontation. London: I. B. Tauris, 1996. Primarily contemporary history, this work dismantles many long-held mythologies. A new edition was published in 2003. Hillenbrand, Carole. The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives. New York: Routledge, 2000. The most detailed study in English of Muslim views on the Crusades. Housley, Norman. The Later Crusades, 1274–1580: From Lyons to Alcazar. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. A representative work by a leading “pluralist” on the proliferating crusades against heresy in late medieval and early modern Europe. Madden, Thomas F.A Concise History of the Crusades. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999. A model of clarity on the major phases of crusading. An updated edition was published in 2005. Mayer, Hans Eberhard. The Crusades. Translated from the German by John Gillingham. London: Oxford University Press, 1972. Makes the case for the traditionalist view of the primacy of the Holy Land in defining crusading. Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Crusades: A History. 2d ed.New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005. An overview promoting the “pluralist” interpretation. Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951–1954. A historical classic that is being challenged for its pronounced Hellenic sympathies. Southern, R. W.Western Views of Islam in the Middle Ages. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962. A distinguished British medievalist briefly explores Roger Bacon and other commentators on Islam. Tyerman, Christopher. God 's War: A New History of the Crusades. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2006. A single-volume work on the Crusades that is a useful http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com.proxy.library.georgetown.edu/print/opr/t236/e0875 6/7 8/17/2017 Crusades - Oxford Islamic Studies Online counterpoint to the Runciman standard. Tyerman, Christopher. Fighting for Christendom: Holy War and the Crusades. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. A short work that challenges contemporaries on the uses and misuses of the Crusades in political debate. © Oxford University Press 2007-2008. All Rights Reserved http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com.proxy.library.georgetown.edu/print/opr/t236/e0875 7/7 1) Journal Title: The Mongols Call #: DS1 9 M67 1986 Volume: Issue: Month/Year: 1986 Pages: 49-73 Location: LAU Stacks AVAILABLE Item #: Article Author: Morgan — Article Title: Khan and the founding of the Mongol Empire = — Imprint: — 0= •— cJ) — co 0 co C C F -D THIS MATERIAL MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT LAW (TITLE 17 U.S. CODE) 54 Nomads of the Steppe: Asia before Chingiz Khän been a grim irony, but in fact there seems to be no real basis for the accusation. Further west again, the successors of Saladin ruled in Syria and Egypt, and fought among themselves and against the remnants of the Crusading states that maintained a precarious foothold on the Syrian coast. In Anatolia the Saljuq (Seljük) sultanate of Rum, last representative of a once great and farflung dynasty, disputed territory with a Byzantine Empire that was shortly to fall victim to its friends from the Christian west in the Fourth Crusade.26 Apart from those few who took Prester John seriously, none of the contenders in the political mael strom of western Asia gave a thought to events in the Far East whose consequences were soon to engulf most of them: just as, when an earlier disaster befell that same part of the wo ...
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The Crusades were numerous religious war between the Christians and the Muslim which started
mainly to secure holy sites. The Papacy initiated the war in 1095, and it continued for the next
two centuries. The campaign also aimed at extirpating heresy and paganism from Europe.
Crusades is derived from a Latin word Crux which is a symbol in the military regalia of the
Crusaders. The Muslims preferred to call them “Frankish Invasions.” They felt that the Crusades
was an invasion from Europe which was aimed at suppressing the spread of Muslim and also

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