Synthesizing Articles

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Question Description

Please find attached powerpoint and annotated bibliography. The annotated bibliography has 6 references, from which you have to pick 2 resources, have a thesis statement and compare and contrast both the articles as per the instructions and sample in the powerpoint (the samples on the power point are short, this paper requires them to be a little longer). Similarly to continue to pick 2 more resources from the 4 remaining and the same for the last 2. So we looking for 3 thesis statements with the compare and contrast of the article. Please follow powerpoint for more instructions. A Research Study on the Negative Effects of Social Media and Cyberbullying amongst Teenagers in the United States is the topic of the research study.

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Writing a Literature Review Synthesizing Sources Prof. Josh Burnett Adapted from a Presentation by Dr. B. Chapman From Annotated Bibliography to Literature Review - You’ve done your annotated bibliography (yay!) - now it’s time to use it to start getting some writing done for your actual 15 page research paper - the literature review is the first writing we’re doing in class that will appear in your actually research paper - By the time we’re done with this unit (in two weeks), you’ll have written 5-7 of the 15 pages. - The literature review requires knowledge of synthesis writing What is a Literature Review anyway? - As the name suggests, it’s a review of the literature that already exists on your topic - Purpose - to give your readers a base of knowledge in your topic - so that they can understand the basics of your research project and what gap in the existing knowledge you’re attempting to fill. What is a Literature Review anyway? - Briefly covers the major themes and knowledge that comes before you - think of it as trying to tell a story about something that you learned in class to a friend who isn’t taking it - they’re unlikely to understand the importance of what you learned unless you briefly catch them up on the context first. What Is Synthesis? ○ ○ ○ Synthesis writing is a form of analysis related to comparison and contrast, classification and division. On a basic level, synthesis requires the writer to pull together two or more summaries, looking for themes in each text. In synthesis, you search for the links between various materials in order to make your point. What Is Synthesis? ○ ○ Most advanced academic writing, including literature reviews, relies heavily on synthesis. As such, the skills we develop over this unit will be applicable not only for this assignment, but many future classes as well. So How Do I Write a Synthesis Paragraph? ○ ○ ○ ○ Briefly summarize the texts you wish to reference. Identify connections between the two - What topics do the texts share? How do they treat that shared topic differently or similarly? Try to make those connections as though you’re giving a friend the gist of what you’ve read - without delving into irrelevant info. Create a thesis that unifies the two sources (unifies here does not mean that the articles have to agree - unifies in this case means your thesis covers the overarching theme). Write the thing! Incorporate your thesis and the summaries. Keep the ideas of your research sources separate from one another while stressing the overarching or shared themes. Restate the thesis another way or point towards your next point/synthesis to wrap everything up. Sample on “fake news” ○ “Fake news” is the subject of much debate in US culture today. Various scholars have tried to determine who is most responsible for dealing with the production of misinformation on the internet. Glavin argues that users are, ultimately, the ones who need to be able to respond to and dismiss hateful content when they see it (New York Times, 2016.) Whereas Caplan has said that media companies such as Facebook need to change their business model to respond to the production of fake news on social media. He writes of Facebook, “it must acknowledge that financial and political incentives drive the company to privilege the act of sharing over the dissemination of truthful coverage” (New York Times, 2016). He thinks Facebook is responsible for creating an internet the responds more aggressively to the dissemination of fake news. Although users and social media companies, like Facebook, have been identified as responsible for policing misinformation, there are other entities that might also regulate fake news online. Sample on “fake news” ○ “Fake news” is the subject of much debate in US culture today. Various scholars have tried to determine who is most responsible for dealing with the production of misinformation on the internet. Glavin argues that users are, ultimately, the ones who need to be able to respond to and dismiss hateful content when they see it (New York Times, 2016.) Whereas Caplan has said that media companies such as Facebook need to change their business model to respond to the production of fake news on social media. He writes of Facebook, “it must acknowledge that financial and political incentives drive the company to privilege the act of sharing over the dissemination of truthful coverage” (New York Times, 2016). He thinks Facebook is responsible for creating an internet the responds more aggressively to the dissemination of fake news. Although users and social media companies, like Facebook, have been identified as responsible for policing misinformation, there are other entities that might also regulate fake news online. ○ Television has the capacity to influence U.S. culture in ways that audiences may be unaware of while they are enjoying TV shows. This is especially true of animated television shows because they tend to have loud and colorful graphics that make their content seem innocent and geared to younger audiences. However, a number of scholars argue that animated shows have a powerful role in shaping society and challenging societal norms. Rebecca Feasey demonstrates that “Cartoons can challenge the dominant conventions of mainstream television programming” and often “present alternative and even subversive representations of family [and] friendship” (32). She argues that animated sitcoms like the Simpsons have influenced a generation of children and adults with their sometimes unorthodox depictions of masculinity (3240). Benjamin Nelson has examined cartoons aimed only at children on Public Television and claimed that those shows, too, can challenge societal expectations about gender roles, especially when it comes to the representations of girls and young women (129-33). Animated television shows have the potential to offer unique or nontraditional gender roles to viewing audiences of all ages. ○ Television has the capacity to influence U.S. culture in ways that audiences may be unaware of while they are enjoying TV shows. This is especially true of animated television shows because they tend to have loud and colorful graphics that make their content seem innocent and geared to younger audiences. However, a number of scholars argue that animated shows have a powerful role in shaping society and challenging societal norms. Rebecca Feasey demonstrates that “Cartoons can challenge the dominant conventions of mainstream television programming” and often “present alternative and even subversive representations of family [and] friendship” (32). She argues that animated sitcoms like the Simpsons have influenced a generation of children and adults with their sometimes unorthodox depictions of masculinity (3240). Benjamin Nelson has examined cartoons aimed only at children on Public Television and claimed that those shows, too, can challenge societal expectations about gender roles, especially when it comes to the representations of girls and young women (129-33). Animated television shows have the potential to offer unique or nontraditional gender roles to viewing audiences of all ages. The role of television in U.S. culture has changed significantly in recent years. Some scholars see these changes as positive and others identify them as detrimental to American life. For instance, the writer Yesha Callahan argues that having so many TV shows to choose from empowers individuals to voice their responses to shows in “real time,” on social media, and gives the public a role in defining what shows are worth watching. In contrast, others think that having too much choice can have negative effects. Professor Jeffrey Sanchez-Burks suggests that “there is a disappearing common experience among coworkers” in contemporary culture because the shared experience of watching the same TV shows is not possible anymore. He thinks this lack of shared experience means people cannot collaborate or work together in the way they have in the past. The societal effects of recent shifts in the TV-watching habits of Americans probably will be debated for many years to come. The role of television in U.S. culture has changed significantly in recent years. Some scholars see these changes as positive and others identify them as detrimental to American life. For instance, the writer Yesha Callahan argues that having so many TV shows to choose from empowers individuals to voice their responses to shows in “real time,” on social media, and gives the public a role in defining what shows are worth watching. In contrast, others think that having too much choice can have negative effects. Professor Jeffrey Sanchez-Burks suggests that “there is a disappearing common experience among coworkers” in contemporary culture because the shared experience of watching the same TV shows is not possible anymore. He thinks this lack of shared experience means people cannot collaborate or work together in the way they have in the past. The societal effects of recent shifts in the TV-watching habits of Americans probably will be debated for many years to come. In-class Writing ○ ○ ○ ○ Step 1: Look at the 2 two sample articles Step 2: Identify the connections between the 2 articles: list any shared themes or topics. Step 3: Create a thesis that unifies the 2 sources. Step 4: Write a synthesis paragraph, being sure to incorporate your thesis and summaries. Keep the ideas of your research sources separate from one another, yet stress the overarching or shared themes. Homework ○ ○ Select 2 articles you collected from your library searches and draft a synthesis paragraph that focuses on a shared or overarching theme in the 2 sources. Print and submit in class. Annotated Bibliography Dharna Patel Professor.Burnett ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 2 Annotated Bibliography Garett, R., Lord, L., & Young, S. (2016). Associations between social media and cyberbullying: a review of the literature. Mhealth, 2, 46-46. doi: 10.21037/mhealth.2016.12.01 The article is a relevant asset in studying the adverse effects of cyberbullying amongst teenagers in the US because it borrows from different pieces of literature to establish the magnitude of the vice. The article emphasizes the numerous mental health problems caused by cyberbullying among the youth. The article associates cyberbullying with such problems as suicidal thoughts, psychological, and developmental challenges. However, it reiterates the infancy of cyberbullying and cites it as a primary reason for the existence of its universal definition and prevalence among the youth. Furthermore, the study was based on social media as the main medium through which cyberbullying is implemented. To achieve valid conclusions regarding the topic, the researchers set out to achieve two objectives; clarification of the traits of the perpetrators of the vice, and identification of the various instruments used as metrics of cyberbullying on the social media in a bid to establish their effects on the victims’ well-being. Mendez-Baldwin, M., Cirillo, K., Ferrigno, M., & Argento, V. (2015). Cyber Bullying Among Teens. Journal Of Bullying And Social Aggression, 1(1). Retrieved from http://sites.tamuc.edu/bullyingjournal/article/cyber-bullying-among-teens/ The research aims at establishing the extent to which American adolescents are vulnerable to cyberbullying as well as their behavioral attitudes towards the vice. To achieve its objective, the research was centered on high school students. It also examined the different ways in which adolescents faced cyberbullying and their possibility of discussing such experiences ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 with other individuals such as their guardians and teachers. As a result, the study reinforced the association between social media and cyberbullying by concluding that the vulnerability of adolescents to cyberbullying was positively correlated to the number of social media networks they used. The study established that parent figures play a critical role in determining the exposure and experience of cyberbullying and that a third of the young people in the USA have experienced cyberbullying at least once in their lives. Regarding the adverse effects, the research established that cyberbullying is a key contributor to anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts among teenagers. Li, Q. (2007). New bottle but old wine: A research of cyberbullying in schools. Computers In Human Behavior, 23(4), 1777-1791. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2005.10.005 The study surveyed 177 students in a bid to ascertain the nature and degree of how adolescents go through cyberbullying. It begins by defining the term in a bid to shed light to its topic. It established that approximately 60% of the victims of cyberbullying are female adolescents while the male adolescents make up approximately 52% of the perpetrators of the vice. It also argues that most victims of cyberbullying fail to report the incidents, thus increasing its prevalence. The relevance of the article in this study is centered on the fact that it establishes the various forms taken by the vice and its complex nature. It further reiterates that the increased sophistication of the vice is a major reason for difficulties in combatting its adverse effects. Therefore, the article forms a basis for the examination of cyberbullying among the youth and the dynamic nature in which it presents itself; thus, making it a hard nut to crack. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 4 Nixon, C. (2014). Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health. Adolescent Health, Medicine And Therapeutics, 143. doi: 10.2147/ahmt.s36456 The article opens by highlighting the fact that the adverse health effects of cyberbullying among adolescents across the world have become a major issue that deserves further studies. To prove the increasing health challenges caused by cyberbullying among the youth, the study explores different pieces of literature on the effects of cyberbullying among the youth as a firm basis for providing insights for future studies. From the different literature reviewed in the study, it is evident that cyberbullying causes massive adverse effects on the health and well-being of teenagers. Most teenagers who experience cyberbullying have continuously exhibited negative health indices as evidenced by the escalation of such conditions as depressive effects, loneliness, and somatic attributes among other adverse conditions. It also argues that the perpetrators of the vice are often associated with delinquent and aggressive behaviors or extreme drug and substance abuse. According to the article, moderating processes are strong influencers of the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. Vaillancourt, T., Faris, R., & Mishna, F. (2016). Cyberbullying in Children and Youth: Implications for Health and Clinical Practice. The Canadian Journal Of Psychiatry, 62(6), 368-373. doi: 10.1177/0706743716684791 The article presents the effects of cyberbullying on a dynamic scope by examining them among children and youth. The study explored different literature on cyberbullying and how it results in different effects on the victims. The authors of the article also included the corresponding dynamism of traditional bullying as a powerful accelerator of cyberbullying, which makes it a highly destructive feature, which is not easily identifiable. It also attributes the increased cyberbullying to the increased possibility of individuals to act anonymously over long ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 5 distances. The article argues that cyberbullying can be perpetrated by a wide range of actors who may be known or unknown to the victim. Due to the nature of cyberbullying and dynamism of the perpetrators, schools are often faced with massive difficulties in their efforts to detect and prevent cyberbullying. Cyberbullying poses massive health threats to the victims; therefore, the researchers conclude by encouraging health practitioners to conduct regular screening for such effects. Lindert, J. (2017). Cyber-bullying and its impact on mental health. European Journal Of Public Health, 27(suppl_3). doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx187.581 The author of the article sought to establish the different ways in which cyberbullying affects the wellness of the human mind. As such, the article starts by terming cyberbullying as a major global challenge whose adverse effects on the youth are inevitable. Cyberbullying can emerge from the use of the Internet, cell phones, and other communication devices through which different forms of messages can be transmitted with the aim of hurting or embarrassing the recipient. The complexity and technicality of cyberbullying make it difficult for its victims to detect or realize it when it occurs. The situation creates a great need for the formulation of a different mechanism to detect symptoms of cyberbullying and prevent it or mitigate its effects among the youth. However, the study concluded that cyberbullying is a major contributor to depressive symptoms, anxiety, and other self-harming actions by the victim. Therefore, the youth should be enlightened on the different ways of detecting the vice and avoiding or dealing with its adverse effects. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 6 Patchin, J., & Hinduja, S. (2013). Cyberbullying Among Adolescents: Implications for Empirical Research. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 53(4), 431-432. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.07.030 The article examines the causative agents and effects of cyberbullying among teenagers by arguing that the topic has been extensively researched over the last decades. However, it points out that the existing literature on the topic is faced with methodological shortcomings as a result of the constant evolution of technology. It further explores the extent to which cyberbullying is correlated to the emergence and persistence of psychological and behavioral problems among the victim adolescents. The research complimented previous studies by concluding that cyberbullying results in adverse health effects on teenage victims. The study questions the link of cyberbullying to the emergence and persistence of depression among the victims. Therefore, it argues that cyberbullying is a complex topic, which should be carefully examined and addressed by all humans in a bid to understand and minimize its adverse effects. Provision of relevant information to different stakeholders such as parents and policymakers would positively contribute to the reduction of cyberbullying and its effects among adolescents. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 7 References Garett, R., Lord, L., & Young, S. (2016). Associations between social media and cyberbullying: a review of the literature. Mhealth, 2, 46-46. doi: 10.21037/mhealth.2016.12.01 Li, Q. (2007). New bottle but old wine: A research of cyberbullying in schools. Computers In Human Behavior, 23(4), 1777-1791. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2005.10.005 Lindert, J. (2017). Cyber-bullying and its impact on mental health. European Journal Of Public Health, 27(suppl_3). doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx187.581 Mendez-Baldwin, M., Cirillo, K., Ferrigno, M., & Argento, V. (2015). Cyber Bullying Among Teens. Journal Of Bullying And Social Aggression, 1(1). Retrieved from http://sites.tamuc.edu/bullyingjournal/article/cyber-bullying-among-teens/ Nixon, C. (2014). Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health. Adolescent Health, Medicine And Therapeutics, 143. doi: 10.2147/ahmt.s36456 Patchin, J., & Hinduja, S. (2013). Cyberbullying Among Adolescents: Implications for Empirical Research. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 53(4), 431-432. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.07.030 Vaillancourt, T., Faris, R., & Mishna, F. (2016). Cyberbullying in Children and Youth: Implications for Health and Clinical Pr ...
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Cyberbullying is one of the major issues that cause of depression among the youths and
the children, which is perpetrated by individuals who abuse drugs. Nixon (2014), argues that
cyberbullying has become rampant amongst the youth which has led to adverse health effects. As
a result, most of the youth exhibit negative health indices such as depression, loneliness, and
other mental issues. Besides, the perpetrators of online bullying are associated with aggressive
behavior and use drugs, which drives them to cause psychological harm to teenagers. Therefore,
people should consider the issue of cyberbullying deeply to ensure that adolescent health is well
cared for as opposed to harming them. According to Vaillancourt, Faris & Mishna, (2016),
cyberbullying has been ac...

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