SPEAV181 US Policy Administration Study Guide Assignment

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This is a study guide for my US Policy final. To comnplete this study guide you will need to have jowledge of United States Polices, United States Health care, and government polices. I will attach a file to the study guide, so you can see if this fits your capability.

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SPEA V 181 US Policy and Administration Study Guide for Final 1) Explain the winner-take-all voting system in the US that is used to determine who will get a seat in the House and in the State legislatures. How does it affect voter participation and # of parties/candidates running? 2) Explain how with a winner-take-all system the distribution of seats in a legislature is dependent on how district lines are drawn, and how it can be used to favor a ruling party. 3) Explain the idea of the Iron Triangle – and what the effects are of having Iron Triangles on policymaking, and on government spending? 4) The size of the federal government is often measured by looking at how large the budget is. What makes federal government budget figures an inaccurate way of assessing the size/reach of the federal government? 5) What is the stages model? Identify the different stages and explain what happens in them. 6) Explain the Pluralist model of agenda setting. 7) Explain the Elitist model of agenda setting. 8) Explain the State Centric model of agenda setting. 9) You learned about four avenues of legitimation: legislative, administrative regulations, the courts, and popular legitimation. Explain how they work. 10) On the federal level in the US, Congress is the principal legislative body, and your text says that great emphasis is being put on procedural legitimation. What are these procedures? 11) Explain logrolling as part of the decision-making (legitimation) phase. Why is it happening, and what are the results in terms pf government spending? 12) Explain Pork Barrel legislation. Why is it happening, what are the results in terms pf government spending? 13) Your text explains that policies/laws passed by Congress provide authorization for the Executive, i.e. the President and the federal agencies, to take action to implement these laws. Congress sometimes gives clear instructions on how a law is to be implemented, but sometimes passes laws that lay out policies in broad, rather diffuse statements, that then need to be interpreted and operationalized by the executive branch - by developing regulations and implementation procedures, which gives a lot of discretion to the executive branch. Explain ways the Congress can still oversee and direct, or impede, the work of federal agencies once the implementation process has started. 14) Implementation by federal agencies starts after Congress has passed a policy. As part of the implementation process, federal agencies often issue regulations, also called rules. For this they have to go through a rule-making process. What are important phases of the rulemaking process? 15) What roles can the courts play in overseeing/limiting/authorizing implementation actions by the Executive, including executive orders by a President? 16) In the chapter “Organization and Implementation, the idea of a perfect organization was introduced. What would be characteristics of a perfect organization? 17) In reality, there are a variety of factors that can make implementation difficult in the real world, including Organizational Disunity, Standard Operating procedures, Organizational communication, Time problems, Horseshoe –Nail Problem, Inter-organizational Politics, Vertical Implementation problems, Horizontal Implementation Structures. Explain. 18) Who are the main actors in the budget cycle? What happens at various points during the budget cycle? 19) The 1921 Budget and Accounting Act brought a major change to what part of the federal government prepares the yearly budget. Explain! 20) Explain what a continuing resolution is, and under what circumstances lawmakers pass continuing resolutions. 21) Policy Evaluation can lead to policy maintenance, termination or succession, with different aspects of the latter being the most likely outcome. Explain. 22) Explain the problem of time in evaluation, and give an example. 23) Explain the problem of isolating factors that could have potentially impacted an outcome, and give an example. 24) Understand what tax brackets are and their relation to a progressive income tax. Explain how a progressive income tax works. 25) What types of taxes are raised on the federal, state and local level in the US? 26) What are tax expenditures? What is their purpose? 27) Earmarked taxes seem to be more popular than general taxes. Explain. 28) Explain what a regressive tax is. What are examples of regressive taxes? 29) Explain the difference between private goods and public goods. Give examples. 30) Explain the issue of free riding. What causes it? How is it related to taxation and public goods? 31) What is the difference between mandatory and discretionary budgets, and what taxes go where? 32) What are major spending categories in the mandatory and discretionary budget? 33) What is the difference between tax loopholes and tax benefits? 34) Explain what is meant with the terms government deficit, surplus and debt, and how they are related. 35) What makes federal government deficits increase and decrease? 36) Explain what is meant with the Treasury borrowing from itself. 37) Explain what treasury bonds are, how they work, why the government issues them, and what the government’s obligations are after issuing the bonds. 38) What do treasury bonds offer investors? Why do they buy them? 39) What are warning signs that could indicate that a government’s debt/deficit is getting too big? 40) What were major events over time that impacted the size of the US government deficits? 41) What different aspects of economic insecurity does the social security system addresses today? 42) How is the social security system funded? What earnings are /are not subject to the social security tax? 43) What is pay-as-you-go? 44) Describe the demographic changes that could lead to a shortfall in social security funding in the 2030s. 45) What are possible ways to remove the social security shortfall? 46) The US healthcare system actually consists of several distinct system that serve different groups. Make sure you understand the main features of these systems - how they are different from each other. 47) Explain premiums, deductibles, co-pays, co-insurance and out-of-pocket maximums, in-network, out-of-network, co-payment, premium subsidy, individual mandate, underinsurance. 48) Explain the differences between a multi-payer and a single-payer system, and where we have single and multi-payer systems in the US. 49) Why is the multi-payer system in the US associated with high administrative costs? 50) In the year before passage of the ACA (it passed in 2010), 44 million people in the US lacked health insurance. What practices in the private insurance market particularly contributed to that before the ACA came into effect? 51) What provisions of the ACA allowed millions of people to get access to private health insurance since 2014? 52) How did these ACA provisions affect insurance premiums? 53) We currently have a situation where some people absolutely want the ACA to continue and others can’t wait to see it abolished. What explains those opposite positions? 54) What is Expanded Medicaid, and why is Expanded Medicaid available in some, but not all states? 55) What causes underinsurance? What are the consequences? 56) What are the three pillars that the ACA is based on? Explain the importance of each. What is the death spiral? 57) What is an ambient standard? How is it different from an emission standard (or emission limit)? Who sets ambient standards for criteria pollutants? 58) What are the criteria pollutants (or common pollutants) that were identified by the US EPA? 59) What are the roles that EPA and the states are playing in reducing common air pollutants pollution, what are their respective responsibilities? 60) Give examples of different tools that fall under “command and control” to regulating air pollution 61) Know how a pollution tax works to reduce pollutant emissions. 62) Know how tradable permits (also called cap and trade) work to reduce pollutant emissions. 63) What are the main human-caused greenhouse gases, how are they generated, and what is the greenhouse effect? 64) What is the goal of the Clean power plan? 65) What does the Clean Power Plan have to do with the Paris Agreement (COP21)? 66) Explain the difference between climate change adaptation and mitigation and think of examples for each. 67) What are the defining elements of a carbon tax and dividend policy, and what are the environmental and economic effects that would be expected from such a policy? 68) Many countries, including the US, have signed on to the 1951 Refugee Convention and/or the 1967 Protocol. Based on these, what are the requirements for someone to be accepted either as a resettled refugee or as an asylum seeker? 69) Who decides how many refugees will be accepted in the US for resettlement each year, and what have been the limits in recent years? 70) What are main differences between asylum seeking and refugee resettlement? 71) What rights do US citizens have, compared to legal permanent residents? 72) What is a greencard? 73) What are opportunities for low-skilled workers, compared to high skilled workers, to be allowed legal entry into the United States for work, either permanently or temporary? 74) Why are there long waitlists for family and employment-based immigration? 75) What is the 7% rule and how does it affect countries with large populations compared to countries with smaller populations? 76) What group of illegal immigrants is protected by DACA? What protections/benefits does this group receive? 77) How are Dream Act and DACA different? 78) What are different circumstances under which someone can end up being undocumented?
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US Policy and Administration
1. Explain the winner-take-all voting system in the US that is used to determine who
will get a seat in the House and in the State legislatures. How does it affect voter
participation and # of parties/candidates running?
The candidate who receives a majority of the votes or a popularity of the votes takes all the
state’s electoral votes. A popularity of votes can be referred to as less than 50% but more
than any other candidate who vied for the position. This system of election results to low
turnout in the election as the people feel they have low chance of influencing outcome and
hence they chose not to take part .It also affects the number of number of candidates running
for the position as only the popular candidates get to vie.

2. Explain how with a winner-take-all system the distribution of seats in a legislature is
dependent on how district lines are drawn, and how it can be used to favor a ruling
party.
The ruling parties are the more popular parties and hence using the winner takes it all voting
system they tend to benefit more. This because the parties with a large geographical support get
more shares compared with the parties with less popularity are left with the minimal number of
shares. It is more likely that a single party will hold a majority of the legislative seats depending
on the popularity.
3. Explain the idea of the Iron Triangle – and what the effects are of having Iron
Triangles on policymaking, and on government spending?
The iron triangle is a political term that is used to give an understanding of the bureaucratic
government agencies, the government and the special interest groups. The iron triangles are
effective in the policy making as the bureaucracy within is able to ensure that the policies
established and the laws passed by the congress are practical and effective. It can also have

negative impact where the interest groups may extremely influence the outcome of the
legislation and this could lead to the government overspending on certain projects.

4. The size of the federal government is often measured by looking at how large the
budget is. What makes federal government budget figures an inaccurate way of
assessing the size/reach of the federal government?
The federal government lacks proper accountability of all the funds used hence it cannot be used
to assess the size of the federal government. Many parts are confusing and opaque as there is no
transparency in how then different activities do take place in the federal government. It does not
provide an orderly road map of the activities.
5. What is the stages model? Identify the different stages and explain what happens in
them.
The stages model can e defined as an internationalization process that occurs gradually from one
stage to another. The first stage is the precontemplation at this stage there is no too much
interest in change and the people are defensive to new ideas. Contemplation is the second stage
and the people are more aware of the consequences and are able to consider the possibility of
change. The third stage is the preparation and in this stage people have made the commitment to
make change. Action is the fourth stage and this stage people believe they have the ability to
change and take the responsibility of bringing change. The fifth step is the maintenance and this
involves taking all possible measures to ensure that the change is observed.
6. Explain the Pluralist model of agenda setting.
The pluralist model emphasizes that power is distributed among different groups. It helps
indicate the role of the public, media and the interest groups in the developing of the various
political agendas. In the establishment of any agenda different parties are involved and each has

a role to play in ensuring that the agendas are achieved. Pluralism is important as it helps
encourage different philosophies.
7. Explain the Elitist model of agenda setting.
The elitist model states that the policy makers will mostly change direction depending on the
interest of the rich and the powerful. In this case the interests of the less powerful groups are not
put into consideration. It is mostly seen to cater for the needs of the rich and the powerful in the
community. The model is faced with a lot of non decision and little interest.
8. Explain the State Centric model of agenda setting.
The state centric approach tends to put the agenda setting at the centre of the government. It does
not consider the interest groups or other external factors in the agenda implementation.
Congregasional committees and the bureaucratic agencies determine what the government
should consider at any given time.
9. You learned about four avenues of legitimation: legislative, administrative regulations,
the courts, and popular legitimation. Explain how they work.
Legislative have the power the power to make the laws for any political entity and also take part
in the policy making. They make up an important part of the government. The administrative
governs the administration and the regulation of the government agencies. It gives procedures
under which the government agencies operate . The courts are the institutions given the authority
to judge legal disputes between parties and ensure that justice is served. Popular legitimacy is the
acceptance of a government or any political regime.
10. On the federal level in the US, Congress is the principal legislative body, and your
text says that great emphasis is being put on procedural legitimation. What are
these procedures?

The bill is introduced by the member of the legislature through strict timetables and could easily
fail if a consensus is not reached. Bills can be introduced through the government motion or
through leave. The systems committee considers the laws relating to each policy area jurisdiction
in the U.S congress.
11. Explain logrolling as part of the decision-making (legitimation) phase. Why is it
happening, and what are the results in terms of government spending?

Logrolling in the legislative is the trading for favors for examples the members trading for votes.
This mostly involves the loss of one issue results to the gain in another and ultimately there is
overall gain for all the parties’ involved. This happens in the legislative especially while passing
the bill where the members’ trade favors so as to get the votes.
12. Pork Barrel legislation is the appropriation of the public funds by the congress for
favorite projects that serve the interest of the local districts. They put the main focus on
the projects that are favorable for them but not the projects that serve the interest of the
general population. The legislative is more interested in such projects as they help to
grow the areas that they serve as more money and resources are available. This is a way
to gain political favor among the people and it is easy for them to get reelected.
13. The congress can oversee the federal agencies through the federal agencies through the
congressional committee. There are different avenues where they undertake
investigations and hearings for the legislature. It is aimed at ensuring that there is no
misappropriation of funds. The congress has also laid statues or laws that need to be
followed through with while undertaking the oversight. This helps ensure that there is no
misuse of the resources.

14. T he first step is the proposed rule where the agency publishes the regulatory proposal to
the federal register. This step involves a discussion to the rule and an analysis. The
second step is the public opinion where the public comments section begins. The
agencies are required to respond to every issue raised in the comments. The final stage is
the final rule where the proposed rule becomes the final rule with some modifications
being done. The agency is expected to publish the comments of the public and an updated
analysis and justification of the rule.
15. The courts help to interpret the law and give the guidelines that should be followed. It is
the responsibility of the courts to ensure that the laws passed are favorable for the general
public. The courts have the responsibility of ensuring that the laws do not only favor a
particular group. It ensures that the right process is followed before the law is fully
passed.
16. There are different characteristics to the perfect organization one of them being strong
leadership. Strong leadership is effective and it is important in ensuring that organization
...


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