Philosophical Inquiry – Spring 2019
Final Written Exercise
Please try to limit oneself to no more than 3-4 pages. Explain or describe to
the reader as best you can only to the degree to inform the reader. Marx’s
Manuscripts and Nietzsche’s Twilight is on Brightspace. This is due on or
before Wednesday, April 24th. These may be turned in early if better for
Answer ONLY ONE!
1) Marx and Engels claim that “The history of all hitherto existing society is a
history of class struggle.” (The Communist Manifesto). Classes exist because
of the “political economy” (capitalism). PROVIDE QUOTATIONS from the
text of the Manuscripts.
Form a coherent essay in which you answer the following:
What is labor for Plato? Re: education/nature - the practical. Explain.
What is labor for Marx? (Alienation, objectification, estrangement).
Without capitalism and the class structure, human nature, Marx
claims, “will be enriched”.
Do you think this claim is valid? Do you think Plato’s Republic offers
a better chance of enrichment?
2) Form a coherent essay in which you answer the following:
• What is human nature for Nietzsche? Explain/describe.
• What does human nature mean in terms of Nietzsche’s central desire
to “go beyond good and evil”? See Twilight of the Idols.
• If “God is dead” what would that mean for Augustine’s Christian
philosophy? PROVIDE Quotations from the text of Twilight.
• Lastly, What do you think?
3) Form a coherent essay in which you answer the following:
• What is Nietzsche’s theory of The Overman? Explain/describe.
• An Overman, Nietzsche says, will “remain faithful to the earth”.
• In other words, there will be no desire or need for the soul, God,
• “None of these fictions can solve the problem of the value of
existence,” asserts Nietzsche.
It was suffering and incapacity that created all afterworlds – this and
that brief madness of bliss which is experienced only by those who suffer
Weariness that wants to reach the ultimate with one leap, with one
fatal leap, a poor ignorant weariness that does not want to want any
more…this created all gods and afterworlds…
Many sick people have always been among the poetizers and Godcravers; furiously they hate the lover of knowledge and that youngest
among the virtues, which is called ‘honesty’…
Listen rather, my brothers, to the voice of the healthy body; that is a
more honest and purer voice. More honestly and purely speaks the healthy
body that is perfect and perpendicular: and it speaks of the meaning of the
Respond to these three:
Critically reflect/analyze the above text from Nietzsche.
What do you think of Nietzsche’s claim?
Is there a “value to existence”? Explain what it might be.
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