Inclusive Education Capstone Potential Resolutions Assignment

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Question Description

You have selected a problem/issue, identified and critically analyzed the causes and effects of the problem, and included critical considerations in your analysis. Now you have the information necessary to develop a potential solution to the identified problem/issue. For those identified problems/issues with many causes and effects, there are potentially many solutions, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. The solutions may impact just one of the effects or may impact several effects. The goal this week is to generate as many solutions as possible based on the critical analysis of the problem created earlier. Simply generate as many potential solutions as you can. Once you have generated a list, select three potential resolutions and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each solution.


To prepare:

  • Review the "Problem Solving Template," attached.
  • Review the causes and effects that you generated in Week 6.
  • Review the critical analysis narrative that you prepared in Week 7.
  • Think about some potential resolutions to your identified problem and the advantages and disadvantages of each.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post three potential resolutions to the identified problem/issue and explain their advantages and disadvantages. Provide specific examples. Support your writing with detailed and specific references to all resources used in its preparation. APA Format. Scholarly tone.

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Running header: PROBLEM STATEMENT Problem Statement Problem Statement 1 PROBLEM STATEMENT 2 Education is crucial for economic growth and human development. Inclusive education involves combining children with and without disabilities in the same learning environment where they can participate and grow together. It is aimed at enhancing the educational system and providing education for all regardless of one’s abilities. According to Corbett (2001), this model of education is based on the understanding that children are diverse individuals with unique abilities and backgrounds and approaches to enhance quality should thus be based on knowledge and strength of the learner. Inclusive education has been identified to be beneficial to children with and without disabilities. According to Hwang and Evans (2011), through inclusive education, children gain a better understanding of themselves and of others. As they attend the same lessons, children are able to reflect on the prevailing diversities in the real world. Schnorr et al (2000) asserts that inclusive education enables children to gain fundamental academic skills. For children with disabilities inclusive learning classrooms serve to foster a sense of belonging and appreciation by their peers and society. Engaging the students into effective social interaction with their peers will increase their general acceptability resulting in long term positive impacts. Inclusion benefits the students without disabilities through increased understanding of diversity and acceptance. Various researches have been completed on the approaches and importance of inclusive education but there have been little attempts to connect the approaches employed and resulting benefits hence the effectiveness of inclusive education has not been fully explored. The endorsement of inclusive education has been very slim, an indication that its effectiveness is in doubt (Gaitas and Alves, 2017). According to Gaitas and Alves (2017), inclusive education has been challenging to integrate within schools irrespective of empirical evidence that is extremely PROBLEM STATEMENT 3 supportive of this model. The aim of this paper is to establish the effectiveness of inclusive classrooms for students with special needs/developmental disabilities in the school system. The critical considerations are important in addressing the issue of the uptake of inclusive education. The slow adoption of the model can be associated with ethical factors such as inadequate treatment of students by teachers based on their capabilities and trainings. Social change factors entail how the model will affect the interaction of children in society. Globalism factors include how the global community formulates policies to boost the implementation of inclusive education. Diversity factors will focus on the fact that students with disabilities who are not receiving education are from less fortunate and uninformed backgrounds. PROBLEM STATEMENT 4 References Corbett, J. (2001). Teaching approaches which support inclusive education: a connective pedagogy. British Journal of Special Education, 28(2), 55. Gaitas, S., & Alves Martins, M. (2017). Teacher perceived difficulty in implementing differentiated instructional strategies in primary school. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 21(5), 544–556. Hwang, Y.-S., & Evans, D. (2011). Attitudes towards Inclusion: Gaps between Belief and Practice. International Journal of Special Education, 26(1), 136–146. Schnorr, R. F., Matott, E., Paetow, M., & Putnam, P. (2000). Building-based Change: One School’s Journey toward Full Inclusion. Middle School Journal, 31(3), 44–52. Running Head: CAPSTONE: CRITICAL ANALYSIS I Week 6 Assignment- Critical Analysis I 1 CAPSTONE: CRITICAL ANALYSIS I 2 Problem statement Inclusive education has been identified as a crucial program in education especially in universal access to education. Despite the empirical evidence that proves how inclusive education is extremely supportive to children with and without disabilities; its implementation has not exceeded expectations. Various researches have been done in an attempt to explore approaches to integrate inclusive education in the education system yielding an array of tactics which have also been implemented. Research has shown that inclusive education has not yet peaked. In addition, Gaitas (2017) asserts the research on the effectiveness of the program is still very low resulting in the overall effectiveness of the programs to be below average. The ineffectiveness has led to low support of the program in the majority of schools, consequently hindering universal access to education. Major contributors to the problem Irrespective of the advantages of inclusive education, the implementation of the program is still faced by various challenges as discussed below; Attitude: The application of inclusive education is dependent on the attitude of the stakeholders. The norms of society influence how fast a program is implemented. Rigid attitudes and diehard behaviors have a tendency to object to the accommodation of children with disabilities in classrooms where their children are learning. Attitudinal biases against children with disabilities leads to discrimination which hinders the inclusion process. Physical Barriers: in some educational facilities, there is still a serious problem with the provision of necessary infrastructure to allow children with disabilities to access primary services CAPSTONE: CRITICAL ANALYSIS I 3 such as ramps and rails. This problem is even more so in economically-deprived education setups, such as rural neighborhoods. Dilapidated, dated, and poorly designed structures pose a threat to the safety and health of the children. Several educational facilities lack the capacity to accommodate children with special needs. For example, children who have wheelchair accommodations may not be able to attend classrooms other than those on the ground floor due to the lack of chair lifts on the stairs. The responsible authorities may lack the determination, space, or funds to develop the necessary supports. Education Curriculum: inclusive education cannot follow a rigid learning program as it poses limitations to effective learning. For successful implementation of inclusive education, there is a need for experimentation and flexibility in teaching methods. It’s important for teaching methods to accommodate diverse and different modes of instruction as each student learns differently. Teachers: teachers can interrupt positive inclusive education if they are not well trained, unenthusiastic or unwilling to work with children of different abilities. According to Gaitas (2017), a teacher training system has not been flexible enough to adapt to the changes in society. The availability of skillful teachers subjects them to large workloads which puts strain their efficiency. Causes of the problem Inadequate training program for teachers has been identified as the core contributor to inefficiencies in inclusive education. According to LeDoux et al (2012), general education teachers are not sufficiently equipped to deal with children with disabilities in their classrooms. Training affects the attitude, confidence, and competency of teachers while facilitating learning CAPSTONE: CRITICAL ANALYSIS I 4 in inclusive education. General education teachers are not well briefed before the introduction of children with disabilities in their classrooms. Studies suggest that extra time for planning instruction, scheduling, and the social dynamics, and behavioral concerns of all students in the classroom is necessary (LeDoux et al, 2012). Proper training enhances teachers understanding, knowledge, value, interests, skills, and attitudes toward inclusive education. Poor stakeholder collaboration relates directly to their attitudes, funding and to the education curriculum. Due to the lack of collaboration, stakeholders may neglect their responsibilities in the development of the required infrastructure and social environment. Lack of cooperation also impacts on the attitude towards inclusive education. According to BuliHolmberg and Jeyaprathaban (2016), there are three levels of collaboration which are essential for the success of inclusive education i.e. teacher - teacher interaction during planning and teaching, student-student interaction and teacher-student interaction. Teachers have also expressed concerns regarding poor management and reduced budgeting which has translated to unavailability of specialized needs/services required for positive inclusive classrooms. Effects of the problem Ineffectiveness in inclusive education has a tremendous negative effect on universal access to equal education. It inhibits the minority groups of children the right to access quality education. Furthermore, it hinders the growth of social and emotional development among children. Both students with and without disabilities do not get the appropriate opportunities for peer interaction, a sense of belonging and appreciation by their peers. CAPSTONE: CRITICAL ANALYSIS I Finally, due to ineffective education, children cannot learn to appreciate their peers’ uniqueness and overall diversity. This way, they cannot understand the strengths and weaknesses of others as well as their own individuality. The inefficiency instills discrimination, biases, and low self-esteem among the children which translates to their adulthood behaviors. 5 CAPSTONE: CRITICAL ANALYSIS I 6 References Buli-Holmberg, J., & Jeyaprathaban, S. (2016). Effective Practice in Inclusive and Special Needs Education. International Journal of Special Education, 31(1), 119–134. Gaitas, S., & Alves Martins, M. (2017). Teacher perceived difficulty in implementing differentiated instructional strategies in primary school. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 21(5), 544–556. LeDoux, C., Graves, S. L., & Burt, W. (2012). Meeting the Needs of Special Education Students in Inclusion Classrooms. Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals, 20–34. Running head: CRITICAL ANALYSIS II Week 7 Assignment- Critical Analysis II 1 CRITICAL ANALYSIS II 2 The four Causes and effects. The major causes relating to the difficulties in implementing an inclusive education system that will accommodate both children with disabilities as well as those without disabilities include; inadequate training programs for teachers which only train to be able to provide education services to children without disabilities, failure to fully brief teachers on the conditions of children with disabilities before introducing them into their classrooms, poor management of the inclusive learning system as well as lack of funds needed to be able to implement the inclusive education programs in an effective manner and lastly, poor stakeholder collaboration. The effects of an ineffective inclusive education program include; hampering the rights of children with disabilities to gain access to quality education, slow emotional and social development of children with disabilities, as well as difficulties among children in the program with regard to appreciating the uniqueness of their peers making it difficult for children in the program to embrace diversity. Critical analysis According to Gaitas and Alves (2017), general education programs find it difficult to be able to implement an inclusive education program thus resulting in an ineffective inclusive education program. Gaitas and Alves (2017) assert that this issue of ineffective inclusive education began after a large number of students with disabilities were introduced in a class for general education. The problem is attributed to inadequate training programs for teachers, failure to brief teachers on the conditions of children with disabilities before introducing them into their classrooms, as well as poor stakeholder collaboration. This problem has ended up affecting not only children with disabilities but also those without disabilities simply by hindering their rights to quality education. Teachers end up being overstressed and under skilled as they strive to CRITICAL ANALYSIS II 3 provide the best education services to every single student whether they have disabilities or not. Considering the fact that this problem not only negatively affects the children in an inclusive education program but also other stakeholders such as the families and educators, it is quite evident that no one benefits from this matter. The arguments put across by Gaitas and Alves (2017), have also been supported by Hwang, (2011), Corbett, (2001) and Schnorr et al. (2000). This is so since both Corbett, (2001) and Schnorr et al. (2000) also assert that the issue of ineffective inclusive education programs began after a large number of students was introduced into general education settings. They also attribute this problem to inadequate training programs for teachers, failure to brief teachers on the conditions of children with disabilities before introducing them into their classrooms, as well as poor stakeholder collaboration. However, according to Corbett, (2001) and Schnorr et al. (2000), the issue of ineffective inclusive education programs mostly affects children with disabilities by preventing their chances to obtain quality education, affecting their emotional and social development, and by making it difficult for them to embrace diversity. Additionally, Corbett (2001) and Schnorr et al. (2000), assert that children with disabilities are the primary entities who end up getting hurt by ineffective inclusive education programs. According to LeDoux et al. (2012) and Ainscow (2005), the issue of ineffective inclusive education programs started immediately after children with disabilities started being incorporated in general education classes; adding that this problem was as a result of poor planning as well as unavailability of funds that were needed to implement this program effectively. This view is also supported by Buli-Holmberg & Jeyaprathaban (2016), who also emphasize the concerns of poor planning. According to all the three articles, the issue of ineffective education programs affects children with disabilities by making it difficult for them to be able to get access to quality CRITICAL ANALYSIS II 4 education as well as by slowing down their emotional and social development. Additionally, all articles point to the fact that no one benefits from the ineffective inclusive education programs since it also affects the children without disabilities by making it difficult for them to appreciate the uniqueness and diversity of their peers. As stated by Topping, (2012) and Thomas (2007), inclusive education programs became ineffective when governments failed to increase their budgetary education plans in an effort to ensure that adequate funds would be available for the proper supplies and supports needed to implement an inclusive education program. This view has also been supported by Hornby (2014) and Whittaker (2012) who also argues that the issue of ineffective inclusive education programs is a result of the rising number of children being diagnosed with disabilities who are then being incorporated in the general education classrooms. Nevertheless, all four articles are in agreement that unsuccessful inclusive education programs affect children by making it difficult for them to acquire a quality education, delaying both emotional and social development, and making it difficult for them to embrace diversity. Seven of the ten sources assert that the issue of unproductive inclusive education programs began as the number of children diagnosed with disabilities grew in turn making general education classrooms become overcrowded. They all attributed inadequate training programs for teachers, failure to brief teachers on the conditions of children with disabilities before introducing them into their classrooms, as well as poor stakeholder collaboration also as a cause. Eight of the ten sources pointed to the fact that ineffective inclusive education programs affects children in these programs by making it difficult for them to acquire a quality education, delaying their emotional and social development and by making it difficult for them to embrace CRITICAL ANALYSIS II 5 diversity. Lastly, all of the sources confirmed that the issue of ineffective inclusive education programs benefits no one. Reaction to the critical analysis All of the causes of unsuccessful inclusive education programs could have been solved through proper planning by all stakeholders involved i.e. the government, teachers, and parents as well as school board members prior to implementing a program such as this. The most important cause that significantly contributed to the problem is inadequate training programs for teachers as it resulted in teachers being overstressed and under skilled while being tasked to provide education services to those with disabilities. CRITICAL ANALYSIS II 6 References Ainscow, Mel. (2005). Developing Inclusive Education Systems: What Are the Levers for Change? Journal of Educational Change, (2), 109 Buli-Holmberg, J., & Jeyaprathaban, S. (2016). Effective Practice in Inclusive and Special Needs Education. International Journal of Special Education, 31(1), 119–134. Corbett, J. (2001). Teaching approaches which support inclusive education: a connective pedagogy. British Journal of Special Education, 28(2), 55. Gaitas, S., & Alves Martins, M. (2017). Teacher Perceived Difficulty In Implementing Differentiated Instructional Strategies In Primary School. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 21(5), 544–556. Hornby, Garry. (2014). Inclusive special education: Evidence-based practices for children with special needs and disabilities. 10.1007/978-1-4939-1483-8. Hwang, Y.-S., & Evans, D. (2011). Attitudes Towards Inclusion: Gaps Between Belief And Practice. International Journal of Special Education, 26(1), 136–146. LeDoux, C., Graves, S. L., & Burt, W. (2012). Meeting The Needs Of Special Education Students In Inclusion Classrooms. Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals, 20–34. Salend, S. & Whittaker, C. (2012) Inclusive Education: Best Practices In The United States What Works In Inclusion? Maidenhead: Open University Press. Schnorr, R. F., Matott, E., Paetow, M., & Putnam, P. (2000). Building-Based Change: One School’s Journey Toward Full Inclusion. Middle School Journal, 31(3), 44–52. Thomas, G. & Loxley, A. (2007) Deconstructing Special Education and Constructing Inclusion (Vol. 2nd ed). Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education. Topping, K. (2012) Conceptions of inclusion: widening ideas’ What Works in Inclusion? Maidenhead: Open University Press. Problem Solving Template Now that you have critically analyzed the problem/issue the next step is generating a solution. Please review the following steps in creating the problem resolution for your identified problem/issue Step 1 Identify the goal in developing a resolution. Using the evacuation plan example, the goal would be to prevent the Hurricane Katrina disaster from occurring again by creating an effective, well developed evacuation plan. Step 2 List as many possible solutions as you can generate. They don’t all have to be effective, practical or realistic. You can consider what other states have done in similar situations. A short list of possible solutions for the evacuation plan for New Orleans: Have emergency management officials trained on a variety of evacuation plans from around the country prior to revising the plan for New Orleans Develop evacuation plan drills for the city to practice the plan to ensure that it works properly. Develop ways to educate/inform the entire city about the newly revised evacuation plan including how it works, maps on where people would go and how they wo ...
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markjunior209
School: Boston College

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Running head: CAPSTONE: POTENTIAL RESOLUTIONS

Capstone: Potential Resolutions

Student’s name

Course name and number

Instructor’s name

Date submitted

1

CAPSTONE: POTENTIAL RESOLUTIONS

2

Inclusive education has not been fully explored, according to Gaitas (2017) and Thomas (2007),
a qualitative analysis of the effectiveness of inclusive education shows that there is low uptake of
the program despite the overwhelming benefits associated with it. The goal of the resolution plan
is to devise approaches through which the effectiveness of inclusive education can be improved.
...

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Anonymous
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