Running head: STREET ART EFFECT IN THE CITY IMAGE
Street Art Effect in the City Image
STREET ART EFFECT IN THE CITY IMAGE2
Street Art Effect in the City Image
Street art is visual art formed in open areas, typically unsanctioned fine art
executed outside of the conventional state art places. The artists in most cases endeavors
to leave some forms of messages such as political issues, sentiments, and these
statements are posted in the street where every one of the general population can
appreciate and assess them. The study provides the readers with information about street
art and how it can influence the people's sentiments of the general spaces. The
methodology adopted for this study is a qualitative method applied in Jeddah city by
interviewing various participators in the case study and asking about their experiences.
The expected outcomes of the research will help to clarify how the street arts can raise
the value of the city or destroy the image of the city and how can street art affects
people’s feelings of the space:
Keywords: street art, city value, people sentiments, expressions.
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Most cities in the world have shifted to street art adverts that aid in passing
information to the public in a quick and faster way. According to Maslyak, Gryniuk, &
Kazantseva (2017), street art emerged from 1960 in various cities. For instance, in New
York City, it started as graffiti-boom infancy with painters such as Keith Haring. In the
current cities, there are numerous artists whose street art has become a mainstream art
and even used as commercial art. Whether it is used for commercial purposes, cultural
aspiration or any with any other intent, the street art is recognized to be of numerous
benefits. The creative, structured art along the busy streets can help in driving the
economy. While making commercial adverts has become expensive in the market, using
public places to post creative art that can help sell brand products and events to the
media. Making use of radio and television as the readily available media channels can
help in displaying the art along the busy streets in various towns. Hence, the promotion
can help in improving the economy (Ursic, 2014).Apart from the economy benefiting
from street art, political milestones are achieved through creative arts drawn by famous
politicians to market their popularity within a specific region. For example, economic
development and urbanization can spread so fast because of the use of graffiti that
displays creativity According to spatial planners, street art is a major contributor to the
transformation and formation of urban identities. Hence, there is a great need for making
use of street art effects since they help in various aspects.
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This part of the literature will describe some of the effects of graffiti to the
community. There are very important histories which are connected with the
metropolises, and they also act as an identity for many urban centers. There is a theory
which states that a lot of attention is given to the broken windows, which means that
disorder signs such as vandalism, fare jumping and so one open window for the great
According to Leventis (2013), street art has boosted the field of architecture in
various ways. Urban cities are designed and drawn on arts that offer a prospect city
design where engineers and developers get ideas to create new projects. Artists have
transformed primary atrium walls in the world with great minds in generating
expectations into pictures that can later be transformed by specialists from different
sectors of the population; for example
The current processes of globalization and in increasing competitiveness in
various cities have influenced the development of urban centers as well as public art.
Furthermore, while art is assumed to be part of the entertainment, it helps in creating
recognition and giving major cities a visual look. As it was written by Januchta (2010),
the role of public visual art in urban space is to help spread the good news to visitors and
local individuals on the potential aspects of a region. For example, a creative art within
an open city space available for development can open the minds of investors that can bid
for such an opportunity of developing the region. Through such marketing strategic ideas
concerning economic development are fueled towards a higher level.Moreover, according
to Lewisohn, (2008), street art is a global and local scene where a sense of touch is felt
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among viewers of the graffiti. Such scenes create beautiful viewsthat can be interesting to
watch while other activities can take place. The literature describes the significant value
added by such scenes to society and its environment.
Also, speaking about street graffiti, Mailer, Kurlansky, &Naar, (2009) believed that there
is a future in painted graffiti along the streets. There are certain activities which are
engaged by the various images of people on portraits and other drawings. These images
can help in keeping the faith of such individuals. For example, users of marijuana have a
strong belief in the use of the drug; hence they keep using items labeled with the graffiti
of the plant.
According to Carver (2016), the use of graffiti on the streets can also be transformative
since it can transform the perception of the communities which are in a certain urban
center as well as transforming the object on which it appears. With the colorful strokes on
the street walls, the perception of the city residents can be changed into something
constructive. In various communities around the world, people have been using street art
for transforming the dull colors in the city into a clear representation of the local identity.
The graffiti artist can also be employed to be the voice of those who are voiceless as they
leave behind a work which is filled with the essential social or political undertones. In
some cases, the members of a community can use street art to create large murals which
can brighten the whole urban center. In such as the graffiti along the street can be used to
as a means of exposing the community characteristics which could have remained
hidden. For example in the city of Pachuca in Mexico, the artists who are collectively
referred to as GermanCrew transformed Las Palmitas into a colorful mural and this was
done an effort to bring the community together as well as to change its gritty image.
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According to Carver, (2016), before this project, the neighborhood was considered to be a
sketchy area and most people would avoid it especially at night. After the graffiti art was
change used, more neighbors were hanging out on the street.
Jeddah city is located in Tihamah region of Hejaz which is found in the coast of
the red sea, and it is one of the major urban centers in the western part of Saudi Arabia as
well as being the largest city in Makkah Province. It is Saudi Arabia's commercial
capital. Economically, the city is focusing on developing a lot of capital investments in
engineering and scientific leadership. There are numerous graffiti at the street walls of
Jeddah which are the works of two Jeddah based artists known as Firas Bawazir who is
also known as From and Sam Alamoudi whose graffiti are mainly found in the street
called "Muso." Therefore, there are numerous iconic in Jeddah which strikes in the ideas
that are expressed ant visually. Over time, the number of graffiti in Jeddah as increased
and all adds to different perception when it comes to the perception of residence of the
city. These graffiti have changed the perception of people in Jeddah hence resulting in a
change in the Image of this city. There are amazing, skills of graffiti which are found on
the walls of Jeddah and this makes people have different ideas as some view them as
vandalism. On the same note, there is a lot of focus on the graffiti on the walls.
Specifically, independent graffiti murals which are designto show the connections of
ideas which need to be perceived by society.
However, there are also negative effects which are connected to the graffiti on the walls
of various streets. The business owners incur a lot of losses when it comes to the negative
images which are promoted by graffiti. Consequently, gangs and other prohibited
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subcultures can use city wall graffiti which all their members can understand to portray
an image concerning their territory identification. In such subcultures, graffiti plays are
used to play the role of maintaining order in vulnerable environments. In some urban
centers, graffiti offers a warning on the dangers which lurks. For instance, in the city of
Chicago, the FBI indicates that there were about five hundred murders which occurred in
2012. The gangs were fighting and murder each other over the boundary which is just
indicated by aerosol paints graffiti (Bartolomeo, 2013).The city street all in some cases
may also use the graffiti to promote hatred of people from other races, tribes, religions
and so forth. These negative markings of graffiti make which are indicated on the public
places may leave people with emotional distress.
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Graffiti can pose a lot of effects on the street and the city at large. Despite the
overlook, people give street art it has a strong message; it can pass to the public. Street art
in marginalized streets or part of town can be used to shout out the cries of the people in
the city. Art ideas displayed on street walls that go with the common name 'graffiti' is an
important political tool used to express the freedom of a city.
The research methodology adopted for this topic is administered a survey
questionnaire with the people living in Jeddah where there is a lot of graffiti. These
graffiti are found in the major walls of Jeddah, and all the participants who were involved
in the study were from within the city. Twenty participants were involved in the study,
and all were collected randomly. The participants were between eighteen and sixty-five
years old, with an average age of forty-five. The participants signed the consent forms
before taking part in the study.
Results and Finding
In an attempt to identify the impression of the graffiti on the city image, a
questionnaire with structures short answer question was used to interrogate the people in
Jeddah city. Only three questions were used in the research to make the research quick.
Open-ended questions which included the general view of the respondents about city art
and the impression it gave them. More than 60% of the individuals indicated that they
used graffiti to express their daily experiences hence its importance. Only 10 % of the
questionnaires filled indicated no interest in the idea of graffiti or did not like it. An
average number indicated that graffiti was good if the message they intended was clear
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Through interview sessions with random civilians on the streets, we were able to
realize that at least 40% of the respondents thought that city art gave the city the beauty it
had. One of the responded quoted that, "city art is good for our freedom of expression
and it helps us express what we can't find words to explain. It also expresses what the
writers feel". About 5% of the respondents indicated that some graffiti has a bad intention
and should be avoided. Such graffiti on drugs and negative politics was bad to the face of
Analysis of Result
From the twenty participants who were involved in the study, thirteen of them use
graffiti to express their daily experiences consider it to be important. Four of them use
were not concerned about graffiti, and three of them were not sure of the importance of
Degree of Importance of
From the results, most of those who live in Jeddah feel that the graffiti are
important, it therefore ensures. This shows that there are a lot of people who value the
graffiti and use them in their daily lives to express feelings. These people total up to
sixty-five percent, and the remaining groups were also divided into two. There were those
who could not identify themselves whether they feel graffiti are important or unimportant
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in their daily lives and thee make fifteen percent. Twenty percent of the participants
indicated that there no value which is connected to graffiti.
Figure one: Degree of Importance of graffiti in Jeddah
Interest in the Graffiti
The study also indicated that ten percent of the participants were not interested in
graffiti. Eighty-five percent of the participants had some interest in the graffiti and are in
many cases refer to graffiti on the street walls. Another 5 percent indicated that in some
cases, they had an interest in graffiti and some cases; they do not have the interest. That
was not sure whether they are interested in it or not.
Table 2: the table showing the interest rate
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Figure 2 showing the level of interest in graffiti
Clarity of the Graffiti
Fifty percent of the participant indicated that it would have been good if the
intended message was made clearer. Thirty percent indicated that the message that is
presented was clear and there is no need for enhancing it. However, twenty percent
indicated that there are some cases in which the graffiti clear but in some cases, they need
Table 3: Clarity of graffiti in Jeddah
Should be made clear
Some are clear
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Figure 3: Clarity of graffiti in Jeddah
Graffiti and Beauty of a City
Forty percent of those who were involved in the interviews during the study
indicated that the graffiti gives beauty to the city. Thirty-five percent, however, indicated
that there is no beauty which is added to the city by the graffiti while twenty-five percent
indicated that it depends on where the graffiti was posted.
Table 4: the table showing the interest rate
Graffiti and Beauty of the city
Figure 4: the figure showing the relationship between the city beauty and graffiti
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Graffiti and Intention
About 5% of the respondents indicated that some graffiti has a bad intention and
should be avoided. Fifty percent of the respondents indicated that the graffiti is always
for good intents, while forty-five were not able to translate the graffiti into intention.
Table 5: the table showing the relationship between Graffiti and Intention
Graffiti and Intention
Figure 5: the table showing the relationship between Graffiti and Intention
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From the analysis of the results which has been obtained from the research study
concerning the graffiti in the city of Jeddah. The following suggestions can be made.
First, only those graffiti which generates positivism needs to be accepted on the walls of
the streets. Those that are considered to be generating negativity should be deemed
prohibited in the walls of the streets. Secondly, the culture of the vast majority in the city
should be considered before posting the graffiti on the walls of a street, and those that
promote that which is not accepted by the culture should be removed. In case the culture
is neutral about certain graffiti, then the message it portrayed should be sought to ensure
that only those that portrayed the messages which are legal in the society are accepted in
the community are posted. The graffiti should be posted on the old buildings to add
beauty to the cities. The walls which are clean and new should be considered last when it
comes to determining where to post the graffiti. All the graffiti which are posted should
indicate the intent before posting to the authorities of the city to avoid posting those who
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have bad intentions. Since everyone in society can access the city walls, those graffiti
which advertise adults only issues should not be accepted.
Graffiti are among the tools which are used to convey messages in society. The
street walls of cities make marks the best places where the artists practice artwork
through painting. However, the message that is conveyed by the graffiti should be
scrutinized by the authority to ensure that no evil intention is associated with the graffiti.
The advantages of graffiti such as adding beauty to the city should be encouraged in areas
which are necessary for the graffiti to have duo advantages. Since most people consider
graffiti to be important, there use should be encouraged when it is spreading constructive
ideas in society.
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