WESTERN NEW ENGLAND UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
A dental implant is a procedure that is surgically made to brace a dental prosthesis such
as a crown by the use of a surgical constituent with the bone of the jaw. The implants are on
biological processes called Osseointegration. These natural processes use a titanium type of
material to form an intimate bond with the bone. The first step to this implant is a fixture of the
implant for Osseointegration and then the addition of dental prosthetic. After this integration,
there is a variable duration before a tooth is attached to the implant to hold dental prosthetic.
There are several dependents on the success or failure to the dental implant. It is contingent on
the health of the individual undergoing the treatment, Osseointegration drugs that affect the
chances, and mouth tissues health. Also, there is no stress during the implant and fixture on
rational functions. Long term health of prosthetic is a guarantee through planning on the position
and number of implants. Planning is necessary because during chewing the biomechanical forces
can be significant. The adjacent teeth to the implant are used to provide the position of the
implant. The requirements for long-term success dental implants are salubrious bone and
A dental implant is a necessary procedure whereby an extracted tooth is replaced to
perform as before. In this paper, we shall discuss the advantage and also the risks associated with
this surgical procedure. The basis of the discussion will be on how risky the implant process is to
the patient’s health. Dental implants help keep up and reinforce the bone structure. This implies
they do substantially more than supplant a missing tooth; they furthermore secure surviving teeth
by safeguarding the bone structure. In the case of removing one tooth or a few, inserts are a
significant answer for recreating and maintaining dental well-being. Dental implants do
significantly more than replace missing teeth. They assist keep up and strengthen bone structure,
accord the aptitude to chew solid food and give patients the certainty to grin. They moreover
protect existing teeth by shielding the bone structure. The reason for this study is to show the risk
factors associated with dental implants. Like other surgeries, dental implants are associated with
risk that could affect the patient's health. Dental implants are so popular as they lead to improved
facial and bones which help to preserve natural tooth tissue by avoiding the need to cut down
adjacent teeth. The reason for this study is due to the importance attached to dental health. Apart
from eating tooth plays an essential role in the outlook of the face which is very important in
factor of personal image. Good dental health provides confidence in person during smiling and
Diagram 1: Showing a dental implant on the upper jaw
During the implant process, there is the employment of several planning techniques for a
successful fixture. The initial step is the general consideration before the implant. This focuses
are on the patient’s condition of public health and the local health state of the mucous membrane.
Also, the bone’s position to the adjacent and opposite teeth, shape and size of the jaws needs
consideration. There are some conditions concerning health that can hinder implants placing due
to increased risk of failure. Patients with a higher threat to implantation are diabetic persons,
heavy smokers, and individuals with poor oral hygiene. The chances of long-term failures
increase as a result of a variant gum disease affecting the implants known as peri-implantitis.
There is also a chance of early failure to the implant due to conditions affecting the bone and
long-term usage of steroids. Survival of implants receives a negative influence from medications
of radiotherapy. According to a published study in 2016 that concluded that there is a high
survival rate to dental implant patients form irradiated areas of an oral cavity (Chrcanovic,
Albrektsson, & Wennerberg, 2014). These patients should also maintain a regular follow up and
oral hygiene to avoid complications the implants.
Usage of drugs such as bisphosphonates and anti-RANKL during implants requires
considerations. These are drugs used to build the bone during implants. Failure to consider the
drugs may be associated with disorders of the jaw called medication-associated osteonecrosis
(MRONJ). The drugs are known to change the bone turnover and putting patients at risk of death
of bone during minor oral surgery. Treatments on routine osteoporosis lower the risk of these
drugs though they might last for months of years. This prolonged effect from BRONJ when
placing implants on patients poses a significant challenge to the dental community on how to
manage the associated risks. According to the “American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial
Surgeons” in a 2009 position paper, made a discussion that the dangers of BRONJ are associated
with slowing release doses of between 0.01 and 0.06 percent for implant or extraction (Zandi,
Dehghan, Ghadermazi, Malekzadeh, & Akbarzadeh, 2015). Intravenous therapy poses a higher
risk on the lower jaw to some patients. The patients prone to the uncertainty are those with
medical issues, those who have ingested the drug for a couple of years, patients on steroids, and
also the ones on more potent bisphosphonates. The 2009 position recommended avoiding to
place implants on patients under cancer care with high-frequency intravenous therapy.
Bisphosphonates usage does not affect implant survival if the implant in general.
Consideration of biomechanical is also a method undertaken for a successful implant
process. This method is because for long-term success on implants is determined by the forces an
implant supports. There are no periodontal ligaments on implants; hence there are higher forces
created when biting and so no sensation of pressure. An implant is made to distribute the forces
across the supporting prosthetics evenly to offset the demand. Forces concentration may result in
severe results such as the fracture of the bridgework, components of the implant, or even losing
the bone adjacent to the implant. Mechanical factors play a part in the ultimate positioning of the
implants and also biological factors (Maló, de Araújo Nobre, Lopes, Queridinha, Ferro, &
Gravito, 2015). Some of the natural elements are the patient’s health, vital structures, and the
type of bone. Mechanical factors are the implant made on a thicker bone density has a lower risk
of malfunction that an implant on lower density. For instance, the front lower jaw part has a
higher mass in comparison to the posterior part of the upper jaw hence making the front part of
having a lower risk of failure. The malfunction of implants has links with the persons who grind
their teeth. While designing an implant, considerations on account of lifetime use of the person’s
mouth is a must. Dental implant industry and the regulators have made several tests on how to
determine a long term mechanical reliability to the patient’s mouth. The basis of the analysis is
on where the implants are struck repeatedly with a similar magnitude of biting until it falls off.
Before surgery, an acrylic guides the dentist on the optimal positioning of the implant. This
guide is applied where there is a need for an exacting plan beyond a clinical judgment. Mostly
surgeries nowadays are made on CAD/CAM software after the dentist has made a CT scan on
the jaws and existing dentures. Computerized planning from the CT scan can help in making a
stent using stereolithography. The CT scan has excellent value to dentists as it helps recognize
and evade vital organism, for instance the inferior alveolar nerve during surgery.
Chances of Atomic Structures
As a result, the methods associated with the implant procedures are way similar to other
surgical procedures. These similarities are on the normal risks after the surgery such as
infections, bleeding excessively, and necrosis of flap tissues. There are also chances of injury on
the nearby anatomic organs, such as blood vessels, maxillary sinus, and the inferior alveolar
nerve. There is rare long-term sinusitis when the maxillary sinus is pricked. Increase in failure of
Osseointegration is due to the lack of stable principal firmness of the implant in the bone (Insua,
Monje, Wang, & Miron, 2017).
Dental Instability after Implantation
Besides, underlying stability refers to a calm dental implant straightway after
implantation. Analysis of resonance frequency on titanium screw implant stability in the bone
tissue of a patient may be hard to access on post-surgery. Through prosthetic reconstruction,
immediate loading may allow sufficient initial balance. Comparison to conventional loading,
premature loading creates a higher peril of implant failure. A result of few weeks leads to
secondary firmness which is due to the regrowth of bone tissue surrounding the implant.
Regrowth of Born Tissues
Equally important, the difference between the initial stabilization and the second balance
is that the latter is a result of the ongoing process of bone regrowth. Initial mechanical stability is
biologically stable; the recuperation process is accomplished. For successful implantation,
primary balance is critical until when the bone around the implant regrows to maximize both
biological factors and mechanical support.
Failure to Integrate
For there to be successful dental implant the bone available on site during the operation
should be of good quality and quantity. Oral hygiene should also be paramount for the patient to
experience primary implant stability following instructions by the dentists. There is a minimal
chance of failure to integrate. The fault is only prone to patients who are unhealthy during the
The technology and risk factors such as biomechanical factor are the major contributors
to the long-term complications on dental implants. The patient’s appearance, there are several
risks associated with it. These appearance risks are likes of a huge smile line, poor quality of
gingival and missing papillae, implants unique shapes to the natural teeth, poor oral hygiene, and
missing bone. There are also other risks that link to biomechanical factors which the geometry of
the implant fails to support the teeth as the first natural way (Gümrükçü, & Korkmaz, 2018). The
failure is due to the implant either being fewer than the root or being longer. The risk of a
biomechanical factor may increase due to low diameter implants. The risk associated with the
technology is the failure of the implants because of retention loss to the teeth they intend to
support. Mechanical failures, damage of bone around the tooth, or peri-implantitis are the basis
of long-term effects to implants. The advantage of implants in comparison to natural teeth is that
they don’t fail due to the cavity as they have dental enamel. The criteria of success in a dental
implant majorly link to the patient’s satisfaction. Satisfaction is brought about by at least five
years of the patient’s nonexistence of pain, lack of bleeding in the soft tissues, adequate
functioning of the teeth replacement, and lack of technical complications occurrence. In a
successive dental implant, a patient should enjoy the aesthetics, can chew up and taste, and be
free from any pain.
Dental implant is a surgical procedure meant to replace extracted natural teeth through
an implant. This procedure as previously discussed has its associated risks which vary from
biological to mechanical factors. The associated biological factors being the patient’s health,
vital structures, and bone type. Dangers that are mechanically based are in the kind of density of
the bone of the implant. The advantage is that the effect on cavity problem is not there. From the
previous discussions, a dental implant is a delicate and risky surgical procedure.
Chrcanovic, B. R., Albrektsson, T., & Wennerberg, A. (2014). Reasons for failures of oral
implants. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 41(6), 443-476.
Gümrükçü, Z., & Korkmaz, Y. T. (2018). Influence of implant number, length, and tilting degree
on stress distribution in the atrophic maxilla: a finite element study. Medical & biological
engineering & computing, 56(6), 979-989.
Insua, A., Monje, A., Wang, H. L., & Miron, R. J. (2017). Basis of bone metabolism around
dental implants during osseointegration and peri‐implant bone loss. Journal of
Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 105(7), 2075-2089.
Maló, P., de Araújo Nobre, M., Lopes, A., Queridinha, B., Ferro, A., & Gravito, I. (2015). Axial
implants in immediate function for partial rehabilitation in the maxilla and mandible: a
retrospective clinical study evaluating the long-term outcome (Up to 10 Years). Implant
dentistry, 24(5), 557-564.
Zandi, M., Dehghan, A., Ghadermazi, K., Malekzadeh, H., & Akbarzadeh, M. (2015).
Perioperative discontinuation of intravenous bisphosphonate therapy reduces the
incidence and severity of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: A randomized,
controlled, prospective experimental study in rats. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial
Surgery, 43(9), 1823-1828.
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