Science
Assignment Chapter 17: Water Resources and Groundwater

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Assignment Chapter 17: Water Resources and Groundwater

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Intro to Earth Sciences, GLY1010 Student Name ___________________________ Assignment Chapter 17: Water Resources and Groundwater Complete the following assignment and submit on the day of your Exam #3. Activities based on the materials by Prof. Katryn Wiese (City College of San Francisco). 1. Estimate the porosity and permeability of the following materials; would they make a good aquifer or rather an aquiclude? Unfractured granite Beach sand Fluvial (river) gravel Fractured granite Glacial till Shale or mudstone Limestone Limestone with dissolution holes 2. Summarize the factors that control the rate of groundwater flow. 3. Sketch and describe an unconfined, confined, and artesian aquifer. Label the water table, the aquifers and the aquicludes. Provide examples in Florida. What is hydraulic head? (include in the sketch). 4. Identify the level of the water table on the following pictures: a. Cenotes (flooded sinkhole/cave), Yucatan, Mexico b. Natural lakes at central Florida 5. Sketch and describe what is required to form a spring and possible settings where this occurs. 6. Sketch and explain the ways that lakes, streams and wetlands relate to groundwater. 7. Sketch a plume of contamination, showing how it relates to the source of contamination and the direction of groundwater flow. 8. Sketch and label the before-and-after development of a cone of depression in cross section, describing how it forms and which way groundwater flows. Also, sketch and describe the before-and-after of how groundwater pumping can cause saltwater incursion into coastal wells. 9. Has salt water incursion occurred in South Florida? Briefly Explain. ...
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1. A. In unfractured granite the porosity may be as low as 1 percent hence water cannot easily
pass through hence contribute to the formation of aquiclude which is a completely impermeable
aquitard.
B. Fractured granite contributes to aquifer formation due to their high porosity and
permeability for water. These aquifers are the main sources of water for mountain communities.
C. Beach sand has low porosity but high permeability. High porosity is required for good
water storage and hence aquifer formation.
D. Glacial till has relatively low porosity which reduces the water retention capacity required
to form an aquifer.
E. fluvial gravel form the best aquifers. It has high porosity allowing water movement
between the grains of varying sizes.
F. shale or mudstone have pores that are not connected making it difficult for water to enter or
leave these rocks. The can contribute to the formation of impermeable aquitards.
g. limestone ha...

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