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Nov 8th, 2015
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Q1. The WSN consists a network of nodes it senses the environment enabling the interaction between persons and computers and also the surrounding environment. The activity of the WSN is sensing, processing and monitoring the network with the low amount of energy. In the WSN, the data is forwarded from multiple hops to a sink and it is connected to the computer network. In the present world, the usage of WSN is unlimited, in the many areas like environmental monitoring, health care, positioning and tracking etc.

In WSN, the classification is divided into two categories event detection(ED) and spatial process estimation (SPE). To find the location of the fire in the forest and the earthquake we use the ED, and to estimate the temperature we use the SPE.

One of the most important issues in the WSN is energy efficiency, because when the application needed strong power but the supply is limited at that time it affects the efficiency of the WSN network because of high power consumption. The main feature WSN network is self-organization, self-healing, energy efficiency, low complexity.

In the WSN, IEEE 802.15.4 is used for the short range of communication, the main feature of IEEE 802.15.4 is low complexity, low cost, low power consumption, and low data rate transmissions. In this workgroup, it uses the bottom two layers of ISO/OSI protocol. In the IEEE 802.15.4 defines the two types

  • Full Function Device(FFD)
  • Reduction Function Device(RFD)

The FFD has the set of MAC services and it is operated in PAN network also. And RFD working in reduced set of MAC services and it operates only on the network device.

The main aim of the paper designs the suitable technology and network protocols for the WSN network. And also this paper helps the vision on future trends and long-term research on WSN.


(n.d.). Retrieved November 2, 2015, from

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Due to increasing development of society and the economy, an increase in human activities which is effecting maritime environment is of major concern. To address this problem, there should be very effective maritime environment monitoring systems which keep a watch on human activities and its degradation effect on marine environment. This article tried to explain merits of Wireless Sensor Networks(WSNs), which can be used to design and implement very low cost and high efficiency Maritime Environment Monitoring System.

Wireless Sensor Networks:

Wireless sensor network is a network which consists of series of sensor nodes which are distributed and has capabilities such as computing, which can sense the change in physical parameters and send those changes to a centralized location or system by using wireless technologies. A WSN has many characteristics which suits maritime environment monitoring system like its ability to deal with uncontrollable environment, topological constraints, and limited node resources for energy and computational power. WSNs deploys more number of sensors to get more precise data with less error tolerance, which will improve over all system reliability. 

Maritime environment is gradually degrading because of increasing human activities like tourism, urban development and industries. This is to be a growing problem which has adverse effects on future generations. In past, traditional oceanographic research vessels were used to monitor oceans, but its used to very expensive, time consuming and low resolution. By applying WSN approach, at-least one order of magnitude cheaper than traditional. oceanographic research vessel.

WSN approach will deploy varieties of sensors which will monitor and sense the different physical and chemical parameters in Maritime environment like water temperature, pressure, wind direction, wind speed, salinity, turbidity, pH, oxygen density, and chlorophyll levels. WSN approach give flexibility to deploy above specified multiple sensors to monitor every aspect of maritime environment, which helps in understanding and monitoring it very precisely.

A WSN architecture mainly consist of below specified features.

  • A sensing module for data acquisition.
  • A central processing module for local data processing and storage.
  • A wireless transceiver module for wireless data communication.
  • A power supply module for energy supply.

WSN uses different types of wireless technologies according to its application, some of frequently used wireless communication technologies are Bluetooth, ZigBee, WiFi, GSM, GPRS and WiMAX


Many WSN based marine environment monitoring systems are developed recently. These applications are mainly to monitor below specified operations.

  1. General ocean sensing and monitoring 
  2. Water quality monitoring
  3. Fish farm monitoring
  4. Coral reef monitoring
  5. Marine shellfish monitoring


According to author, WSN based approach is best suited for developing low cost and effective maritime environment monitoring system. These area is greatly attracted for research and development to due to its advantages in wide range of applications. Wireless sensor networks are very promising due to its natural advantages like easy deployment, real-time monitoring, automatic operation, and low cost. This article explains about the advantages of WSN for developing marine environment  monitoring system, its basic architecture, sensor mode, its wireless communication technologies and also explains about various WSN based applications which are already developed to monitor various of parameters of oceans, network routing mechanisms, algorithms, approaches and techniques on marine environment monitoring based on wireless sensor networks. 


Guobao X, Weiming S & Xianbin W (2014, Sept 11). Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks in Marine Environment Monitoring: A Survey. Retrieved on 2015 Oct 27 from

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