Thank you for the opportunity to help you with your question!
a)Raisins:-The microbial population are significantly reduced upon treatment with H2O2 vapor.H2O2 possesses bactericidal and inhibitoy activity due to its property as an oxidant and due to its capacity to generate other cytotoxic oxidizing species such as hydroxyl radicals.
high sugar content, high osmotic pressure, low moisture, and low water
activity in the jams and jellies prevent the growth of bacteria and
The solutes (sugars, pectins, binders, etc) used in the manufacture of
the jam and jellies ties-up the available water and minimizes the growth
of bacteria and fungi that require a high water environment for
proliferation and growth.
Also, the employment of high acidity (benzoates, citric acid, etc), high
temperature during processing, hermetic sealing during canning and
bottling of the jars/containers, and natural & artificial
preservatives, further set-up microbial hurdles that prevent growth of
vegetative cells and inhibit sporulation (growth of microbial spores).
c)Spices:-Spices undergo irradiation to reduce the microbial contamination.In this gamma rays or pure energy rays emitting from CO-60 sterilize the spices.The irradiation uses the ionising radiation to kill the bacteria,molds and insects while retaining the flavour of the spices.
d)Raw fish:-Raw fish is treated with an alkali metal orthophosphate to
reduce, remove, retard or control bacteria without causing organoleptic
Please rate my answer so that I can further help you in the future.Thanks