I need help with a biology problem

Biology
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A number of methods of microbial control are used to help keep food fresh for a longer time. Describe how each of the foods listed below are treated to reduce microbial contamination. Be sure to describe how the method works, don’t just list the method used.
(a) Raisins
(b) Jelly
(c) Spices

(d) Raw fish (Points : 10)

Nov 13th, 2015

Thank you for the opportunity to help you with your question!

a)Raisins:-The microbial population are significantly reduced upon treatment with H2O2 vapor.H2O2 possesses bactericidal and inhibitoy activity due to its property as an oxidant and due to its capacity to generate  other cytotoxic oxidizing species such as hydroxyl radicals.

b)Jelly:-The high sugar content, high osmotic pressure, low moisture, and low water activity in the jams and jellies prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi.
The solutes (sugars, pectins, binders, etc) used in the manufacture of the jam and jellies ties-up the available water and minimizes the growth of bacteria and fungi that require a high water environment for proliferation and growth.
Also, the employment of high acidity (benzoates, citric acid, etc), high temperature during processing, hermetic sealing during canning and bottling of the jars/containers, and natural & artificial preservatives, further set-up microbial hurdles that prevent growth of vegetative cells and inhibit sporulation (growth of microbial spores). 

c)Spices:-Spices undergo irradiation to reduce the microbial contamination.In this gamma rays or pure energy rays emitting from CO-60 sterilize the spices.The irradiation uses the ionising radiation to kill the bacteria,molds and insects while retaining the flavour of the spices.

d)Raw fish:-Raw fish is treated with an alkali metal orthophosphate to reduce, remove, retard or control bacteria without causing organoleptic depreciation.

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Nov 13th, 2015

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