PHHE467 Deaths Caused by accidents Research Project

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PHHE467

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Attached to the rubric I only need steps 5-8 done.

the assigned disease is Deaths Caused by accidents in DeKalb County, attached are all the documents necessary to complete this assignment. you can read the additional documents to get an understanding of the disease.

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PHHE 467 The Effects of Substance Abuse on Accidental Deaths in Dekalb County, Illinois Abigail Williams Z1774410 PHHE 467 The Effects of Substance Abuse on Accidental Deaths in Dekalb County, Illinois 1 PHHE 467 The Effects of Substance Abuse on Accidental Deaths in Dekalb County, Illinois Objective To reject the null hypothesis and find enough evidence to support my alternative hypothesis on the relationship between accidental death victims and the risk factor(s) that are proven to have a correlation within one another. Literature Review This will be a description of the readings I have found on the topic of discussion. Subjects in Study The victims of accidental deaths are the subjects of study. Measurement This will be a summary of the data I collect. I will describe numerically the correlation between accidental deaths and the risk factors. 1 PHHE 467 The Effects of Substance Abuse on Accidental Deaths in Dekalb County, Illinois 1 Statement of the Problem/Objective In this research I will be studying accidental deaths within Dekalb county. There is currently no statically significant relationship between my independent variables which is substance abuse and my dependent variable which are the victims of accidental deaths. I feel if the risk factors of accidental deaths within the victims of DeKalb county can be pinpointed than a decrease in this deep-rooted issue can occur. During my initial research, I believe to have found solid evidence to justify the position that a relationship not only exists between the variables, but that it is a strong one. Therefore, field completion of this Research Proposal and its findings will likely yield results which will require me to reject the null hypothesis and confirm the empirical research findings which support my alternative hypothesis. The research and findings acquired will assess the risk factors and determine ways that they can be reduced or completely removed to than eventually decrease the rate of accidental deaths. I will also be doing studies to find out how the age, race, gender and environment of person relates to the rate of accidental deaths and the age group that has the highest rate for drug abuse. I will compare between all the variables and I will be using formative evaluation so that I can assess the progress as the research is being conducted. I will give surveys out to the members of the community to gain insight on their point of view and issues they see. The type of study I will conduct is descriptive study. This will allow me to use previous information and data gathered by former researchers. Also as stated before I will be able to use surveys and case studies. PHHE 467 The Effects of Substance Abuse on Accidental Deaths in Dekalb County, Illinois 1 Literature Review Accidental deaths are becoming more common as time goes on. They can occur in many forms such as collisions, falls, poisoning, drowning, fire related and firearms (“The Definition of Accidental Death”). Two categories have been created to distinguish between the types of accidental death, the first being death by motor vehicle. This means any accident that occurs due to a vehicle. Many accidental deaths of DeKalb county happen due to vehicle collision. One man was charged for reckless homicide due to causing a four-car collision and killing an 18-year-old DeKalb high school student (Olsen, 2017). Another victim was a young woman, age 22 whom died due to her vehicle running off the side of the road (Zimmerman,2018). That’s two deaths caused by vehicle accidents within the last two years along with many others. The second category is non- vehicular accidents which are any type of accidents that occur without the cause of a motor vehicle (IPlan, 57) These types of accidents are every single one mentioned above with collisions being exempt. according to the daily chronicle of DeKalb county, a 41-year-old man was found dead in his apartment due to a drug overdose. He was the second person that week to die due to overdose in DeKalb (Zimmerman, 2017) It was stated that this cause of death was becoming an epidemic in DeKalb. I chose the use articles from the daily chronicle because I can determine how many accidental deaths happened due to vehicles and non-motor vehicles. These articles also give grave insight on the victim themselves and the time of the incident. The evalution principles I will be using are the instruments that are used to measure community programs must be continued to each individual community and evaluation approaches used should be guided by the questions asked and often require a qualitative and quantitative PHHE 467 The Effects of Substance Abuse on Accidental Deaths in Dekalb County, Illinois 1 orientation (Goodman, 3). I am using instruments that measure community programs because I feel surveys and questionnaires will help give me insight within my research on the people of the community and what they feel are risk factors when it comes to accidental deaths. I also plan to use a lot of data that has been recorded and gathered by previous researchers and by myself. This data will include numbers involving the rate of accidental deaths within the last several years, also comparing the rates of types of death. I will also use qualitative data such as characteristics of the victims or the type of accident that occurred which falls into the second evaluation principle. As stated, several times I will be using surveys within my research. One of Jowel Cowens main four study components are household surveys. This technique gives the targeted population a change to express their views (Cowen, PP). Another component of his are community analysis which is data you obtain from sources such as the census records, hospital records, and social records. With this information you can compare patterns and trends with the area of study (Cowen, PP). Subjects for Study The subjects I am studying are the victims of accidental deaths of Dekalb county. This is the dependent variable because by the end of my research I plan to find a way to decrease the rate of accidental deaths by exploring the risk factors related to the issue. The independent variable I've chosen is substance abuse. I chose this because in the research I have conducted online while viewing previous data and articles, this was one of the highest risk factors of accidental deaths in Dekalb county. I feel that due to the area being a college town the rate of substance abuse falls under a higher rate than most county's surrounding the area. I also feel with the region itself being very isolated, the area may become quite depressing for those living out PHHE 467 The Effects of Substance Abuse on Accidental Deaths in Dekalb County, Illinois 1 here with no family which than leads to substance abuse along with coping mechanisms for stress which can fall under the area being a college town. Certain areas in DeKalb county are low income and obstructed with poverty which usually includes the solicitation of substance. This can be a huge concern if majority of the substance abuse cases occur within these areas. This is a true problem because more than likely as this being a college town more younger adults will continue to abuse substance which will only continue the cycle unless it is stopped or reduced drastically. The choice of survey and field research methods influence subject selection because it will determine those who've experienced substance abuse or known someone who has, it will also determine between those that have known people whom death occurred due to accidents and the type of accident. Measurement When finding data for my research I will be using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. I will need to use data involving numerical results which include rates of death per year, age and rates between the different types of accidental deaths(race,gender,region). I will also use data that is non-numerical such as characteristics of the study victims, descriptions of certain incidents and aspects of the research and concepts discovered within the research. The field research will involve surveys that will go out to students, adults, and the elderly. I will also visit the substance abuse treatment centers in the area so that I conduct surveys there. One of the secondary sources I plan for use in data is IPlan which discusses the rate of accidental deaths by motor vehicle between the years of 2013 and 2017. The measurement's I will be using are incidents per 100,000. For non-motor vehicle accidents, a major increase in deaths occurred between 2015 and 2017 (IPlan, 58). This increase was indicated due to the abuse of opioids PHHE 467 The Effects of Substance Abuse on Accidental Deaths in Dekalb County, Illinois within Dekalb county. The focus groups I plan to evaluate substance abuse victims, accident victims, college students, and people whom have known others in those categories. I plan to see changes within the amount of deaths occurring due to substance abuse. About a decrease of 5% per 100,000 should occur while this program is in place. That’s about 5,000 less incidents each year that will be avoided. 1 PHHE 467 Online Spring 2019 Step 2 Special Assignment 2-14-2019 • Gradable Individual Exercise due 2/21 online What is the disease or health problem that you will be studying this semester? Accidental Deaths What kind of study will you be doing—exploratory, explanatory or (descriptive)? Please briefly explain why you chose the kind(s) of study that you did. 1. I want to go further in depth about the topic while using data previous data found by others. 2. I will be able to observe data and pinpoint variables such as age, gender, race to determine if they had any relation to the problem. 3.I will be able to review case studies and possibly conduct a survey to gain insight on other perspectives. What specific research questions do you have about the disease you’re studying? 1.What is the main cause of accidental deaths? 2. What are some key components that can help prevent accidental deaths from occurring? 3. How does the age, race, gender and region of a person effect the rate in which accidental deaths occur What will be your Independent (causal) variable(s) in your study? Why did you choose that (or these)? The age, race, gender, and region of the victim are my independent variables because they are the variables I will be manipulating or changing to determine different outcomes of accidental deaths. What is your dependent variable in your study? (Please state it fully with descriptors). The dependent variable in this study will be the decrease of accidental deaths occurring. State your hypothesis in full (if-then statement) that you will be using for your study. If I can determine the source of accidental deaths in dekalb I can decrease the rate in which they occur. Williams, Abigail Abigail Williams Accidental Deaths A very common form of death that many people have heard about is “Accidental” death. Accidental deaths can occur in many ways, such as falls, trips, poisoning, and collisions. To shorten the list there have been two categories created to distinguish between the types of accidental deaths. The two categories are non-motor vehicle, which is any accidental death outside of a vehicle coalition and motor vehicle, which is an accidental death that occurs due to a motor vehicle. When observing the data for Dekalb county you can see some very distinctive points due to the county being so small. Accidental deaths in Dekalb county due to motor vehicle accidents dropped 4.83% between the years of 2013 and 2016. Unfortunately, a major increase in accidental motor vehicles occurred in 2017 increasing the total of deaths by 5.74% per 100,000. This brought the total in 2016 from 7.65 to 13.39 in 2017. For a small county like Dekalb that is considered a major jump within a year. Non-motor vehicle deaths had a major increase between the years of 2015 and 2017. An increase of 22% occurred between the years of 2015 and 2017. Many of these non-motor vehicle accidental deaths derived from the use of opioids. The use of opioids increased dramatically between 2015 and 2016 and dropped slightly in 2017. When comparing small urban counties to Dekalb alone there is not a huge gap. There about 35 deaths for Dekalb to 70 deaths for small urban counties, meaning Dekalb takes up half of that percentage. If we were to compare age, race and gender than the majority range for age would be between 25-44 and 45-64. The area is considered a college town but is predominately Caucasian with many elderly adults. This would explain the age range and the race. The gender various between the two equally, there is no one that occurred more than the other. Due to this area being a college town I feel this data is significant and can help many people with prevention. PHHE 467 Spring 2019 Individual Research Project Checklist Page 1 of 5 Part I. Individual Requirements: Format—Paper A. Formal 10 Page Paper (Minimum number of pages, excluding Title Page, Contents Page and References page). • Is there a Title page for your Project? o Have you included your first and last name? Your ZID number? o Name of course and section? (PHHE 467-1) o Is all the information centered in the middle of the page? • If you’ve used a chart or graph, has it been located in the Appendix to the paper, located at the end of the paper? You should describe, in words, the content and purpose of the graph or chart in the paper itself. Any actual charts or graphs (like a Schedule or Budget) should be located in your Appendix, in the order in which the item is discussed in your paper. o You need to make reference to the chart in your Appendix by noting the page it’s located on. For example, “see Appendix, page 25”). o For any chart or graph, is it clearly marked so that it can be read as a “stand alone” document (can it be understood what it is by looking at it—are parts of the chart clearly marked, and so forth). • For the Literature Review, are there at least ten (10) peer-reviewed journals, or other primary or secondary information sources discussed? Is there a description of each general source, reference to specific data used or extracted from the set, and why each specific piece of information would be useful to your investigation of the disease or condition you’re studying? o Are all Literature Review sources, as well as any other references, duly acknowledged and listed in the “References” section of the paper? In the main body of your paper by using in-text citations? o Do all the references you’ve selected for your paper support your hypothesis or problem you are studying? (no unrelated references should be used). o Are you comparing/ contrasting your references selected (remember that this is NOT an annotated bibliography. There is a big difference)! • • • • Remember that two (2) of your ten (10) references selected need to be the Robert Goodman article and Joel Cowen’s classic Needs Assessment. Both can be found in your “Course Information” section of the course menu. Are you using APA for all of your References? (Refer to the Gail Jacky presentation in the course’s “Course Information” section for examples of proper APA citations). Are all words in the presentation spelled correctly? Does your online paper use 1” margins and Times New Roman, 12-point font? (No bolding of font is permitted). Page 2 0f 5 Part II. Additional INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITIES. THIS IS YOUR RUBRIC FOR THE PROJECT. YOU MUST ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN EACH SECTION FOR A GOOD PROJECT SCORE IN YOUR PAPER. 1. Statement of the Problem (or Objective of your Study). • • • • Have you clearly stated what it is you want to study? Why is the hypothesized situation important to DeKalb County? If not now, could the problem be significant in the future due to possible changing demographics or other changes in the County’s health needs? How does your proposed study contribute to the overall health status of your target population and the health status of DeKalb County now and in the future? Other considerations/ items which must be included in this section of your paper: ▪ Null Hypothesis (including independent and dependent variables). Use full wording. ▪ Alternative Hypothesis (including independent and dependent variables; “if-then”) significant causation implied. What kind of causal relationship is it that you think is worthy of further funding and community intervention by the DeKalb County Health Department? ▪ Additional concerns for you to include: ▪ Are you proposing a Formative or Summative kind of evaluation and why? ▪ Validity and Reliability of Study that you are doing, to confirm problem exists. ▪ Purpose of proposed study: Exploratory, Explanatory, and/or Descriptive? Why? 2. Literature Review ▪ ▪ Include in your discussion (short summary) the following: At least 10 up-to-date resources (no older than 4 years old). Include: ▪ Goodman article: pick at least two of Goodman’s Principles and discuss their relevance to your study. ▪ Joel Cowen’s Mental Health Study for DeKalb County. Note: Goodman’s article and Cowen’s PowerPoint are of course older than 4 years. We are using Goodman for evaluation theory and Cowen for the form for four kinds of assessment. ▪ DeKalb County IPLAN; DeKalb County: what data were specifically relevant to your particular study, and why? (Make sure that you use the 2017-2022 MAPP version, NOT the old APEX-PH model version). Available under “Course Information”. ▪ Summarize how each of the 10 resources is expected to contribute to the quality (validity and reliability) of your study. Compare and contrast them; find similarities and support for your Hypothesis. ▪ NO WIKIPEDIA citation as a direct source of information! Not necessarily a competent or reliable source of information! Minus 10 overall presentation points if used! __________________________________________________________________3 of 5 3. Subjects for Study ▪ The health status as expressed in incidence or prevalence of your target population’s problem is ALWAYS your dependent variable. The health status of the target population is what you wish to eventually change to reflect progress toward a stated goal. The usual reason it has been chosen is that it is abnormally higher or lower than the incidence or prevalence of a problem on a statewide or national basis. ▪ What is your independent variable? Why was it chosen (usually suggested by previous research/ findings)? What do you hypothesize is causing the rate of incidence or prevalence to be less or more than the desired status (use State of Illinois and Federal “benchmarks” as points of comparison and evaluation of the need for the intervention). ▪ Why is this health status anomaly a true “problem”, not merely a “condition”? Other considerations you will want to address in “Subjects for Study”: ▪ Whom or what will you study in order to collect data? ▪ In specific terms, who or what is available for study? ▪ How will you reach them? ▪ What kind of sample(s) are you going to have? How will you do that? ▪ Do you know if the sample you intend to select will be representative of your Target population? How and why do you know? ▪ Is there any possibility that your study will affect those you study? ▪ How will you ensure that your study doesn’t harm them? ▪ How will our choice of a survey or field research methods influence subject selection 4. Measurement ▪ What kind of research method (study design) do you propose to use and why? (best to have multiple indicators of a problem coming from different perspectives, as in Joel Cowen’s presentation). This is a short explanation of options and which would be best for your study. ▪ Quantitative? Qualitative? Both? Why one or the other? Why both? ▪ Field Research/ Community Assessment ▪ Secondary source analysis? ▪ Key Informant? ▪ Focus Groups? ▪ (See Joel Cowen’s presentation—his four ways of assessing health disparities within the Community). The best presentation will show how each of the four types of data acquisition will be used in your type of evaluation. Actual survey or focus questions need to be submitted, shown in your Appendix. How are you going to measure what you propose to collect? What kind of format are you going to use so that your form of measurement and results are clearly presented? ▪ How do you propose to measure changes you expect to see in the dependent variable caused by your independent variable (intervention) in your final plan? Changes need to be expressed in exact terms—can’t just be “we want to see an increase”. An increase in what in terms of Measurement? (Hint: Incidence or Prevalence per 1,000 or 10,000. etc.). Page 4 of 5 5. Data-Collection Methods ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ How will you actually collect the data for your study? Will you conduct an experiment or a survey? (see above: coordinate with the person doing Measurement). This section is what you actually choose as research, and how you’re going to go about it. Will you undertake field research (above) or focus on reanalysis of existing statistics already created by others (think IPLAN, data sets from state, local, federal and “specialty” not for profits). Remember that the more sources confirming the same problem you have, the better your research and evaluation of a community problem will “sell”. A single indicator of a “problem” in a community may only indicating a “condition” of a particular set of persons, not a confirming “problem” which is endemic to a significant part of a target population. 6. Analysis • Choose the kind of analysis you want to conduct that’s conducive to the stated aims and choices made by other participants in this exercise (Qualitative, Quantitative? Kind?) • Spell out the purpose and logic of your analysis once again (Exploratory, Descriptive, Explanatory) • Do you intend to explain why things are the way they are? Do you plan to account for some variations in health status—comparison of your target population to the general population of DeKalb County? • What possible explanatory variables are you going to highlight in your search to find the reason for identifying significant differences between your Target population and the general DeKalb County population (what do you thing makes this population worthy of intense study and intervention)? ▪ How are the forms of Measurement and Data Collection that you’ve chosen going to use in this proposed study going to explain why it would be a good idea to spend money on trying to reduce the incidence or prevalence of the problem you’ve identified? 7. Schedule ▪ This is a timeline for accomplishing planning, research and data collection, analysis, publishing—everything you need to do from start of the project to finish. ▪ The suggested time frame would be 6 months to 1 year, depending on the kinds of research intended, and quantity and complexity of your Research Design itself. ▪ For a list of specific activities, see “How to design a research project” in Chapter 4 of your text. (The section concludes with “Application”). ▪ Your timeline must be illustrated using a Gantt chart (see previous Week 6 folder for information as to how to do a Gantt chart in Excel). ▪ For your paper, explain in words what you chart means for your one-page summary of your work. Include your actual Gantt chart in the Appendix. Page 5 0f 5 8. Budget ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ How much in dollars is it going to cost you in terms of the proposed research? Look in your text for tips on what to budget—supplies, personnel, space where you work is to be accomplished, land phone, cell phone, fax, and so forth. Look online from a credible source as to how to construct a project budget for health services. You can use a little creativity here, but it must be reasonable. Coordinate with your “Schedule”. List budget totals by type of line item. Not as just one big lump sum. Where are you going to get the money for the project, assuming your Team has made a good case for the preliminary project? (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance, private foundations and/or other sources provided from earlier online post). Project money source must include the following: -Actual foundation or program you hope to get money from for the evaluation -Due date for any application -How this fits in with your general schedule of what you are going to do on a month-by-month basis. Can you begin your project without any money? -How much money from each revenue source, and for what specific purposes? Unrestricted use of funds (depends on funding source)?
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Explanation & Answer

The Effects of Substance Abuse on Accidental Deaths in DeKalb County, Illinois

1

Data collection method
I am planning to collect my data from several fields. I will combine data from the police
confirming the same incidence, and that data from emergency and accidents departments from
different hospitals and health cares around DeKalb County. This should, however, keep the
confidentiality of the patients. This is one of the ways through which I will be able to collect
complete details that will be important for my project. Police are always available whenever
there is an accident, and hence it will be easier to receive information from them as well as the
emergency and accidents departments. I will also conduct a survey based entirely on my
objectives. This will go on to give me an insight into how these problem has affected not only
the families of the victims but also that community as a whole and what are their
recommendations on the topic.
I will also be able to use data from similar research conducted previously by other researchers.
This will help me relate what has been happening ...


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