Synthesis Essay Peer Review Prompt
English 1310: Rhetoric and Composition I
Early in the paper, the writer should incorporate what those writers they read for this miniresearch say to provide the context/introduction for his/her research topic. He/she should also
provide a clear statement of his/her claim and three reasons. Finally, the writer should answer the
“Who cares?” and “So what?” questions by making it clear why the issue matters to his/her
Are all these elements clear to you? If so, prove it by repeating these elements back to the writer
(feel free to quote the writer directly in your response). If not, describe what is missing and
suggest some options for how the writer might go about satisfying these elements of the
For each of the writer’s supporting reasons, he/she should provide sufficient evidence (in the
form of quotes, observations, reasoning etc. from the articles they read) to persuade his/her
reader of the truth of those reasons.
Does the writer provide sufficient evidence for his/her first reason? If so, describe that evidence
and explain why it is persuasive. If not, explain why the writer’s evidence is insufficient and
describe the type of evidence he/she needs to provide in order to fully support the reason.
Repeat this process for each additional reason.
At some point the writer should (1) name and describe an opponent, (2) describe that opponent’s
argument fairly, (3) identify any areas of agreement (common ground), and (4) respond with a
Does the writer respond adequately to an opponent? If so, summarize the four moves listed
above and explain why they are effective. If not, explain what is lacking and suggest how the
writer might go about executing these moves more effectively.
The Writer should properly utilize the writing skills he/she has learnt in the class such as
summarizing, paraphrasing, quoting, using evidence and sources etc. Has the writer successfully
utilized those skills? Prove yes or no or something else!
Paper 3 – Researched Position Paper
The Rhetorical Situation
For your Issue Proposal, you organized your preexisting knowledge on your issue and sketched a
plan for research. You traced the controversy surrounding your issue by describing its history
and summarizing the major positions on it. All these assignments have been preparing you for
this final paper, where you will advocate a position on your issue with a well-supported
argument written for your audience.
In rhetorical studies, invention refers to the systematic search for ideas that can be shaped into an
effective composition. (The term “prewriting” is sometimes used to refer to the concept of
invention.) This section of the assignment, then, is designed to help you generate the required
content for your Researched Position Paper. Please note that the following steps are not
intended to serve as an outline for your paper. Rather, these steps will help you produce the
“raw materials” that you will then refine into a well-organized analysis, and these steps are likely
to produce more material than you can actually use in the draft you submit to readers.
1. Construct a claim that advances the conversation about your issue, turns it in a new direction.
You might disagree with claims made by authors of your sources, you might agree with the
claim(s) but with a difference, you might agree and disagree with the claim (s) simultaneously,
or you might generate an entirely new claim that addresses an aspect of the issue that has not
been addressed in the sources you’ve found.
2. Next, attach as many reasons as are necessary to fully support your claim. Your
claim+reasons, also known as “enthymemes”, will form your thesis.
3. For each separate enthymeme in your thesis, identify the implicit warrant and determine
whether it represents an assumption that your audience shares with you. If so, there’s no need to
address the warrant explicitly in your argument. If the warrant represents an assumption some
readers might resist, however, consider how you might persuade them to accept it. If you think
it would be impossible to persuade your audience to accept the warrant, then you might consider
changing the reason so as to produce a warrant that relies on an assumption that you and your
readers share. Please note: each reason in your thesis will produce a different warrant, and
you must assess the audience’s response to each one.
4. For each of your reasons (and any warrant that needs explicit support), provide sufficient
evidence to convince your audience that your reasons are true statements. Your personal
experiences, observations, and reasoning count as evidence, but you should also draw
extensively on outside sources for evidence to support your reasons.
5. Make sure you anticipate objections to your argument by planting at least one naysayer
in your paper. This naysayer might be hypothetical or might be the actual author of an
outside source. To engage effectively with a naysayer, you should:
• name and describe the naysayer.
• represent objections fairly.
• make concessions when possible.
• answer objections.
6. The previous five steps will help you construct effective logos appeals. You should also
make effective ethos appeals in order to come across to readers as a person of good character,
good sense, and good will. To make effective ethos appeals, make sure you:
• know what you’re talking about. Draw on all those outside sources you’ve been reading
over the course of the semester, and provide ample evidence for your reasons.
• show regard for your readers. Try to come across as approachable and thoughtful, not
arrogant or insensitive.
• are careful and meticulous in your writing, not sloppy or disorganized.
7. Finally, make pathos appeals to readers by connecting with their emotions, values,
and imaginations. To make effective pathos appeals, make sure you:
• choose an appropriate style based on the conventions of your publication venue if
you are considering publishing this paper in a journal.
• evoke emotions (sympathy, outrage, anger, delight, awe, horror, etc.) in your readers that
make your paper more moving.
• evoke sensations (seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, smelling) in your audience that make
your writing vivid and help readers experience things imaginatively.
• appeal to values (freedom, justice, tolerance, fairness, equality, etc.) that your readers and
In rhetorical studies, arrangement refers to the selection of content generated during the
inventional stage and the organization of that content into an effective composition.
To begin your paper, follow the following advice: “To give your writing the most important
thing of all—namely, a point—a writer needs to indicate clearly not only what his or her thesis
is, but also what larger conversation that thesis is responding to”. In this case, the conversation
you’re responding to is the one surrounding your issue. Indicate at the beginning of your paper
that you’re writing in response to that conversation; then state a thesis that consists of your
claim and supporting reasons.
After you’ve completed these introductory moves, the arrangement of your argument is up to
you. You should include material from each step in the inventional stage, but your selection
and organization of that material should follow your own judgment as to what will prove most
effective with the audience you have selected.
In rhetorical studies, style refers to the appropriate language for the occasion, subject matter, and
One purpose of ENGL 1320 is give you practice writing in a variety of styles. For this paper, you
should familiarize yourself with the style of pieces published in the venue you have selected.
Adhere to that style as closely as possible.
Readers appreciate coherent, unified paragraphs, even when reading an informal piece of
writing. Your paragraphs should include a topic sentence that clearly states the main idea of
the paragraph and supporting sentences that cluster around the main idea without detours.
You should cite your sources according to the conventions of your publication venue. If you’re
writing a letter or an article for a mainstream periodical, then you will probably just introduce
your sources and cite them within the text, much as you did for your Mapping the Issue paper.
If you’re writing for a web-based publication, you might need to include hyperlinks. If you’re
writing for a scholarly journal, then you’ll need to use the formal citation system (e.g., MLA,
APA, or Chicago) that journal requires.
Proofread carefully; avoid errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and mechanics. Visit the
Purdue OWL website (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/) for questions you have regarding
Your paper should be at least 7-10 pages. I don’t want any fluff, so construct a thesis that will
require at least seven pages to support. I also don’t want to read a dissertation, however, so keep
the scope of your thesis small enough that you can support it adequately within eight pages.
Your paper should be double-spaced, typed in Times New Roman font, with 12-point character
size and one-inch margins all the way around.
Your first submission is due at the beginning of class on [See the syllabus for the exact
deadline] , and you should think of it as a final draft—something that is ready for your
classmates and me to read. If your first submission does not meet every requirement of this
assignment sheet, I will return it to you and count it as late. Both your first and final
submissions must be turned in on time—you will be docked a full letter grade for each day
either is late.
Peer reviews are due [See the
syllabus for the exact deadline].
Final drafts are due [See the
syllabus for the exact deadline]
Prof. Manav Kaur
10 December 2018
DACA-should it be ended or not?
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals is a program that was started in 2012 by Barrack
Obama, who was then the president of the United States of America. The primary objective of
this program was to help those in need from foreign countries by issuing them rights to own
driving licenses, acquire employment, receive social security number and other states benefits.
These rights helped the needy undocumented immigrants to access the states’ benefits meaning
even if they have no citizenship, they can own certain documents, properties and participate in
building the nation through restricted rights. There has been debates whether to end this program
or not, where some of the leaders have been trying to end it such as the current president of
America Donald Trump. Donald Trump accused Barrack Obama of overstepping his authority
and allowing DACA to be created. DACA protects the immigrants from deportation by the
States government hence the debate is still in court waiting for the ruling. However, Deferred
Action for Children Arrivals program should not be ended because it provides better lives to the
immigrants as well as citizens living in the USA, enhanced the quality of education and ending
DACA will jeopardize the lives and opportunities of the poor immigrants.
The economy of America has enhanced itself since DACA was started. These changes
have been to the better since when immigrants came to America, they have contributed to the
economic growth by paying their taxes, buying new homes and many other advantages that have
also helped business development in America. This has been proven by Anne Morse in an
article, “Coming to America” published on the states legislatures’ journal. She said, “Immigrants
play a big role in America’s economy”. She wanted the government under the ruling of President
Trump to rethink on the idea of ending DACA with considerations of their impact in America’s
economy. It is estimated that DACA has protected over 790,000 unauthorized immigrants from
deportation who are working in the United States of America. Most of them were from Mexico
and El Salvador. Thus, DACA has provided a reliable way for these illegal immigrants to get
settled in their life, attend a quality education and have a good financial stability (Morso). An
article by Paul Krugman, published in The New York Times in July 2017, stated the adverse
effects in the US economy that will be caused by killing DACA. He said, “we have let in skilled
immigrants because they help to enhance the national economy”. He wanted to bring out the
effects that will be inflicted in US economy when DACA closes. The writer indicated that the
young immigrants living in America under DACA have benefited America in two significant
ways which he explains are beneficial to the economy. These immigrants have curbed the
problem caused by the aging population and secular stagnation problem. As we can see, there are
so few populations who pay their taxes in time. Meanwhile, these DACA immigrants are those
who are paying taxes to the government. This has helped to balance the disparity in paying
revenue, created by the aging population. If thousands of immigrant workers are expelled from
the work force, there will be a massive scarcity of the workers in the market which will worse off
the national economy. In a general view, America has derived many benefits from immigrants
that are pursuing their dreams in this country. Hence ending DACA will mean those benefits will
not be gained anymore (Krugman). According to an article, “Deferred Action for Childhood
Arrivals” in Dallas county college district stated the federal government is accepting student’s
renewal applications and work permits for youth under DACA status (Chancellor). Dr. Joe May
said “since the ruling made by the court supports education for immigrants, we will continue to
renew applications”. He wanted to mean that renewal of student’s application is going on despite
the threats to close DACA.
Since the formation of DACA in 2012, the education centers in America received great
competition because demand for education went up. The reason behind this is because for an
immigrant to receive an opportunity to work in the US they had to have enrolled in school either
high school level, diploma or degree for them to receive better salaries. Intake levels in colleges
and universities went up building stiff competition among them. This, in turn, enhanced the
quality of education offered in the institutions in America. On the other hand, universities and
colleges whether public or private only allowed the best students to school with them. These
encouraged students to improve their grades for them to gain access to institutions that would
guarantee quality education for them to pursue their dreams and hence brought competition
among students to secure those chances. These competitions made students have the tenacity to
achieve better academic performance to secure the slight chances of scholarships offered by
these institutions. U.S. District judge supported the protection of students who are studying in
U.S under the DACA program through his ruling on 3rd august 2018 (District). The judge said
“children protected under DACA will continue to be protected from deportation”. He supported
protection of the children under DACA.
DACA has helped many young people to support their families and local communities by
enabling them to acquire good jobs in the US. These families have also gained benefits of
attaining better education, health insurances and have social security number. This program was
meant to help the needy and therefore there is screening before getting the rights of DACA.
There will be no future left for young immigrants to support their families and the local
community in the future. In an article published in the National public radio explained the
uncertainties of young DACA members upon the announcement of ending DACA by President
Donald Trump (Sanchez). Erazo a high school counselor said “you see in their eyes fear, that’s
the heartbreaker”. He wanted to mean children will be affected if Congress does not come up
with a solution for the immigrants who will be hurting these kids. They have been born and
raised in America meaning the only thing that denies them citizenship is the fact that their
parents are immigrants.
There have been misconceptions that crime rates have gone up due to a large number of
immigrants coming to America. On the contrary to this immigrants are less likely to get involved
in any crimes. Before receiving permission to get into the United States there are several steps
taken by the homeland security and the immigrant services to ensure that anyone who comes to
the United States must be crime free. Any person found to have committed any felony offense is
denied the opportunity to come to America. These requirements make individuals who come into
America have no risks to the state, according to Linda in an article posted in the New York
Times explained the critics against immigrants. Linda said “the evidence that DACA residents
have led to negativity is lacking”. She wanted to mean that those were just common critiques
On the other hand, there have been reported cases of immigrants who sneak in the United
States using illegal means. These immigrants cannot work, own a driving license or gain any
benefits from the state since they have not acquired the rights of an undocumented immigrant.
They now live in fear of tomorrow raising anxiety and depressing to the immigrants.
Many are financially stable but the thought of killing DACA has changed the perspective of
their lives. They should receive support to avoid mental health issues whereas better solutions
should be raised rather than removing them from the country.
DACA should remain in existence because since it was formed allowing benefits to
immigrants, the economy of the United States has grown tremendously with more goods coming
to the state than the perceived harm. The growth is continued as the State gives the immigrants
opportunities to work and have better medical services that help them to support their family
members and their local communities. Donald Trump is raising the impression that the
immigrants are a threat to the United States. This impression is wrong since the more
immigrants coming into the United States the better the economy is getting, education is
improving and businesses are developing. Killing DACA will bring a gap in America’s economy
and reduce the standards of education since the students are working hard to get the scholarships
offered hence the competition will be reduced in DACA is terminated. An article published in
the New York Times gives the answers to what it means to end DACA (Liz Robbins).
Chancellor. DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals). n.d. 22 November 2018
District, Dallas County Community College. Five Things You Should Know About DACA. 14th
August 2018. 22 November 2018
Krugman, Paul. "The Very Bad Economics of Killing DACA." The New York Times 5
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