PowerPoint Presentation on Convection, Conduction, and Radiation. 10 slides

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Instructions

You have been invited to talk about thermodynamic concepts—specifically the three heat transfer methods (convection, conduction, and radiation)—in front of a high school physics class. To aid you in your presentation, you need to create a PowerPoint about the thermodynamic concepts with examples based on your experiences. In your presentation, be sure to include the following:

  • compare and contrast the three heat transfer methods with examples,
  • describe the relation among density, temperature, and volume when the pressure is constant, and
  • explain the blackbody radiation curve.

Your PowerPoint must be a minimum of 10 slides not including the title and reference slides. You are required to insert appropriate images and diagrams to enhance your content. In addition to the images, you must use at least two scholarly references in your presentation. Any images or information used should be cited in APA format. Also, it is a good idea to utilize presenter notes and provide narration, but this is not required.

STUDY GUIDE ATTACHED

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UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE Thermodynamics I Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 6. Describe thermodynamic concepts and their applications. 6.1 Compare and contrast the three heat transfer methods. 6.2 Describe the relation among density, temperature and volume when the pressure is constant. 6.3 Explain the characteristic of blackbody radiation curve. Reading Assignment Chapter 15: Temperature, Heat, and Expansion Chapter 16: Heat Transfer Unit Lesson Three Temperature Scales A thermometer is used to measure temperature. We can make a thermometer due to the fact that most materials expand when heat is added. For example, a mercury thermometer, which consists of a mercury-filled glass bulb connected to a capillary tube, is widely used. When mercury is heated, the expanded amount of mercury is directly proportional to the increased temperature. Two common temperature scales are the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales. Both scales are based on boiling and freezing points of water at atmospheric pressure. In the case of the Celsius scale, the boiling point is 100o C, and the freezing point is 0o C. For the Fahrenheit scale, the Heat energy is used in pyrotechnics, including boiling point is 212o F, and the freezing point is 32o F. The fireworks. length between these two points is divided equally to indicate the temperature scales. The separation between the freezing and boiling points on the Celsius scale is 100 degrees while the separation on the Fahrenheit scale is 180 degrees. The conversion formula for the two scales is F=9/5C +32. In the scientific world, the Kelvin temperature scale, or absolute temperature, has more meaning. This is the SI unit for temperature. It is defined as follows: 1 K is 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water at which the three phases coexist with equilibrium. From the ideal gas law PV=const.*T. If the volume is not changing, the pressure (P) is directly proportional to the temperature (T). That is, we can use this relation to indicate temperature while adjusting the pressure of the gas container. If we plot between the temperature (T) and the pressure (P), the result indicates that 273.15 oC, absolute zero point, has an important value because it is the corresponding value when the pressure is zero. It is impossible to reach lower than the absolute zero point, 0 K, the lowest temperature. The relation between the Celsius scale and Kelvin scale is K=C+273.15. PHS 1110, Principles of Classical Physical Science 1 A Weird Property of Water Most substances contract as the temperature decreases and expand as the temperature increases; however, this is not the case for water. As the temperature decreases from room temperature (20oC=68oF), water contracts until the temperature arrives at 4o C (=39.2oF), and then it begins to expand as the temperature decreases to below 4o C. This is a unique characteristic of water. Even if water freezes, organisms can still live in it due to its unique property. It has its maximum density (or minimum volume) at 4oC, not 0o C (=32oF; freezing temperature.), so organisms in the water can survive! Let us consider a lake in winter. As the temperature decreases to 4oC, the top surface of water is denser, so it goes down to the bottom. The next warm layer of water is now at the top surface of water, and when this layer’s temperature drops toward 4oC, it will sink. This process will continue until the entire lake’s temperature is 4oC. As the air temperature decreases further, the density of the surface of water in the lake will decrease, but the volume increases. No more sinking business occurs. The surface water is freezing when the temperature decreases to zero degrees Celsius. That is, ice is forming on the surface, but under the surface, water is not freezing at all due to the special property of water. In fact, the role of the sheet of ice on the top surface of lake is to be an insulator to preserve heat under it, so fish can live even though it is cold outside. See Figure 15.23 on p. 296 in the textbook. The Three Methods to Transfer Heat What is heat? Heat is energy that moves from a high temperature object to a low temperature object. Its unit is the joule (J), but sometimes it is measured with the kilocalorie (kcal). The conversion factor between two units is 1 kcal= 4186 J. Conduction is the process in which heat is transferred through a material. The atoms or molecules in a hotter part of the material have greater energy than those in a colder part of the material, and thus the energy is transferred from the hotter place to the colder place. Notice that the bulk motion of the material has nothing to do with this process. Convection is the process in which heat is transferred by the bulk motion of a fluid. According to the ideal gas law for constant The three methods of heat transfer. pressure, the volume (V) is proportional to the temperature (T). V increases as T increases, and the density decreases within the constant mass. Warm air rises and cooler air goes down; this circulation transports the energy. The generated energy from the center of the sun is transported by convection to a position near the photosphere. Cool gas sinks while bubbles of hot gas rise. There is a patchwork pattern of small (average diameter about 700 km), transient (average lifetime from five to ten of minutes) granules. The granulation is the visible consequence of the convection. PHS 1110, Principles of Classical Physical Science 2 Radiation is the process in which heat is transferred by light, electromagnetic waves. An electromagnetic wave consists of an oscillating magnetic and electric field moving at the speed of light, c=300,000 km/s. This method does not need a material medium unlike the two other methods. Every object absorbs and emits electromagnetic waves at the same time. When an object absorbs and emits radiation perfectly, it is called a blackbody. The emitted light by a blackbody is called blackbody radiation, and its spectrum is a continuum because interactions between severely packed atoms are so strong that all detailed spectral features do not remain. Also, they are in thermal equilibrium, so blackbody radiation only depends on its absolute temperature, not on the chemical composition of the object. See Figure 16.12 on p. 308 in the textbook. Planck’s Radiation Law: Blackbody Radiation Curve: Intensity Versus Wavelength (or Frequency) After James Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism appeared in 1864, many attempts were made to understand blackbody radiation theoretically. None succeeded until, in 1900, Max Planck postulated that electromagnetic energy can propagate only in discrete quanta, or photons, each with an energy of E= h (Zeilik & Smith, 1987). We will learn this in detail in PHS 1120. This brilliant German physicist then derived the spectral intensity relationship, or Plank blackbody radiation law, a log-log plot between intensity and temperature. These masterpieces are a combination of classical works by Wien’s displacement law and Rayleigh–Jeans law. Wilhelm Wien expressed the wavelength max at which the maximum intensity of blackbody radiation is emitted by Wien’s displacement law: max = 2.89810-3 /T [m]. Here, T is the surface temperature (Zeilik & Smith, 1987). For example, the continuum spectrum from our sun is approximately a blackbody, peaking at max  500 nm; therefore, the surface temperature must be near 5800 K. The emitted maximum flux of a star determines the color with the maximum intensity of blackbody radiation formula. Meanwhile, Rayleigh-Jeans’ distribution works at high temperatures and long wavelengths (low frequencies). It is useful to obtain the brightness temperature in radio astronomy. The Greenhouse Effect on Venus The greenhouse effect is responsible for Venus’ high temperature. It is the same greenhouse effect that, in a milder form, acts in our own atmosphere and that might someday cause our polar ice caps to melt. See Figure 16.22 on p. 313 in the textbook. Hence, understanding our sister planet may give important insights into the future of our own world. As the dense carbon dioxide atoms in the atmosphere hold sunlight, the surface temperature of Venus is very high. Visible light enters into the atmosphere, but the reflected/scattered light emits infrared photons that have a longer wavelength. These infrared radiations are easily absorbed after interacting with particles such as carbon dioxide and water vapor. The greenhouse gases play an important role in increasing the surface temperature. There are many similarities between Earth and Venus in their size, density, and composition, but why are their atmospheres are so different? If we accept the nebula theory of the solar system formation, their primitive atmospheres would have been rather similar. The initial atmosphere of Venus would have contained a considerable amount of water vapor. But why is there no water or oceans on Venus? A runaway greenhouse effect, or an accelerated greenhouse effect, could be an answer. The greenhouse gases did not just appear in Earth’s atmosphere. Most of the water and carbon dioxide existed in the ocean and rocks. An increase in incoming sunlight and escalating amounts of greenhouse gases encourage a rapid increase of temperature of the planet, also known as the greenhouse effect. As the temperature increases, the oceans begin to transform to water vapor, and the amount of water vapor is greater than ever as it traps the heat or IR radiation more and more as the rising temperature approaches the boiling point of water. This would cause the temperature to rise more and more, and eventually the oceans would disappear. Now all the water vapor would be in the atmosphere! Moreover, the later steps would occur if the temperature were high (~ a few 100o C) enough to initiate a process called sublimation and drive the carbon dioxide from the rocks into the atmosphere. As the carbon dioxide is added into the atmosphere, more accelerated greenhouse effects are expected, and the temperature of the planet would continuously rise until all the carbon dioxide is driven from the rocks. Then, the environment would be similar to that of the present Venus. PHS 1110, Principles of Classical Physical Science 3 Reference Zeilik, M., & Smith, E. I. (1987). Introductory astronomy & astrophysics (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders College Publishing. Suggested Reading Check out www.weather.gov. This website, created by the National Weather Service, further explains the process of heat transfer. Learning Activities (Nongraded) Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. To practice what you have learned in this unit, complete the following problems and questions from the textbook. The answers to each problem can be found in the “Odd-numbered Answers” section in the back of the textbook. The question number from the textbook is indicated in parentheses after each question. 1. Show that 3,000 cal are required to raise the temperature of 300 g of water from 20 oC to 30 oC. For the specific heat capacity c, use 1 cal/g oC. (Textbook #33 on p. 298) 2. If you wish to warm 50 kg of water by 20 oC for your bath, show that the amount of heat needed is 1000 kcal. Then show that this is equivalent to about 4200 kJ. (Textbook #37 on p. 298) 3. Which is greater: an increase in temperature of 1 Celsius degree or an increase of 1 Fahrenheit degree? (Textbook #47 on p. 299) 4. Ethyl alcohol has about one-half the specific heat capacity of water. If equal masses of each at the same temperature are supplied with equal quantities of heat, which will undergo the greater change in temperature? (Textbook #63 on p. 299) 5. Why is it important to protect water pipes in the winter so that they don’t freeze? (Textbook #93 on p. 300) 6. If 70oF air feels warm and comfortable to us, why does swimming in 70 oF water feel cool? (Textbook #43 on p. 317) 7. Many tongues have been injured by licking a piece of metal on a very cold day. Why would no harm result if a clean piece of wood were licked on the same day? (Textbook #47 on p. 317) 8. In a still room, smoke from a candle will sometimes rise only so far, not reaching the ceiling. Explain why. (Textbook #61 on p. 318) 9. On a very cold sunny day, you wear a black coat and a transparent plastic coat. Which coat should be worn on the outside for maximum warmth? (Textbook #79 on p. 318) 10. As more energy fossil fuels and other fuel is released on Earth, the overall temperature of Earth tends to rise. Discuss how temperature equilibrium explains why Earth’s temperature cannot rise indefinitely. (Textbook #95 on p. 319) PHS 1110, Principles of Classical Physical Science 4 ...
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Tutor Answer

Robertmariasi
School: Boston College

Hello there,Hope everything is fine. I just finished your requested powerpoint. I am attaching to this message a Powerpoint file which is entitled" Thermodynamic Concepts" and which contains your presentation. Since your professor stated that it should be used in order to present the information to high school students, I made it accordingly. I also included a variety of pictures and gave several examples of each method of heat transfer so people can have a better understanding. The following represents the content of your presentationSlide 1: CoverSlide 2: Introduction to thermodynamicSlide 3: Enumeration if the three methodsSlide 4: Conduction generalitiesSlide 5: Conduction exampleSlide 6: Convection generalitiesSlide 7: Convection examplesSlide 8: Ideal Gas LawSlide 9: Radiation generalitiesSlide 10: Blackbody radiation curveSlide 11: Radiation examplesSlide 12: References------I am looking forward to hearing from you. In case you need any kind of edits don't hesitate to text me back.

Outline
This file is intended for personal use. It does not represent the file that should be sent to the professor. Its only role
is to highlight general information about the paper or add any additional ones which were unsuitable for the essay
but might help the student have a better understanding of the topic.

1.General Information About the Paper
File Name: Thermodynamic Concepts
Format: Powerpoint
Type: Presentation
Subject : Physics
Citations : Yes
References: Yes

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awesome work thanks

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