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  1. Arla Foods Case
    1. There are societal issues raised in this case and by the Charlie Hebdo killing in Paris.
      1. At a societal level, one issue is that of free speech. What are your thoughts about free speech? Does it, or should it, have limits?
      2. What about the David Brooks’ Op Ed in the New York Times? Are you Charlie? (article Brandeis Betrays Attached) explaining what he is talking about in his reference to Ayaan Hirsi Ali, which was her cancelled talk at Brandeis University.
    2. However, aside from the societal level issues, there are also managerial issues that are important in this case, and Arla managers in Denmark and the Middle East face a crisis and have to respond to events. Put together an action plan that identifies the managerial issues on which they need to take action
    3. What is your reaction to what happened in the case?
    4. What, if any, are the implications of the Arla situation for your business or career?

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Version: 9.27.2007 ARLA FOODS AND THE CARTOON CRISIS In early February 2006, Astrid Nielsen, Group Communications Director of Arla Foods, faced the greatest crisis of her career. Tens of thousands of Muslims in cities around the world had taken to the streets to protest the publication of caricatures of Muhammad by a Danish newspaper. The caricatures, which most Muslims viewed as blasphemous and offensive, prompted some to attack Danish embassies and businesses. In several countries, protests turned deadly. Saudi Arabia was able to avoid much of the violence seen elsewhere. Instead, consumers protested by boycotting Danish products. For Arla Foods, which owned a large dairy in Saudi, the result was nothing short of disastrous. As other countries began to join the boycott, Nielson wondered what, if anything, her company could do to mitigate the total loss of Arla’s Middle Eastern business. BACKGROUND Arla Foods, a co-operative owned by 10,000 milk producers in Denmark and Sweden, was formed in 2000 through the merger of MD Foods of Denmark and Arla of Sweden. Arla was Europe’s second largest dairy company, with 58 processing plants in Scandinavia and Britain, and annual revenues of nearly $8 billion. It enjoyed a near monopoly on domestic dairy products, with market shares of between 80 and 90 percent in most categories. The UK was the company’s largest market, accounting for 33 percent of total sales, followed by Sweden and Denmark at 22 percent and 19 percent respectively. The rest of Europe accounted for another 13 percent. Outside Europe, the Middle East was Arla’s most important market (see Table 1). The company exported approximately 55,000 tons of dairy products from Denmark and Sweden to Saudi Arabia, and produced around 30,000 tons through its Danya Foods subsidiary in Riyadh. Local production was based mainly on non-perishable goods and included processed cheese, milk and fruit drinks. In Saudi Arabia, which accounted for 70 percent of total Middle East sales, the company’s Lurpak, Puck and Three Cows brands were market leaders in butter, cream, dairy spread and feta categories. Other important Middle East markets included Lebanon, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. This case was written from public sources by David Wesley under the direction of Professors Henry W. Lane and Mikael Sondergaard for the purpose of class discussion. The authors do not intend to demonstrate either effective or ineffective handling of management situations. Copyright © 2007 Northeastern University, College of Business Administration Page 2 * Table 1 Arla Foods: Middle East Key Facts Annual Revenues Net Income Danish Expatriate Workers Non-Danish Workers1 Average Annual Growth $550 million $80 million 20 1200 10-12% Other overseas markets included Argentina and Brazil, where Arla produced cheese and whey products. Arla also exported significant qualities of Danish cheese to Japan, and milk powder to less developed countries in Asia and Latin America. In North America, Arla cheeses were produced under a licensing agreement. THE MUHAMMAD CARTOONS CRISIS Terrorism and Self-Censorship In 2004, controversial Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh produced a short film on Islam titled “Submission.”2 The 10 minute documentary, written by Dutch Member of Parliament Hirsi Ali, featured the stories of four abused Arab women. It intentionally provoked some Muslims by showing a woman dressed in a semi-transparent burqa, under which verses from the Qur'an were projected on her skin. After the film was shown on Dutch public television on August 29, 2004, van Gogh and Ali began to receive death threats. Then, on November 2, 2004 Van Gogh was murdered while riding his bicycle in downtown Amsterdam.3 The assailant attached a note to his body calling for Jihad against “infidel” America and Europe and threatening a similar fate for Ali. Van Gogh’s murder created broad awareness of his film, which was subsequently rebroadcast on Italian and Danish public television and widely distributed on the Internet. In Denmark, tension was already high following another well publicized incident in which a lecturer at the University of Copenhagen was assaulted by five Muslim youths for reading the Qur’an to non-Muslims.4 The killing of Van Gogh only served to heighten the cultural distance between Muslim immigrants and native born Danes. Although most Europeans decried the violence of radical Islamists, many publishers, authors, and artists were reluctant to participate in projects that could offend Muslims and invite the wrath of terrorists. 1 Most of Arla’s non-Danish staff was comprised of Muslim migrant workers from less developed countries. Many entered Saudi Arabia as Hajj pilgrims and remained in the country at the end of their pilgrimage. 2 Submission is the English translation of the word Islam. 3 Gunman kills Dutch film director, BBC News, November 2, 2004 4 Overfaldet efter Koran-læsning, TV 2 (Denmark), October 9, 2004. Page 3 * Fear and Self-Censorship In the summer of 2005, Danish author Kåre Bluitgen decided to write a children’s book on the life of the Prophet Muhammad. He had hoped that such a book would help Danish children learn the story of Islam and thereby bridge the growing gap between Danes and Muslim immigrants. Yet the illustrators who collaborated with Bluitgen on other books feared reprisals from extremists and, therefore, refused to participate.5 They understood, perhaps better than Bluitgen, that graphical depictions of Muhammad were considered blasphemous by many Muslims.6 Bluitgen eventually found an artist willing to illustrate his book anonymously. However, when the culture editor of the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten heard Bluitgen’s story, he was incensed. “This was the culmination of a series of disturbing instances of self-censorship,” Flemming Rose later wrote. Three people turned down the job for fear of consequences. The person who finally accepted insisted on anonymity, which in my book is a form of self-censorship. European translators of a critical book about Islam also did not want their names to appear on the book cover beside the name of the author, a Somalia-born Dutch politician who has herself been in hiding.7 Danish Cartoons: Muhammad As You See Him To counter what he saw as a move against free speech, Rose invited 40 artists to submit drawings of “Muhammad, as you see him.” Twelve artists responded, including three members of the Jyllands-Posten staff. When the cartoons first appeared on September 30, 2005, Rose wrote in the accompanying article, The modern, secular society is rejected by some Muslims. They demand a special position, insisting on special consideration of their own religious feelings. It is incompatible with contemporary democracy and freedom of speech, where you must be ready to put up with insults, mockery and ridicule… We are on our way to a slippery slope where no-one can tell how the self-censorship will end. That is why Jyllands-Posten has invited members of the Danish editorial cartoonists union to draw Muhammad as they see him.8 5 Allah und der Humor, Die Zeit, January 2, 2006 Not all Muslims agree on the interpretation of Muslim scholars who have issued fatwas against images of the prophet Muhammad. Some argue that Islam has a centuries old tradition of paintings of Muhammad and other religious figures. The more famous of these continue to be displayed in palaces and museums in various Muslim countries, including Iran. Source: Bonfire of the Pieties: Islam prohibits neither images of Muhammad nor jokes about religion, The Wall Street Journal, February 8, 2006 7 The Dutch politician refers to Hirsi Ali, who collaborated with Theo Van Gogh on the film Submission. Why I Published Those Cartoons, Jyllands-Posten, February 19, 2006 8 Translated from Muhammeds ansigt, Jyllands-Posten, September 29, 2005 6 Page 4 * Muslim Reaction Two weeks after the publication of the 12 cartoons, Danish imams organized a protest in downtown Copenhagen. More than 3,000 Danish Muslim immigrants gathered to show their disapproval of the cartoons. The most offensive cartoon, in their opinion, featured Muhammad wearing a turban filled with explosives. On the turban was written the Shahādah (Islamic creed),9 while a lit fuse emerged from the back of his head. Another image featured a schoolboy named Muhammad scribbling a message in Farsi10 on a blackboard. “The editorial team of Jyllands-Posten is a bunch of reactionary provocateurs,” it states. Ironically, artist Lars Refn was targeted by both sides in the ensuing quarrel. He was the first artist to receive death threats, while at the same time secular free speech advocates accused him of cowardice for not drawing the prophet. In apparent defense of Refn’s decision to not draw the prophet, Rose explained in an editorial, I wrote to members of the association of Danish cartoonists asking them ‘to draw Muhammad as you see him.’ We certainly did not ask them to make fun of the prophet.11 A few days later, eleven ambassadors from Islamic countries sought a meeting with Danish Prime Minister Anders Rasmussen to demand government action against the cartoons. The Prime Minister refused, noting that such a meeting would violate the principles of Danish democracy. “As prime minister I have no tool whatsoever to take actions against the media, and I don't want that kind of tool,” he replied.12 Cartoons Circulated Abroad Meanwhile, Danish imam Abu Laban decided to take matters into his own hands. He sent a Muslim delegation on a tour of Egypt, Lebanon, and Syria, where dignitaries, religious leaders, and journalists were shown the cartoons. The greatest stir, however, was not caused by the Danish cartoons, but by three additional images that were far more graphic and offensive than those published by the newspaper.13 While the origin of the three additional images was unknown, within days they were circulated on Islamic websites and chat rooms, causing outrage among Muslims who thought they had been published in Danish newspapers.14 9 The Shahādah is the declaration of belief in the oneness of God and in Muhammad as his messenger. Recitation of the Shahādah is considered one of the Five Pillars of Islam by Sunni Muslims. In English the Shahādah reads: “There is no god but God and Muhammad is his messenger.” 10 Farsi is a Persian language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and several other Middle Eastern countries. 11 Why I Published Those Cartoons, Jyllands-Posten, February 19, 2006 12 The Danish Cartoon Crisis: The Import and Impact of Public Diplomacy, USC Center on Public Diplomacy, April 5, 2006 13 Anatomy of a Global Crisis, The Sunday Herald (Scotland), February 12, 2006 14 Child's tale led to clash of cultures, The Guardian Unlimited, February 4, 2006 Page 5 * In December, the cartoons were circulated among heads of state at a Summit of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in Saudi Arabia. The OIC later issued a statement calling on the Prime Minister of Denmark to apologize. When he refused, the OIC’s secretary general for Islamic education and culture urged the organization’s 51 member states to boycott Danish products until they received an apology.15 Since the entire Middle East accounted for less than one percent of Denmark’s exports, Danes showed little concern over the threat of a boycott. Moreover, a poll conducted in late January by the Epinion Research Institute found that 79 percent of Danes supported the Prime Minister’s decision to not apologize for the cartoons.16 Outside of Denmark, the OIC found wider support. United Nations human-rights commissioner Louise Arbour proclaimed her “alarm” at the “unacceptable disregard for the beliefs of others.” Both the Council of Europe and the Arab League condemned the cartoons.17 European Media Reprint Cartoons When the OIC called on Muslim countries to boycott Danish products (see “Arla and the OIC Boycott” below), many Europeans saw it as an attack on free speech. In protest, newspapers and magazines across Europe began reprinting the cartoons. Between the beginning of January and early February, the original cartoons appeared in more than 50 European newspapers and magazines. Prominent periodicals, such as France’s Le Monde and Germany’s Die Welt, displayed some of the images on their front pages. In explaining his reason for reprinting the cartoons, the editor of Le Monde stated, “A Muslim may well be shocked by a picture of Mohammed, especially an ill-intentioned one. But a democracy cannot start policing people’s opinions, except by trampling the rights of man underfoot.”18 Likewise, the Economist, which did not reprint the cartoons, stated that European newspapers had a “responsibility” to show “solidarity” with Jyllands-Posten. In the Netherlands two years ago a film maker was murdered for daring to criticize Islam. Danish journalists have received death threats. In a climate in which political correctness has morphed into fear of physical attack, showing solidarity may well be the responsible thing for a free press to do. And the decision, of course, must lie with the press, not governments.19 15 Muslim organization calls for boycott of Denmark, The Copenhagen Post, December 28, 2006 OIC Demands Unqualified Danish Apology, Arab News, January 29, 2006 Prophetic insults, The Economist, January 5, 2006 18 France’s Le Monde Publishes Front-Page Cartoon Of Mohammed, Agence France-Presse (AFP), February 2, 2006 19 Cartoon wars, The Economist, February 9, 2006 16 17 Page 6 * For many Muslims, the reprinting of the cartoons was seen as further provocation. Some protested peacefully, while others reacted with violence. In some countries, buildings were set ablaze and shops selling European goods were vandalized. In Lebanon and Syria, the Danish and Norwegian embassies were firebombed. Elsewhere, clashes with police and security forces in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and other countries left as many as 300 people dead (see Exhibit 1). In northern Nigeria, Muslims went on a rampage, burning churches, shops, and cars belonging to the Christian minority. The violence left scores of dead and as many as 10,000 homeless.20 ARLA AND THE OIC BOYCOTT At first, Arla viewed the cartoon crisis more as a security concern than an economic one. “It will be a serious blow to us if the situation becomes so grave that we are forced to withdraw our Danish workers,” explained Arla Executive Director Finn Hansen. Our tremendous success in Saudi Arabia is thanks in large part to the fact that over the past 20 years, we’ve kept a number of our most talented managers constantly stationed in the country. It will hurt our credibility to pull out our Danish workers, and in the long term, it will impact sales. But I don't think things will get that bad. The Irish and Dutch dairies we compete with in Saudi Arabia are keeping their workers down there for now as well. Consumers in Saudi Arabia will continue to buy food, regardless of the terror threat. So I don’t think our customer base will disappear.21 However, within a few weeks it became clear than Arla had underestimated the threat to its business. In Saudi Arabia, its products were featured in news stories about the boycott campaign and religious leaders across the country called on worshipers to avoid Danish goods. By the end of January 2006, Danish products were removed from store shelves, replaced with signs stating “Danish products were here.” Egypt, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates soon joined the boycott (see Exhibit 2 for a timeline of key events). The boycott also aroused the anger of many local Muslims, some of whom threatened and harassed Arla employees as they went to and from work. In two separate incidents, workers were physically assaulted as they removed banned Arla products from store shelves. As a result, Arla provided employees with additional security escorts. In early February, Iran became the first country to officially sever all economic ties with Denmark.22 It made a further symbolic gesture by renaming domestically 20 Although the latest hostility was sparked by the cartoon crisis, ethnic violence has been part of an ongoing conflict that has claimed 10,000 lives in Nigeria since 1999. Nigerian religious riots continue, BBC News, February 24, 2006 21 Terror threaten dairy exports, The Copenhagen Post, January 7, 2006 22 EU warns Iran over boycott of Danish goods, China Daily, February 8, 2006 Page 7 * produced Danish pastries as “Roses of the Prophet Muhammad.”23 “The Commerce Ministry will not allow Danish brands or products which have been registered in Denmark to clear customs,” announced Iranian Commerce Minister Massoud MirKazemi. Iranian importers, including state-affiliated organs and companies, have three months to designate substitute products for Danish goods and then we will enforce the law. All on-going negotiations or contracts with Denmark which are pending will also suspended, and all signed contracts will be reviewed. The exchange of delegations between the two countries will be suspended until further notice.24 The rapid deterioration in relations between Denmark and the Middle East stunned Arla Foods executives. Although they had been monitoring the situation since the cartoons were first published, the boycott “was hard to foresee,” Nielsen explained. Some of our customers are extremely influential and powerful people. One of the retailers owns a large chain of grocery stores and he is extremely religious. Everyone else looks to see how he will react... We were in constant contact with our customers, and they never suggested that they were going to boycott our products. But they had to react when the religious community told them to. Even after the boycott was announced, retailers said to us “We want to do business with you, but we can’t.” The immediate impact of the boycott was extensive. “Our business has been completely undermined,” Hansen lamented. “Our products have been taken off the shelves in 50,000 stores. Without a quick solution, we will lose our business in the Middle East.”25 Meanwhile, Arla was losing sales worth $1.5 million per day, or about eight percent of the company’s worldwide revenues.26 Other companies preemptively distanced themselves from the cartoons. Switzerlandbased Nestlé bought front-page advertisements in Arab newspapers to explain that its powdered milk was “neither produced in nor imported from Denmark.” French supermarket giant Carrefour went further, removing Danish products from store shelves with a notice declaring “solidarity with the Islamic community.” Other signs read “Carrefour doesn’t carry Danish products.”27 European Criticism: “The Right to Offend” 23 Iran targets Danish pastries,, February 17, 2006 Iran bans import of Danish products, Islamic Republic News Agency (Iran), February 6, 2006 Muslim protest spreads to Danish butter, The Sunday Times, February 3, 2006 26 Danish Companies Endure Snub by Muslim Consumers, The New York Times, February 27, 2006 27 Carrefour JV with MAF in Egypt halts sale of Danish products, AFX News Limited, February 3, 2006 24 25 Page 8 * In Europe, some viewed attempts by European companies to show “solidarity” with Muslim protesters as cowardice. At a Berlin rally, Hirsi Ali, who rarely made public appearances in the face of the numerous threats against her life, expressed outrage. “I am here to defend the right to offend,” she proclaimed. Shame on those European companies in the Middle East that advertised “we are not Danish” or “we don’t sell Danish products”. This is cowardice. Nestlé chocolates will never taste the same after this, will they? The EU member states should compensate Danish companies for the damage they have suffered from boycotts. Liberty does not come cheap. A few million Euros are worth paying for the defense of free speech.28 European Union President José Manuel Barroso also felt it his duty to uphold the principles of free speech. “I have spoken with the Prime Minister of Denmark and expressed [our] solidarity,” he noted. I want to send my solidarity to the people of Denmark as well; a people who rightly enjoy the reputation as being amongst the most open and tolerant, not just in Europe, but in the world. Our European society is based on respect for the individual person’s life and freedom, equality of rights between men and women, freedom of speech and a clear distinction between politics and religion. Our point of departure is that as human beings we are free, independent, equal and responsible. We must safeguard these principles. Freedom of speech is part of Europe’s values and traditions. Let me be clear. Freedom of speech is not negotiable.29 The Crisis and Communications Group As the seriousness of the boycott progressed, Arla CEO Peter Tuborgh decided to convene an emergency meeting with senior executives, dubbed “The Crisis and Communications Group.” Earlier in his career, Tuborgh had worked in Saudi Arabia for four years as an operations manager. He understood the seriousness of the boycott, but he also felt that the company should not stray in any way from its global mission statement (see Exhibit 3). Any action taken by Arla would need to be consistent with the company’s overall vision and reflect its values. Jens Refslund, director of Arla's Production Division, suggested that the company needed to act quickly to cut production to reduce costs. He explained, 28 From a speech titled “The Right to Offend” given in Berlin on February 9, 2006. EU President Barroso’s Statement On The Issue Of The Cartoons Of Prophet Muhammad, Press and Public Diplomacy Delegation of the European Commission, February 15, 2006 29 Page 9 * Once sales in the Middle East have come to a standstill, it will inevitably have consequences for production. A decision about what we do next must be taken within the next few days.30 Refslund estimated that the company would need to layoff as much as one third of the staff at a havarti cheese plant in Denmark, or approximately 50 employees. To avoid delays, negotiations with the dairy workers’ union needed to begin immediately. Moreover, numerous Scandinavian dairy farmers faced a loss of some of their income if the Middle East market remained closed to Danish dairy products. Nielsen expressed concern about the company’s ability to recover from the crisis. One billion customers have rejected our products because it has suddenly become a synonym for the insult to the Prophet Mohammed. What can we do? We can’t edit newspapers, we can’t comment on government actions, we can’t get involved in politics and we certainly can’t address religion. Nevertheless, Finn Hansen, who had responsibility for the Middle East, remained hopeful. He believed that in order for Arla to recover, it had to communicate with the individual consumer. Arla has been producing dairy products in Saudi Arabia for so long that we believe the authorities consider us a local dairy. It is not enough to persuade the supermarket chains to put our products back on the shelves. We should take our message directly to the consumer. 30 Arla dairy sales crippled by Middle East boycott, Dairy Reporter, January 31, 2006 Page 10 * Exhibit 1 Selected News Headlines Prophetic insults; Denmark and Islam, The Economist, January 7, 2006 Free speech clashes with religious sensitivity: For much of last year, various squabbles have simmered over several prominent Danes' rude comments about Islam. Now a schoolboy prank by a newspaper has landed the prime minister, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, in the biggest diplomatic dispute of his tenure in office. Denmark Is Unlikely Front in Islam-West Culture War, The New York Times, January 8, 2006 Editorial cartoons published in a Danish newspaper have made Denmark a flashpoint in the culture wars between Islam and the West in a post-9/11 world. After Danish Mohammed cartoon scandal, Norway follows suit, Agence France Presse, January 10, 2006 A Norwegian Christian magazine on Tuesday published a set of controversial caricatures of the prophet Mohammed following months of uproar in the Muslim world over a Danish paper's decision to print the same cartoons. Drive to Boycott Danish, Norwegian Goods Takes Off, Gulf News, January 23, 2006 Riyadh: A vigorous campaign has been kicked off in Saudi Arabia calling for boycott of Danish and Norwegian products in response to repeated publishing of offensive cartoons of the Prophet Mohammad by some newspapers and magazines in those countries. Threats by Militants Alarm Scandinavians; Denmark and Norway feel the backlash from cartoons, Los Angeles Times, January 31, 2006 Denmark warned its citizens Monday to avoid Saudi Arabia, and gunmen in the Gaza Strip said any Scandinavians there risked attack over newspaper cartoons of the prophet Muhammad. Caricature of Muhammad Leads to Boycott of Danish Goods, The New York Times, January 31, 2006 A controversy over the publication of caricatures of the Muslim prophet by a Danish newspaper boiled over into a boycott. Cartoons of Prophet Met With Outrage; Depictions of Muhammad in Scandinavian Papers Provoke Anger, Protest Across Muslim World, The Washington Post, January 31, 2006 Cartoons in Danish and Norwegian newspapers… have triggered outrage among Muslims across the Middle East, sparking protests, economic boycotts and warnings of possible retaliation against the people, companies and countries involved. Danish Paper's Apology Fails To Calm Protests; Cartoons Trigger Muslim Outrage, The Boston Globe, February 1, 2006 An apology by Denmark's largest newspaper… failed yesterday to calm a controversy that has ignited fiery protests across the Islamic world and provoked death threats against Scandinavians by Muslim radical groups. Muslim political and religious leaders and jihadists added their voices to the fury already thundering from mosques and blaring from television and radio stations from Morocco to Pakistan. Bomb threat to repentant Danish paper, The Guardian, February 1, 2006 The offices of Denmark's bestselling broadsheet newspaper were evacuated last night following a bomb threat a day after the editor-in-chief apologized for publishing cartoons of the prophet Muhammad that offended Muslims. Page 11 * Anger as papers reprint cartoons of Muhammad: French, German and Spanish titles risk wrath: France Soir executive 'sacked' for defiant gesture, The Guardian, February 2, 2006 Newspapers in France, Germany, Spain and Italy yesterday reprinted caricatures of the prophet Muhammad, escalating a row over freedom of expression which has caused protest across the Middle East. France Soir and Germany's Die Welt published cartoons which first appeared in a Danish newspaper, although the French paper later apologized and apparently sacked its managing editor. Islamic Anger Widens At Mohammed Cartoons, The Boston Globe, February 3, 2006 An extraordinary row over newspaper cartoons depicting the Prophet Mohammed intensified yesterday, with street demonstrations from North Africa to Pakistan, threats of violence against Europeans in the Middle East, and diplomatic protests by Muslim nations. BBC shows the Islam cartoons, Daily Mail, February 3, 2006 The BBC and Channel 4 risked a Muslim backlash yesterday by showing ' blasphemous' cartoons of the prophet Mohammed that have caused outrage in the Islamic world. Cartoons spark Islamic rage *Europe's leaders step in as controversy escalates*More newspapers publish offending images *Mideast consumer boycott hits Danish products, Financial Times, February 3, 2006 European leaders tried to contain the controversy over newspaper cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed, as the international dispute escalated into a consumer boycott and risked the gravest cultural clash with the Muslim world since the Salman Rushdie affair. Gaza gunmen on hunt for Europeans: Aid workers, journalists, diplomats flee in fear for their lives; protests spread to Pakistan, Iraq, Ottawa Citizen, February 3, 2006 Militants threatened yesterday to kidnap or murder western citizens, in retaliation for the publication of caricatures of the Prophet Muhammad. Broadcasters show prophet cartoons despite Muslim rage, The Herald, February 3, 2006 British broadcasters last night defied Muslim anger when they showed cartoons which have caused a storm of protest in the Islamic world. Danes call envoys home over prophet cartoons, The Irish Times, February 3, 2006 Denmark has summoned its ambassadors back from abroad to Copenhagen for talks today about the controversial newspaper cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad that have triggered protests in the Arab world and threats by militant Muslims. Embassies burn in cartoon protest, BBC News, February 4, 2006 Syrians have set fire to the Norwegian and Danish embassies in Damascus in protest at the publication of newspaper cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad. Protesters scaled the Danish site amid chants of "God is great", before moving on to attack the Norwegian mission. Danish embassy in Beirut torched, BBC News, February 5, 2006 Lebanese demonstrators have set the Danish embassy in Beirut on fire in protest at the publication of cartoons depicting the Prophet Muhammad. Protests Over Cartoons of Muhammad Turn Deadly, The New York Times, February 6, 2006 Demonstrations against the publication of cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad by newspapers in Europe spread across Asia and the Middle East today, turning violent in Afghanistan, where at least four protesters were killed and over a dozen police officers and protesters injured. Nigerian religious riots continue, BBC News, February 24, 2006 Violence is continuing across Nigeria where religious riots have claimed more than 100 lives this week. Some 10,000 people are still sheltering in barracks in the south-east town of Onitsha after violence there killed 80. Page 12 * Exhibit 2 Timeline of Key Events November 2, 2004 September 30, 2005 January 20, 2006 January 24, 2006 January 26, 2006 January 28, 2006 January 31, 2006 February 1, 2006 February 3, 2006 February 4, 2006 February 6, 2006 Film director Theo van Gogh is murdered in Amsterdam Jyllands-Posten publishes 12 cartoons portraying the Muhammad The Saudi grand mufti calls for a boycott of Danish products In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait Arla’s products begin to be removed from 50 grocery store shelves. Arla products were removed from 300 stores. Arla products were removed from 500 stores. Arla products were removed from 50,000 stores, representing 95 percent of the market. Cartoons reprinted in several newspapers across Europe Danish and Norwegian embassies in Damascus is set on fire Danish embassy in Beirut is set on fire Iran officially bans Danish products Page 13 * Exhibit 3 Arla Mission Statement Our Mission is: "To offer modern consumers milk-based food products that create inspiration, confidence and well-being" Arla Foods’ primary objective is to meet consumers’ wishes and requirements. Its mission underlines the company’s focus on the consumer. “Modern consumers” covers consumers of all ages who look for inspiration, variety and innovation. "Milk-based products” means that the products must contain milk or milk components. Arla Foods is committed to providing consumers with inspiration by offering a multitude of ways of utilizing its products. Arla Foods creates confidence and well-being by providing tasty and healthy products that not only meet statutory quality requirements, but also satisfy consumers’ demands for “soft” values. Consumers can be assured that Arla Foods consistently demonstrates its concern for the proper exploitation of resources, the environment, animal welfare, ethics etc. throughout the entire production process. Our Vision is: "To be the leading Dairy Company in Europe through considerable value creation and active market leadership" Through its vision, Arla Foods wishes to demonstrate that its activities are designed to create value for both the company and its owners. By using the term “value creation” instead of “results”, we wish to emphasize that our objectives are based on the long-term rather than short-term financial gains. To become the world leader in value-creation within the dairy sector, Arla Foods must be: * Northern Europe’s preferred dairy group among consumers, customers and milk producers * Northern Europe’s market leader within all types of dairy products with a broad range, strong brands and a high degree of consumer confidence * Represented in Southern Europe with a selected range of cheese and butter * Represented in a number of markets outside Europe through a range adapted to individual market 2/12/2015 Brandeis betrays its educational mission - Jonathan Zimmerman - Newsday Opinion: Brandeis betrays its educational mission Updated April 16, 2014 8:14 PM By JONATHAN ZIMMERMAN In this Monday, Feb. 5, 2007 photo, Ayaan Hirsi Ali, writer of the film "Submission," which criticized the treatment of women in traditional Islam and led to the murder of Dutch film director Theo Van Gogh, talks to a reporter in New York. Brandeis University in Massachusetts is taking heat from some of its own about plans to give an honorary degree to Ali, who has made comments critical of Islam. Photo Credit: AP In 1949, Wayne State University president David Henry blocked Herbert Phillips, a wellknown philosophy professor, from speaking on campus. The reason: Phillips was a Communist. "I cannot believe that the university is under any obligation in the name of education, to give him an audience," Henry said. chrome-extension://iooicodkiihhpojmmeghjclgihfjdjhj/in_isolation/reformat.html 1/5 2/12/2015 Brandeis betrays its educational mission - Jonathan Zimmerman - Newsday I thought of the episode when I learned about Brandeis University's recent decision to withdraw its offer of an honorary degree to Ayaan Hirsi Ali following criticism from students, faculty and the Council on American-Islamic Relations. Citing Ali's controversial remarks about Islam, Brandeis said the comments were "inconsistent" with its "core values." But a core value of a university is -- or should be -- open dialogue and discussion. And Brandeis -- not Ali -- violated it, just as universities did by keeping out left-leaning speakers during the McCarthy era. A native of Somalia who fled a forced marriage, Ali eventually moved to Holland and was subsequently elected to parliament. She also wrote the screenplay for a 2004 film about the treatment of Muslim women, which earned her death threats that prompted her to move to the United States. And in a 2007 interview, Ali called Islam "a destructive, nihilistic cult of death." Later that year, she said "there is no moderate Islam" and that it must be "defeated." OpinionNational cartoon roundup [1] Over the top? Definitely. Offensive? I think so. But Ali's comments hardly put her in the same category as Nazis or white supremacists, as several critics have recently charged. chrome-extension://iooicodkiihhpojmmeghjclgihfjdjhj/in_isolation/reformat.html 2/5 2/12/2015 Brandeis betrays its educational mission - Jonathan Zimmerman - Newsday Unlike fascist ideologues, who stressed the second-class status of women and their duty to reproduce for the fatherland, Ali has fought for independence and equality for women. She also has been at the center of an ongoing debate about whether Muslims have enhanced or curbed women's rights. These are legitimate issues, and academia should address them. Instead, we're more likely to quash them. Part of the problem is the liberal political orientation of university professors. That makes it hard to include perspectives from people like Ali, who don't fit neatly into the categories we've created for ourselves. She's a feminist, obviously, but she has also made anti-Islamic remarks. Is she one of us, or not? Even worse, we tend to demonize people who disagree with us. The very worst aspect of American political culture is the assumption that your opponents are either stupid or evil. The university used to be a bulwark against that kind of thinking. But lately, I fear, we've fallen into it ourselves. Nobody ever admits that out loud; instead, liberals simply say certain views are too offensive to merit a hearing. But that's precisely what red-baiters said about Communists and their sympathizers during the Cold War. And it's also what conservative Catholics said in 2009, when Notre Dame tapped President Barack Obama as its graduation speaker. More than 300,000 people signed a petition urging the university to revoke its invitation to Obama, a long-standing supporter of abortion rights. In hosting the president, the petition said, the institution was "betraying its Catholic mission." OpinionJimmy Margulies cartoons chrome-extension://iooicodkiihhpojmmeghjclgihfjdjhj/in_isolation/reformat.html 3/5 2/12/2015 Brandeis betrays its educational mission - Jonathan Zimmerman - Newsday [2] But turning away Obama would have betrayed the university's academic mission: to promote dialogue and understanding across our myriad differences. Fortunately, Notre Dame held firm, and Obama gave his address. Some dissenting graduates protested his abortion views by affixing pictures of baby feet to their mortar boards. Ali won't have the opportunity to address Brandeis graduates next month. More to the point, students won't have the chance to challenge and engage her. That's a core value of the university, and also of a liberal society. Too bad Brandeis -- and its avowedly liberal defenders -- seem to have forgotten it. Jonathan Zimmerman teaches history and education at New York University. His most recent book is "Small Wonder: The Little Red Schoolhouse in History and Memory." OpinionViewsday Blog chrome-extension://iooicodkiihhpojmmeghjclgihfjdjhj/in_isolation/reformat.html 4/5 2/12/2015 Brandeis betrays its educational mission - Jonathan Zimmerman - Newsday chrome-extension://iooicodkiihhpojmmeghjclgihfjdjhj/in_isolation/reformat.html 5/5
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Explanation & Answer


Running head: ARLA FOODS CASE

Arla Foods Case

Arla Foods Case
From the case study, it is clear that the Arla Foods Company which is a combination of
MB Foods and Arla of Sweden faced a great crisis in 2006. The problem of the company started
when Muslim countries boycotted its products after a certain magazine Jyllands-Postenin
Denmark satirized Prophet Muhammad in the form of cartoons (Lane, & Søndergaard, 2009).
This activity angered Muslims and the only action they could take was to boycott Danish
products. Another similar incident occurred in 2015 in France when attackers entered Charlie
Hebdo offices and killed 17 people affiliated with the magazine production (Petrikowski, 2015).
Nevertheless, Charlie Hebdo had gone ahead and reprinted cartoons of Prophet Muhammad
which angered some Muslims as their faith do not allow images to be used to portray living
creatures (Lane, & Søndergaard, 2009).
All these incidents have stirred great debate in the society concerning free speech
whereby people have been left with numerous questions in their mind whether free speech
should have limits or not. My thought on free speech is that should have limits. Free speech
should not reach to extent of bullying or harming others (Gonchar, 2018). People should learn
how to regulate their speech and whatever action they do. Everybody is entitled to his or her
opinion but no one should reach a point where his or her speech harms others. It is worth noting
that the culture and beliefs of other people should be respected. In the case of the two magazines
based in Denmark and France, they satirized Prophet Muhammad which is not a good gesture to
the Muslim community. The scenario shows disregard to other religions culture which should be

a limit when ...

Really helped me to better understand my coursework. Super recommended.


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