Air Pollution Engineering Worksheet

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6 7 6 3 Scanned with CamScanner 6 7 6 3 Scanned with CamScanner 6 7 6 3 Scanned with CamScanner 6 7 6 3 Scanned with CamScanner 6 7 6 3 Scanned with CamScanner Slide ME 401/5501 Introduction to Air Pollution Set 1 Overview Donora, Pennsylvania 1948 For 5 straight days beginning in October 1948, a thick yellow blanket of smog darkened the valley. for five straight days. Twenty people died and half the town eventually became. See Class Folder for article Los Angeles Basin 1940s-50s Smog first appeared around 1940. Air pollution research began in earnest as California began to study its smog problem. Patchwork of Legislation prior to 1970 These slides make extensive use of APTI’s introductory course Patchwork of Legislation prior to 1970 These slides make extensive use of APTI’s introductory course Patchwork of Legislation prior to 1970 Patchwork of Legislation prior to 1970 These slides make extensive use of APTI’s introductory course 1970 - EPA established These slides make extensive use of APTI’s introductory course Basic structure EPA establishes NAAQS... 6 criteria pollutants Primary and secondary standards Basic structure … and states responsible to meet 6 criteria pollutants Measure, inventory, model, implement plans Amendments of 1977 New Source Review (NSR) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Nonattainment provisions 1990 Amendments Acid rain, ozone depletion, 189 HAPs, power plant SOx/NOx, Title V Section 234 The following slides are taken from https://www.epa.gov/air-trends 1 True or False (See handout) 1 Comment on Example 1.1 and Problem 1.5 in textbook. Another “solution” proposed for Los Angeles was to dissipate the inversion layer by spraying water into it, evaporating the water and thus cooling the warm inversion layer to promote better vertical circulation. Estimate the amount of water (in gallons) required to cool a 500‐ft‐thick layer of air covering the 2400square-mile basin by 5.0 °F. 2 Briefly explain how (a) a pitot tube and (b) a rotameter work. 3 The 1-hr National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide is about 40 mg per cubic meter of air. How many gram-moles is 40 mg of CO? 2 Explain what’s meant by (a) primary and (b) secondary particulate. Which one do you think tends to be finer (smaller)? Why? What volume would 40 mg of CO occupy at 77 F and 14.7 psia? Use that volume by 1 cubic meter to approximate a CO concentration of 40 mg/m 3 in percent and parts per million. 3 Refer to problem 2.2 in the text. Assume a density of 2 grams per cubic centimeter. 4 Refer to problem 2.8 in the text. Do parts a) and b); in part c), differentiate to show that ΔLv / Lv = - Δc / c 5 This problem involves monitoring data that you’ll use at different times during the semester. Go to this website and select PM10, 1995-2005, Kansas City, MO-KS, and “all sites.” Once the plots are made, download the data as a CSV file (using the link at the bottom of the page). BE SURE TO SAVE THE FILE BECAUSE WE’LL USE IT THROUGHOUT THE SEMESTER. 6 This site contains historic ambient air quality standards for particulate matter (PM). What’s the difference between a “primary” and a “secondary” standard? Compared to the other criteria pollutants, PM has had major revisions to not only the numerical standards, but also in the basis (e.g., TSP, PM10, PM2.5) for the standard. Why do you think that’s the case? 7 Do problem 3.1 in the text. (I believe that the answer in the back of the book is incorrect.) 8 Refer to problem 3.2 in the text. What is the allowable emission factor in terms of lb/ton? 9 Suppose a power plant burns 3000 tons of coal per day, with the coal having an ash content of 4%. The split between bottom and fly ash is 30/70. The local regulatory agency has permitted the plant for a maximum PM emission rate of 2 g/s. What control efficiency is necessary? 4 Name at least 5 commonly used units of pressure. 5 If you took ME 451, how many particulate matter emission sources can you think of that would be present at a coal-fired power plant? If you didn’t take ME 451, take a guess as well. 6 Consider the complete combustion of propane (C3H8) to obtain CO2 and H2O. Write and balance the chemical equation. How much air do you need to completely combust 20 lb of propane? How much would the air weigh? Assume Types of Sources A “fugitive” source is one whose emissions do not pass through a stack, duct or vent Point sources are large, stationary sources release pollutants in quantities above an emission threshold. Area sources are facilities or activities whose individual emissions do not qualify them as point sources. Area sources represent numerous facilities or activities that individually release small amounts of a given pollutant, but collectively can release significant amounts of a pollutant. For example; dry cleaners, Mobile sources can be divided into onroad vehicles, which include automobiles, light trucks, heavy-duty trucks, buses, motorcycles and nonroad vehicles, such as airplanes, trains, combustion engines on farm and construction equipment, marine engines, and lawn mowers. In December 1952, an estimated 4000 people died in the worst smog disaster on record in London, primarily due to pneumonia, bronchitis, tuberculosis, and heart failure. Many who died were already compromised by chronic respiratory or cardiovascular complaints. Figure 2.6 in book ACUTE response Inhalation of PM in the atmosphere can lead directly or indirectly to diseases, including asthma, hay fever, increased respiratory symptoms, pulmonary inflammation, reduced lung function, and cardiovascular diseases. Figure 2.7 in book CHRONIC response 6 City Study Extinction (including scattering and absorption by particles) Visibility It is sometimes called Beer’s Law, the Bouguer-Lambert law, or Lambert’s law of absorption, due to confusion over attribution in scientific literature. Note that this can be used to measure concentration levels For particle diameter d >> λ, light is absorbed For particle diameter d ≅ λ, light is scattered For particle diameter d> λ, light is absorbed For particle diameter d ≅ λ, light is scattered For particle diameter d
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I have revised problem #1. I have taken standard temperature 528 R according to your text book.

Q1. In Duct A, he gas flow rate is 5000 SCFM, the gas temperature is 350 oF and pressure is 32 inches of water. In Duct B, the gas flow rate is 4000 ACFM, the temperature is 400 oF and
the pressure is -35 inches of water. Calculate the total gas flow rate in Duct C where two
flows combine. Use a barometric pressure of 29.92 inches mercury.
Solution:
Assumptions: Pressure of air at standard condition = 14.669 psi
Temperature at standard condition = 528 oR
And relative humidity at actual temperature = 0% RH
Unit conversions: Atmospheric pressure = 29.9213 inches Hg = 407.189 inches water.
=14.699 psi
And 1 inch water pressure = 0.03609 psi
Formula used:

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