TompkinsCortland Fred's On Narcissism Personality Theories Assignment

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Tompkins Cortland Community College


Further research on a personality theory that interests you. To do this, I expect that you would either read a book by the theorist in question or several research articles published about some aspect of a particular theory. In some cases, there is empirical research mentioned at the end of a chapter on a theorist that is not done by that person but by someone else. If you want to do a paper on a body of empirical research testing some aspect of a theory, that would also be acceptable. I expect that you will use scholarly academic sources (either books or journal articles), not simply web pages with information about a personality theory. Our library at TC3 has books (usually several) authored by each of the personality theorists we are covering in this class. If you are curious about what's available, you might want to go there and search under a particular theorist's name.

The tricky part about this assignment is if you choose it you will be asked to choose your topic --to read something about a specific theory in more depth-- before you have read about the majority of the theories covered in the textbook. If none of the theories we cover in the first few weeks grabs you, you may want to skim ahead just a little and read the summaries at the end of chapters that will be covered later. Another way of choosing what you might do for this assignment is that perhaps you have some idea what psychological perspective/school of thought (psychodynamic, humanistic/existential, learning, cognitive, sociocultural, biological/evolutionary) interests you most from your introduction to psychology class. If so, please send me a message to me about that and I can help you focus in on which theory you might want to read about in more depth since we will be covering theories from all of these schools of thought.

Once you have chosen a theory, and found a book or some scholarly articles (which I will need to approve just to be sure you are on the right track) , the paper itself should be 8-10 pages and should be focused on material beyond what is in the textbook. For example, if you chose to read Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams" (I actually wouldn't recommend this as a choice for a number of reasons but you can choose it if you want), your paper should be focused on the details of Freud's method of dream analysis that are not given in the textbook, although obviously you may have to include some of the information that is also in the textbook as well.

Book chosen- On Narcissism by Sigmund Freud

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Explanation & Answer


Fred’s On Narcissism – Outline
I. Introduction
II. Fred’s argument on narcissism
A. Primary narcissism
B. Secondary narcissism
III. Narcissism and interpersonal strategies
IV. Social relationships and narcissism
V. Romantic relations
A. Appraisal and initial interaction
B. Make an overture
C. Strategic self-presentation
D. Building up of rapport
VI. Narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry

Differentiation of two narcissistic dimensions



Fred’s On Narcissism


Fred’s On Narcissism

Narcissism corresponds to an individual's investment in the self with the
characterization of several interpersonal as well as interpersonal strategies focused on selfesteem regulation. Self-investment occurs in healthy individuals with its connection to selfesteem regulation strategies that one considers as normal and adaptive. On Narcissism
comprise one of the significant points in the development of Freud's theories. In his
introduction of the concept of narcissism, Freud defines it as an adoration that one can accord
oneself in light of the individual comprising a sexual desire object (Freud, 2014). Freud
perceives narcissism as a form of neurosis but keeps on postulating that at some point, one
has some level of narcissism. He goes on to mention the existence of two types of narcissism,
primary and secondary narcissism where he considers primary narcissism to preexist in all
human beings because of its presence from birth. Primary narcissism results in the individual
development of affection towards a particular object or being (Freud, 2014). He goes on
speculating that the energy is evident among young children who start believing in
themselves and start considering themselves as people who can perform amazing feats with
their words.
As an individual develops, primary narcissism begins taking different forms such as
directing it outwards to an object because of the conflict it causes within an individual. In his
speculation, Freud mentions that secondary narcissism begins developing when people begin
turning the object affection back to oneself. It arises once an individual begins projecting his
or her affection outwards to other existing objects other than himself or herself.
Consequences arise from it, particularly with an individual beginning to cut off oneself from
society because of his or her disinterest in others. Such kind of an individual begins
developing low self-esteem because of the individual's failure to express love towards others
as well as the other express it back to them (Freud, 2014). The individual begins feeling full



of shame as well as guilt that result in the person often becoming defensive because of
narcissism's cause of an individual to begin seeking self-preservation.
Humans have forces that influence their being with the need for self-preservation
comprising the first drive while the need to procreate is the second drive. During childhood,
both drives are similar, and no differences exist. The object of love comprises the essential
concept that drives species continuation. Freud argues that...

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