the following cases
Two police officers were patrolling in a high-crime
neighborhood. They noticed a parked car with two people inside (a driver and a
passenger). The officers saw a young woman leaning into the passenger's window
and handing the passenger an object, which they could not identify. At this
point they approached the car and the woman began to walk away.
1.One of the officers noticed the passenger making a shoving
down motion, leading the officer to believe that the passenger might be armed.
The officer drew his gun and shouted "let me see your hands." After
making more shoving down motions, the passenger complied. The officer reached
into the car and touched a bulge in the passenger's pocket. He felt large, hard
objects which he believed to be rocks of crack cocaine. He then removed a
plastic bag from the pocket. It contained several rocks of crack cocaine that,
together with another rock found in the passenger's clothing, totaled almost
100 grams. The passenger was arrested, but the driver and the woman standing outside
it were not.
Should the passenger's motion to suppress the seized
evidence be granted?
2.On a routine patrol, an officer noticed a parked car. Two
people were inside, and they were in a high crime area near a bar that was
known for gang activity. In the past, the officer had responded to calls from
the bar for everything from murder to public intoxication. The officer
testified that he stopped to see if the individuals were committing a crime,
lived in the area, or had some other concern. When the officer pulled behind
the car and illuminated the car with his spotlight, he observed the passenger
fumbling with something on the floorboard. As the officer was checking for
identification, he noticed a bullet on top of the console of the car. The officer
had the individuals step out of the car to ensure that they did not have any
weapons. After frisking them for weapons, the officer looked in the area where
he observed the passenger fumbling with something to see if he was hiding a
gun. The officer said he was checking this area for his safety and to make sure
that nobody would get hurt. The officer observed a 12-pack of beer on the
floorboard and checked inside for a gun. When he moved the carton, he found a
small baggy underneath it containing a controlled substance.
Should the passenger's motion to suppress the controlled
substance be granted?
I need 2 to 4 references APA style and 4 pages for this assignment.