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Question Description

Read Chapter 4.

Write in APA Style.

1-. which of the following behaviors may be (1) ethical but illegal, (2) legal but unethical, (3) illegal and unethical, and (4) legal and ethical.

A. Working in a clinic that performs abortions

b. Respecting the wishes of a client suffering from ALS that he be permitted to die with dignity and not placed on “breathing machines”

c. Respecting the health surrogate’s wishes regarding termination of life support of her friend

d. Observing a coworker take out two tablets of oxycodone as ordered for pain management for his patient but keeping one for himself, administering only one tablet to the patient.

2-. differentiate among the following: deontological theories, utilitarianism, and principlism.

3-. what do you think about health-care professionals disclosing information to clients about a poor prognosis, even though the information may cause severe distress.

4-- What do they think about health-care professionals disclosing information to clients against family wishes?

5.- You see a colleague use another nurse’s password to access the medication administration system and take out a narcotic. What would you do?

6.- Your colleague’s child fell and was brought to the emergency department. She comes back up to the unit and tells you that they cleaned and debrided the wound, and she needs to change the dressings twice a day using a wet to dry method. You see her go into the supply system and remove the dressings and saline using a patient’s identification number. What would you do?

7.- You are caring for a patient who has a terminal disease. He asks you if he is dying. Would you tell him? If yes, how? If no, what might you say? .

8-You are administering hydromorphone to a patient. The patient asks you what you are administering. Would you tell the patient about the medication?

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Chapter 4 Questions of Values and Ethics Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Introduction Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company In the Beginning… • • • • There were no antibiotics. There were no ICUs. There were no CT scanners or MRIs. There were just physicians and nurses who cared for people in sickness and in health. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company 1960s • Technological advances allowed for the development of the ICU. • New biomedical developments • Advances in surgical techniques, such as open heart surgery Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company New Questions • The advances created new questions for health-care professionals regarding the use of technology. • The concepts of life and death Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Bioethics • A subdiscipline of ethics • The study of medical morality Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Concepts of Ethics • Values • Belief systems • Morality Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Value Systems • • • • • A set of related values Intrinsic values Extrinsic values Personal values Professional values Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Value Formation • Values are learned. • Values change with maturity and experience. • The number of values an individual holds is not as important as what values he or she consider important. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Values Clarification • Choosing • Prizing • Acting Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Belief Systems • These are organized ways of thinking about why people exist within the universe. • Their purpose is to explain such concepts as – Life and death – Good and evil – Health and illness Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Ethics and Morals Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Morals • Morals are an individual’s own code for acceptable behavior. • They arise from an individual’s conscience. • They act as a guide for individual behavior. • They are learned. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Ethics • Ethics deals with the “rightness” or “wrongness” of human behavior. • Concerned with the motivation behind the behavior • Bioethics is the application of these principles to life-and-death issues. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Ethical Theories • Deontological • Teleological • Principalism Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Ethical Principles • • • • • • • • Autonomy Nonmaleficence Beneficence Justice Fidelity Confidentiality Veracity Accountability Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Autonomy • The freedom to make decisions about oneself • Nurses need to respect clients’ rights to make choices about health care. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Nonmaleficence • Requires that no harm be caused to an individual, either unintentionally or deliberately. • Requires nurses to protect individuals who are unable to protect themselves. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Beneficence • This principle means “doing good” for others. • Nurses need to assist clients in meeting all their needs. – Biological – Psychological – Social Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Justice • Every individual must be treated equally. • This requires nurses to be nonjudgmental. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Fidelity • Loyalty • The promise to fulfill all commitments • The basis of accountability Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Confidentiality • Anything stated to nurses or health-care providers by clients must remain confidential. • The only times this principle may be violated are – If clients indicate harm to themselves or others – If the clients give permission for the information to be shared Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Veracity • This principle implies “truthfulness.” • Nurses need to be truthful to their clients. • Veracity is an important component of building trusting relationships. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Accountability • Individuals need to be responsible for their own actions. • Nurses are accountable to themselves and to their colleagues. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Ethical Codes • These are formal statements of the rules of behavior for a particular group of individuals. • Ethical codes are dynamic. • Most professions have a “code of ethics” to guide professional behavior. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Virtue Ethics • Focus on virtues or moral character. • View helping others as charitable or benevolent. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Organizational Ethics • Focus on the workplace. • Ethical culture makes a difference. • Senior leadership must promote an ethical culture. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Ethical Dilemmas • Occur when a problem exists between ethical principles • Deciding in favor of one principle usually violates another. • Both sides have “goodness” and “badness” associated with them. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Resolving Ethical Dilemmas Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Using the Nursing Process • • • • Assessment Planning Implementation Evaluation Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Approach to Ethical Dilemmas Approach Assessment Planning Implementation Evaluation Am I involved? Determine goals of treatment. Work toward a mutually acceptable decision. Determine whether desired outcomes have been reached. Collect the facts. Identify decision makers. Use of discussion and negotiation. Re-evaluate as necessary. What values are in conflict? List and rank the options. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Current Ethical Issues Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Issues to Consider • • • • • Assisted suicide Technology issues Gene therapies “Designer babies” Organizational climate Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Conclusion • An issue is not an ethical issue for the nurse unless he or she has been asked. • Always gather the facts prior to decision making. • Consider your personal beliefs and values. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company ...
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Tutor Answer

StarMathematicstutor
School: UCLA

Attached.

Running head: DISCUSSION

1

Discussion (ethical issues)
Institutional affiliation
Date

DISCUSSION

2

1. Determing behaviors
a. Working in an abortion clinic
It is legal but unethical. In the United States and more specifically in the State of Florida,
it legal to carry out an abortion, so working in a clinic that performs abortions is right by the law
(Guttmacher Institute, 2019). However, Watt in the article, The Ethics of Pregnancy, Abortion,
and Childbirth: Exploring Moral Choices in Childbearing, states that in most societies, abortion
is equated to killing hence anything associated with it, like working in a clinic that performs
abortions, is considered wrong and unethical.
b. Respecting the wishes of an ALS patient.
It is ethical but illegal. According to Weiss and Tappen in their book, Essentials of
Nursing Leadership and Management, autonomy is an ethical principle that advocates that health
care professionals respect the decision made by their patients if they are competent (Weiss &
Tappen, 2014). Smyth and colleagues state that ALS only affects the physical state of an
individual, but their mental state is usually not affected (Smyth et al., 1997). So, in this case,
respecting the wishes of the client and not placing them on the breathing machine is ethical.
However, in Florida, death with dignity is illegal (Nolo, 2018).
c. Heeding to a health surrogate decision
It is ethical and legal. In their book, Weiss and Tappen state that in situations, like in this
case, where a person cannot make their own decision about matters of their life, it is legal and
ethical for their health surrogate to make decisions on their behalf and also for the healthcare
professionals to adhere to the wishes of the health surrogate.

DISCUSSION

3

d. Drug diversion by a coworker.
It is both illegal and unethical. One of the ethical principles for health care professionals,
according to Weiss and Tappen, is fidelity. Fidelity advocates for the trustworthiness and
accountability of both the patient care and hospital resources (Weiss & Tappen, 2014).
Overprescribing and keeping the excess medication indicates they lack fidelity, and it is
unethical. It is also illegal as the Uniform Controlled Substances Act as prohibits drug diversion
(Berge et al., 2012).
2. Ethical theories
Three ethical theories seek to justify moral values, namely deontological theory,
utilitarianism, and principlism. The deontological theory states that the intentions of an action
should be used to determine the worthiness of the action. Utilitarianism, on the other hand, is
also known as the teleological theory and it states that th...

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Anonymous
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