Running head: DISCUSSION
Discussion (ethical issues)
1. Determing behaviors
a. Working in an abortion clinic
It is legal but unethical. In the United States and more specifically in the State of Florida,
it legal to carry out an abortion, so working in a clinic that performs abortions is right by the law
(Guttmacher Institute, 2019). However, Watt in the article, The Ethics of Pregnancy, Abortion,
and Childbirth: Exploring Moral Choices in Childbearing, states that in most societies, abortion
is equated to killing hence anything associated with it, like working in a clinic that performs
abortions, is considered wrong and unethical.
b. Respecting the wishes of an ALS patient.
It is ethical but illegal. According to Weiss and Tappen in their book, Essentials of
Nursing Leadership and Management, autonomy is an ethical principle that advocates that health
care professionals respect the decision made by their patients if they are competent (Weiss &
Tappen, 2014). Smyth and colleagues state that ALS only affects the physical state of an
individual, but their mental state is usually not affected (Smyth et al., 1997). So, in this case,
respecting the wishes of the client and not placing them on the breathing machine is ethical.
However, in Florida, death with dignity is illegal (Nolo, 2018).
c. Heeding to a health surrogate decision
It is ethical and legal. In their book, Weiss and Tappen state that in situations, like in this
case, where a person cannot make their own decision about matters of their life, it is legal and
ethical for their health surrogate to make decisions on their behalf and also for the healthcare
professionals to adhere to the wishes of the health surrogate.
d. Drug diversion by a coworker.
It is both illegal and unethical. One of the ethical principles for health care professionals,
according to Weiss and Tappen, is fidelity. Fidelity advocates for the trustworthiness and
accountability of both the patient care and hospital resources (Weiss & Tappen, 2014).
Overprescribing and keeping the excess medication indicates they lack fidelity, and it is
unethical. It is also illegal as the Uniform Controlled Substances Act as prohibits drug diversion
(Berge et al., 2012).
2. Ethical theories
Three ethical theories seek to justify moral values, namely deontological theory,
utilitarianism, and principlism. The deontological theory states that the intentions of an action
should be used to determine the worthiness of the action. Utilitarianism, on the other hand, is
also known as the teleological theory and it states that th...