# Need statistics help t use these data to set up a contingency table.

Dec 5th, 2015
Anonymous
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Mathematics
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Question description

Many animals respond to fire by seeking cover, and most of the time they are likely responding to either visual cues (sight of flames), thermal cues (heat), or chemical cues (smoke). Grafe et al. (2002) wanted to see if auditory cues (the sound of the fire) might also lead to a change in behavior. They studied juvenile reed frogs (Hyperolius nitidulus) in specialized arenas, and recorded their response to one of three sounds: (1) a recording of a fire moving through the forest floor (Fire); (2) this same sound, but played backward (Reverse Fire); (3) white noise (a constant hum), which served as a control (White Noise). For each frog, they recorded whether it moved away from the sound or not; the latter category included no movement or movement toward the sound. The data for each frog is given below:

 Type of Sound Direction Type of Sound Direction Type of Sound Direction Fire away Reverse Fire away White Noise away Fire away Reverse Fire away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire not away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire not away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire not away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire not away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire not away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire not away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire not away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire not away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire not away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire not away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire not away White Noise not away Fire away Reverse Fire not away White Noise not away Fire not away Reverse Fire not away White Noise not away Fire not away Reverse Fire not away White Noise not away

A)  Use these data to set up a contingency table. Then use either a G-test or a chi-square test of independence to analyze this contingency table. You must provide your row and column totals and the expected values for each cell in the table.

From these data, does it look like either one or both of the factors (type of sound or frog response) was fixed by the researchers? Be sure to explain your reasoning

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