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First we should know what are rational no.s
Rational no.s are numbers which can be expressed in the form of (p/q) where p and q are integers and q is not equal to 0.
so, for a) 3/7 is a rational no. because 3/7 = p/q and 7 is not 0 . so 4/7 is rational no.
c) √4 =2 . therefore our no. becomes 21/2 =p/q and 2 is not 0. so 21/√4 is rational no.
e) -13 = ((-13)/1) =p/q where -13 and 1 are integers and 1 is not 0 . so -13 is rational.
Now, any number in which the number after the decimal never stops or repeat is irrational number.
example √2 =0.414...... and it continues and nobody remembers what's coming next .
so all non perfect square numbers under root are irrational numbers.
so b) 30 = 5*6 since 30 is not a perfect square. therefore √30 is irrational no.
d) as for Pi , Pi = 3.1415...... and never repeats therefore pi is irrational no.
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