## Description

**Instructions**

Today there are 195 sovereign countries in the world that are officially recognized. One can choose to look at many types of data coming from these countries, as there is a plethora of existing information. For this assignment you will be looking at populations of cities within China at three different times (depending on when a census was taken). The data for these cities can be found in the file named (attached) __Populations__. *Use all of the data points for each of the years given, but please note that not every city has a population for each census.*

Prepare a report (see below) using numerical methods of descriptive statistics to show how the populations of the cities vary over the years (growth rates). Be sure to include the following three (3) items in your report.

- Compute descriptive statistics for each of the years along with an explanation of what the descriptive statistics tell us about the different years. Are they continually growing, or is there a decrease in the number of people? The descriptive statistics will include the mean, mode, range, standard deviation, and the 5-number summary (minimum, first quartile (Q1), median (Q2), third quartile (Q3), and maximum).
- Determine which cities, if any, should be considered outliers in each of the years? If there are any outliers in any year, please list them and state for which year each one is an outlier. Use the z-score method to determine outliers for this question showing the z-score calculations for each city and year in your spreadsheet.
- Determine the correlation coefficient between the first year and each of the other years. Please provide an explanation of the relationships. Show your calculations for each correlation coefficient within the spreadsheet.

**Paper Requirements**

Write a report. Items that should be included, at a minimum, are a title page, an introduction, a body which answers the questions posed in the problem, and a conclusion paragraph that addresses your findings and what you have determined from the data and your analysis. As with all written assignments, you should have in-text citations and a reference page. Please include any tables of calculations, calculated values, and graphs associated with this problem in the body of your assignment response.

Note: You *must* submit your Excel file with your report. This will aid in grading with partial credit if errors are found in the report.

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## Explanation & Answer

Attached.

Running head: STATISTICAL REPORT OF THE POPULATION OF CHINA'S CITIES

STATISTICAL REPORT OF THE POPULATION OF CHINA'S CITIES

Name:

Institution affiliation:

Date:

1

STATISTICAL REPORT OF THE POPULATION OF CHINA'S CITIES

2

STATISTICAL REPORT OF THE POPULATION OF CHINA'S CITIES

Introduction

Generally, the human population as kept on increasing gradually over the year. To

determine the rate of population increase, each country has its census program. In most

countries, the census is carried out at an interval of ten years. Understating the rate of population

increase is very important to the government because it facilitates proper planning. This report

comprises the results of the analysis of populations of cities within China in 1990, 2000, and

2010.

Descriptive statistics

1990

2000

2010

Descriptive statistics

Mean

Mode

Standard deviation

Minimum

Maximum

Range

844,604

#N/A

1066567.66

59,091

7,821,787

7,762,696

1,680,030

#N/A

1919368.568

155,754

14,230,992

14,075,238

2,356,762

#N/A

2790720.105

750,283

20,217,748

19,467,465

5-number summary

Minimum

1st quartile

Median

3rd quartile

Maximum

59,091

302639.75

457,871

1052390.25

7,821,787

155,754

705040

937,123

1840395

14,230,992

750,283

922898

1,247,378

2745179.5

20,217,748

The descriptive statistics above indicate that the population in many cities in China kept

on increasing from 1990 to 2010. The average population of the cities in China increased from

844,604 in 1990 to 2,356,762 in 2010. The standard deviation and the range also increased

significantly over the years (Holcomb, 2017).

STATISTICAL REPORT OF THE POPULATION OF CHINA'S CITIES

3

Outliers

The cities that should be considered outliers were determined by the z-score method in

excel spreadsheet. From the results obtained, Zhuhai, Zhuzhou, and Zibo should be considered as

outliers in 1990 and 2000. The z-scores for these cities are above 3.0. This implies that the values

for the populations of these cities deviated from the values of other populations by a large

margin. Also, Zhuzhou and Zibo can be considered outliers in 2010 because their z-scores

exceed 3.0.

Correlation coefficients

The correlation coefficient between 1990 and 2000 and 1990 and 2010 was computed

using excel function. The correlation coefficient between 1990 and 2000 is 0.9388, indicating a

strong positive correlation between the variables (Hayslett & Murphy, 2014). This implies that

the populations of the cities increased significantly in both 1990 and 2000. Also, the correlation

coefficient between 1990 and 2010 is 0.8969, indicating a strong positive correlation.

Nevertheless, the correlation coefficient between 1990 and 2000 and 1990 and 2010 can be

illustrated using a scatter plot, as shown below.

Population in 2000

Scater plot

16,000,000

14,000,000

12,000,000

10,000,000

8,000,000

6,000,000

4,000,000

2,000,000

0

y = 1.6895x + 253063

R² = 0.8814

0

2,000,000

4,000,000

6,000,000

Population in 1990

8,000,000 10,000,000

STATISTICAL REPORT OF THE POPULATION OF CHINA'S CITIES

Scatter plot

Population in 2010

25,000,000

20,000,000

y = 2.3468x + 374606

R² = 0.8045

15,000,000

10,000,000

5,000,000

0

0

2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 10,000,000

Population in 1990

Conclusion

In summary, the populations of all the cities in China increased significantly from 1990

to 2010 as indicated by the descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients. There is a strong

positive correlation between the populations of the cities in 1990 and 2000 and 1990 and 2010.

4

STATISTICAL REPORT OF THE POPULATION OF CHINA'S CITIES

References

Hayslett, H., & Murphy, P. (2014). Statistics. London: Elsevier Science.

Holcomb, Z. (2017). Fundamentals of descriptive statistics. London: Routledge.

5

China

Cities

Name

Anshan

Anyang

Baoding

Baoji

Baotou

Beijing

Bengbu

Benxi

Changchun

Changde

Changsha (incl. Wangcheng)

Changshu

Changzhou (incl. Wujin)

Chaozhou (incl. Chao'an)

Chengdu (incl. Xindu) [Chengtu]

Chifeng (Ulanhadhot)

Chongqing (incl. Ba'nan, Jiangbei) [Chungking]

Cixi

Dalian [Dairen]

Dandong

Daqing

Datong

Dongguan

Dongying

Foshan (incl. Gaoming, Nanhai, Sanshui, Shunde)

Fushun

Fuxin

Fuyang

Fuzhou

Guangzhou (incl. Huade, Panyu) [Canton]

Guilin (incl. Lingui)

Guiyang

Haikou (incl. Qiongshan)

Handan

Hangzhou (incl. Xiaoshan, Yuhang) [Hangchou]

Harbin (incl. Hulan)

Hefei [Hofei]

Hengyang

Hohhot (Huhehaote) [Huhehot]

Huai'an (Huaiyin)

Native Name

鞍山市

安阳市

保定市

宝鸡市

包头市

北京市

蚌埠市

本溪市

长春市

常德市

长沙市

常熟市

常州市

潮州市

成都市

赤峰市

重庆市

慈溪市

大连市

丹东市

大庆市

大同市

东莞市

东营市

佛山市

抚顺市

阜新市

阜阳市

福州市

广州市

桂林市

贵阳市

海口市

邯郸市

杭州市

哈尔滨市

合肥市

衡阳市

呼和浩特市

淮安市

Administrative Regions

LN

HEN

HEB

SN

NM

BJ

AH

LN

JL

HN

HN

JS

JS

GD

SC

NM

CQ

ZJ

LN

LN

HL

SX

GD

SD

GD

LN

LN

AH

FJ

GD

GX

GZ

HI

HEB

ZJ

HL

AH

HN

NM

JS

Huaibei

Huainan

Huizhou (incl. Huiyang)

Jiangmen (incl. Xinhui)

Jiangyin

Jiaxing

Jieyang (incl. Jiedong)

Jilin

Jinan

Jingzhou (incl. Jiangling, Shashi)

Jining

Jinjiang

Jinzhou

Kunming (incl. Chenggong)

Kunshan

Lanzhou

Lianyungang

Linyi

Liuzhou

Luoyang

Mianyang

Mudanjiang

Nanchang

Nanchong

Nanjing (incl. Jiangning, Jiangpu, Luhe) [Nanking]

Nanning (incl. Yongning)

Nantong (incl. Tongzhou)

Nanyang

Ningbo (incl. Yinzhou)

Pingdingshan

Puning

Putian

Qingdao [Tsingtao]

Qingyuan (incl. Qingxin)

Qinhuangdao

Qiqihar

Quanzhou

Rizhao

Rui'an

Shanghai

Shantou (incl. Chaoyang, Chenghai)

Shenyang

Shenzhen (incl. Bao'an)

Shijiazhuang

Shuangliu

Suqian

Suzhou (incl. Wujiang, Wuzhong)

淮北市

淮南市

惠州市

江门市

江阴市

嘉兴市

揭阳市

吉林市

济南市

荆州市

济宁市

晋江市

锦州市

昆明市

昆山市

兰州市

连云港市

临沂市

柳州市

洛阳市

绵阳市

牡丹江市

南昌市

南充市

南京市

南宁市

南通市

南阳市

宁波市

平顶山市

普宁市

�...