Politics & Policy in Health Care Systems and Health Policy Analysis Guidelines

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Question Description

Politics & Policy in Health Care Systems

Health Policy Analysis Guidelines

7 page paper on the Topic on Health Care Systems Analysis Paper and Mock Testimony.

Topic: United States Mental Health Access Improvement policy (S. 2680/H.R. 2646) due on 5/19/19.

The purpose of the assignment is for students to develop knowledge about the analysis of a health policy issue within the context of the policy making process. This assignment can focus on a public health policy issue emanating from the federal, state, or local arena. The student will:

  • Determine a specific topic/area of health policy to be studied obtaining instructor approval in Week One, designated Discussion Board.
  • Research the policy/program using a variety of methods.
  • Prepare a paper that applies components of the policymaking process using a stage-sequential model (Mason Leavitt Chaffee textbook Chapters 7-8) see attachment below.
  • Include the following in the formal paper (each may be used as APA headings):
    • A. Policy Problem(Mental Health Access Improvement Act)
    • PolicyS. 2680/H.R. 2646
      • a. Background
        • Social Factors
        • Economic Factors
        • Ethical Factors
        • Political Factors
        • Legal Factors
    • B. Policy Goals & Objectives
    • C. Evaluations of Options & Alternatives
      • Cost
      • Quality of Care]
      • Protection of patient & provider autonomy
      • Political Feasibility
    • D. Nursing Implications
    • E. Conclusion
  • An abstract should be provided in your term paper. Abstract according to APA:
    • Single paragraph
    • Block format no indent
    • Less than 120 words
    • All numbers written in Arabic
    • Paraphrase rather than quote
    • Utilize active voice
    • Explain any abbreviations utilized i.e. American Nurses Association (ANA).
  • Paper is to be in APA format (use template) and proper in-text citations and reference list included. Supporting citations are to be within the last 5 years and authoritative sources such as peer-reviewed journals. Be sure to correctly cite the policy according to APA citation.

2-17-2012 LAB, updated 3.25.14 kld

Unformatted Attachment Preview

1 WILMINGTON UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS TERM PAPER EVALUATION RUBRIC Student Name: _________________________________ Course: ________________________ Assignment: ____________________________ Directions: CHECK the box in the column that best describes the extent to which the student’s work meets the expected elements for each evaluation criterion. In the rubric score column, RECORD the numeric rubric value that best fits the student’s work. NOTE the range for each level of work. For example, you may enter a numeric rubric value from 8.3 – 8. 8 for “acceptable” work. However, 8.9 will represent “accomplished” work. This rubric directly matches the University’s grading system. RECORD a rubric score of “0” if elements are not included or submitted in compliance with the assignment guidelines & cannot be graded on the rubric. Evaluation Criteria & Expected Elements INTRODUCTION (10 pts) 1. Conveys understanding of the paper INFORMATION LITERACY (15 pts) 2. Selects literature Descriptive Adjectives with Numeric Rubric Values & Corresponding University Numeric Grading Values Unsatisfactory 7. 6 or less 76 or less C- or less □ Inadequately Unsatisfactory 3. 8 or less 76 or less C- or less □ Inadequately Developing 7.7 – 8.2 77 - 82 C to C+ □ Minimally Developing 3.85 – 4.10 77 – 82 C to C+ □ Minimally Acceptable 8.3 – 8.8 83 – 88 B- to B □ Moderately Acceptable 4.15 – 4.40 83 - 88 B- to B □ Moderately Accomplished 8.9 – 9.4 89 – 94 B+ to A□ Fully Accomplished 4.45 – 4.70 89 - 94 B+ to A□ Fully Exemplary 9.5 - 10. 0 95 – 100 A □ Exquisitely States clear & appropriate thesis statement for assignment. Presents background of paper with evident literature support. States purpose of paper. States contents of paper. Captures reader’s attention. Exemplary 4.75 – 5.00 95 – 100 A □ Exquisitely Draws content from current & appropriate body of literature. Selects majority primary sources. Selects appropriate number of sources. Rubric Score /10 /5 2 3. Evaluates literature □ Inadequately □ Minimally □ Moderately □ Fully □ Exquisitely Demonstrates ability to access, use, and evaluate reliability and validity of information. 4. Attributes sources □ Inadequately □ Minimally □ Moderately □ Fully □ Exquisitely Uses information ethically (paraphrases, cites, quotes sources properly). BODY/CONTENTS Analysis/Support/ Reasoning (20 pts) 5. Develops paper 6. Processes paper CONCLUSIONS/ RECOMMENDATIONS (20 pts) 7. Integrates paper Unsatisfactory 7. 6 or less 76 or less C- or less □ Inadequately □ Inadequately Developing 7.7 – 8.2 77 - 82 C to C+ □ Minimally □ Minimally Acceptable 8.3 – 8.8 83 – 88 B- to B □ Moderately □ Moderately Accomplished 8.9 – 9.4 89 – 94 B+ to A□ Fully □ Fully Exemplary 9.5 - 10. 0 95 – 100 A □ Exquisitely Uses data to support in-depth analysis of all aspects of topic. Represents other views. Follows assignment criteria. Developing 7.7 – 8.2 77 - 82 C to C+ □ Minimally Acceptable 8.3 – 8.8 83 – 88 B- to B □ Moderately Accomplished 8.9 – 9.4 89 – 94 B+ to A□ Fully /5 Rubric Score /10 □ Exquisitely Evidences critical thinking/reasoning throughout analysis process. Supports rationale and significance of paper. Unsatisfactory 7. 6 or less 76 or less C- or less □ Inadequately /5 Exemplary 9.5 - 10. 0 95 – 100 A □ Exquisitely Draws logical & original conclusions from analysis. Synthesizes information to evidence critical thinking & reflection. Recommends next steps to pursue/address topic area. /10 Rubric Score /10 3 8. Applies paper □ Inadequately □ Minimally □ Moderately □ Fully □ Exquisitely Presents/addresses implications for nursing (practice, education, research). WRITING QUALITIES Organization (10 pts) 9. Organizes paper Writing (15 pts) 10. Uses writing mechanics 11. Uses writing articulation techniques Unsatisfactory 7. 6 or less 76 or less C- or less □ Inadequately Unsatisfactory 3. 8 or less 76 or less C- or less □ Inadequately □ Inadequately Developing 7.7 – 8.2 77 - 82 C to C+ □ Minimally Developing 3.85 – 4.10 77 – 82 C to C+ □ Minimally □ Minimally Acceptable 8.3 – 8.8 83 – 88 B- to B □ Moderately Acceptable 4.15 – 4.40 83 - 88 B- to B □ Moderately □ Moderately Accomplished 8.9 – 9.4 89 – 94 B+ to A□ Fully Accomplished 4.45 – 4.70 89 - 94 B+ to A□ Fully □ Fully /10 Exemplary 9.5 - 10. 0 95 – 100 A □ Exquisitely Uses headings to clearly organize & delineate areas of discussion. Presents information logically. Sequences ideas to enhance meaning, overall cohesion, & readability. Rubric Score Exemplary 4.75 – 5.00 95 – 100 A □ Exquisitely Uses correct mechanics (grammar, spelling, & punctuation). Uses topical & complete sentences. Uses transitions to connect ideas. Rubric Score /10 /5 □ Exquisitely Illustrates clarity, precision, & appropriate vocabulary. Focuses on topic & task. Uses minimal redundancy/ repetition. /5 4 12. Uses writing presentation principles Formal Writing Guidelines APA Format (10 pts) 13. Presents paper elements 14. Presents citations and references □ Inadequately □ Minimally □ Moderately □ Fully □ Exquisitely Style: Uses variety sentence & strong paragraph structure to convey details, unity, & completeness Tone: Uses appropriate, consistent, objective tone that shows tact, respect, and understanding. Voice: Uses majority active voice & paces how writing sounds to reader. Unsatisfactory 3. 8 or less 76 or less C- or less □ Inadequately □ Inadequately Developing 3.85 – 4.10 77 – 82 C to C+ □ Minimally □ Minimally Acceptable 4.15 – 4.40 83 - 88 B- to B □ Moderately □ Moderately Accomplished 4.45 – 4.70 89 - 94 B+ to A□ Fully □ Fully Exemplary 4.75 – 5.00 95 – 100 A □ Exquisitely Uses correct APA format for title page, spacing, margins, headings, etc. Graphics/tables, if indicated /5 Rubric Score /5 □ Exquisitely Uses correct APA format to document and matches citations and references. /5 /100 Total Rubric Score Faculty: ________________________________________________ Date: ___________ Letter Grade: __________ Comments: Obtain copy of Undergraduate and Graduate Grading System at Wilmington University, Academics, Academic Policies, Grading, Grading Scale @ http://www.wilmu.edu/academics/grades.aspx 08/08, 10/08, 11/08, 12/08 Politics & Policy in Health Care Systems Health Policy Analysis Guidelines First identify your topic for the Health Care Systems Analysis Paper and Mock Testimony. Topic: United States Mental Health Access Improvement policy (S. 2680/H.R. 2646) due on 5/19/19. The purpose of the assignment is for students to develop knowledge about the analysis of a health policy issue within the context of the policy making process. This assignment can focus on a public health policy issue emanating from the federal, state, or local arena. The student will: • • • • • Determine a specific topic/area of health policy to be studied obtaining instructor approval in Week One, designated Discussion Board. Research the policy/program using a variety of methods. Prepare a paper that applies components of the policymaking process using a stage-sequential model (Mason Leavitt Chaffee textbook Chapters 7-8) see attachment below. Include the following in the formal paper (each may be used as APA headings): o A. Policy Problem (Mental Health Access Improvement Act) o Policy S. 2680/H.R. 2646 ▪ a. Background • Social Factors • Economic Factors • Ethical Factors • Political Factors • Legal Factors o B. Policy Goals & Objectives o C. Evaluations of Options & Alternatives ▪ Cost ▪ Quality of Care] ▪ Protection of patient & provider autonomy ▪ Political Feasibility o D. Nursing Implications o E. Conclusion An abstract should be provided in your term paper. Abstract according to APA: o Single paragraph o Block format no indent o Less than 120 words o All numbers written in Arabic o Paraphrase rather than quote • o Utilize active voice o Explain any abbreviations utilized i.e. American Nurses Association (ANA). Paper is to be in APA format (use template) and proper in-text citations and reference list included. Supporting citations are to be within the last 5 years and authoritative sources such as peer-reviewed journals. Be sure to correctly cite the policy according to APA citation. 2-17-2012 LAB, updated 3.25.14 kld Chapter 8 HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS 1 Public Health Policy Analysis: Impact of Fossil Fuel Energy on Health Jane Doe Wilmington University Running head: HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS 2 Abstract The U.S. depends primarily on petroleum, natural gas, and coal for energy, and these fossil fuels account for over 80% of energy use (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2011). Fossil fuel energy has been linked to human health problems, and there is growing concern over risks of hydraulic fracturing or fracking, “a technique used to release petroleum, natural gas, or other substances for extraction” from rock layers (hydraulic fracturing, n.d.). To that end, the Pennsylvania State Nurses Association (PSNA) developed a policy entitled “Nurses’ Role in Recognizing, Educating, and Advocating for Healthy Energy Choices” concerning the health risks associated with fossil fuel energy and the role of nurses in educating others and advocating for healthier energy choices. The PSNA’s policy was subsequently adopted by the American Nurses Association (ANA) House of Delegates as a Resolution in July 2012. Running head: HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS 3 Public Health Policy Analysis: Impact of Fossil Fuels on Health The purpose of this paper is to analyze the PSNA and the ANA public health policy regarding the impact of fossil fuel energy on health and the role of nurses in educating others about the topic and advocating for healthier energy choices. Health policy is defined as “the decisions made within government structures that direct or influence the actions, behaviors, and decisions pertaining to health and its determinants,” and policy analysis is “the process leading to a study of the background, purpose, content, and effects of various options within a policy and their relevant social, economic, and political factors” (Berkowitz, 2012, p. 50). To that end, this paper seeks to define this policy problem, provides background and contextual information in reference to social, economic, ethical, political, and legal factors surrounding fossil fuels, health, and renewable energy sources, and describes the stakeholders. Next, policy goals and objectives are evaluated, and the pros and cons of this policy and two other policy options are compared in terms of cost, quality of care, protection of patient and provider autonomy, and political feasibility. Lastly, the most effective policy option is summarized considering its implications on nursing. Policy Process A hybrid of the rational decision making (i.e., emphasis on policy alternatives) and stage-sequential (i.e., problem definition, policy formation, implementation, and evaluation) approaches to policy process suggested by Berkowitz (2012) will be used to organize this paper. The ways in which the PSNA’s policy and ANA’s subsequent Resolution fit into the policy process are explored below. Running head: HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS 4 The third step in the policy process, development of policy options (Berkowitz, 2012) including advantages and disadvantages, is explored later in the paper. The last three steps of the policy process are to evaluate the impact of the policy; modify, repeal, or leave the policy alone; and communicate policy options (Berkowitz, 2012). These measures have yet to be taken as the ANA has not yet released implementation strategies to their constituents (i.e., nursing associations and individual nurses) so it is premature to ascertain the full impact of this policy. Definition of the Problem The first step in the policy process is to define the problem, i.e., a “situation that produces needs or dissatisfaction among people for which relief is sought through governmental action” (Berkowitz, 2012, p. 52). The problem identified in the PSNA policy proposal--and in the ANA’s subsequently passed Resolution--speaks to the impact of energy choices (i.e., fossil fuels) on health and how nurses can help minimize the toll to lives associated with energy choices by supporting policies that put health first and advocating for polices that focus on healthier, more sustainable energy sources. The PSNA recognized a need for national nursing leadership to draw attention to the impact of energy choices on health. This policy, with the backing of the ANA, calls upon nurses to use evidence-based information to educate other health professionals, the public, and policymakers about the relationship between health and fossil fuel energy and to pursue conservation and healthier, more sustainable energy choices such as wind and solar power. Research Running head: HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS 5 The next step in the policy process is to research the problem (Berkowitz, 2012), which the PSNA has done in its Action Proposal to the ANA, providing background information and references from scientific and medical journals and government websites to support its proposed policy. I present findings from the literature on the impact of fossil fuel energy on health in the next paragraphs. Fossil fuel use has been linked to increased rates of asthma attacks, lung cancer, and cardiovascular disease (PSNA, 2012). O’Connor and Roy (2008) note that half of the electrical power in the U.S. is generated by coal-fired power plants that serve as a major source of air pollutants including mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and fine particular matter. Exposure to these pollutants has been linked to direct effects of respiratory problems, pregnancy complications, and premature death and indirect effects on the cardiovascular and neurologic systems (O’Connor & Roy, 2008). Other sources of air pollutants include--but are not limited to--oil refineries, vehicles, and lawn mowers (Chalupka, 2005). Air pollution causes water pollution, which has various routes of exposure including dermal exposure, ingestion, and inhalation (Chalupka, 2005). For example, mercury from coal-fired power plants can contaminate the fish supply, causing neurotoxicity to those who eat it, and eating products from animals who feed on contaminated plants or fruits and vegetables grown in contaminated soil poses health risks (Chalupka, 2005). In addition, fracking is in its relative infancy; however, preliminary data have shown health risks associated with air pollution from ground-level ozone formation and water contamination related from accidental discharge of hazardous chemicals used in the fracking process (Kaktins, 2011). Running head: HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS 6 Stakeholders The fourth step in the policy process is to involve interest groups and stakeholders (Berkowitz, 2012). Stakeholders are those impacted by policy decisions and are usually heavily engaged in the policy making process (Berkowitz, 2012). The stakeholders of this policy include the PSNA, specifically members of the Association’s Environmental Health Committee, and the ANA, which has adopted this policy and is expected to publish implementation strategies so that nursing organizations and individual nurses can put this policy into practice. The PSNA and the ANA represent the interest of the general public and published this policy out of concern over the impact of fossil fuels on human health. By submitting their proposal to the ANA, the PSNA was successful in engaging the country’s largest nursing organization in a health policy that is in the interest of the general public. Background This section explores social, economic, ethical, political, and legal factors surrounding fossil fuel energy, health, and renewable energy sources. Social Factors The degree of vulnerability to environmental exposure depends upon the person’s size and degree of sensitivity, combined with interactions, synergies, and cumulative effects (Brody, 2012). Elements of one’s environment can have synergistic effects (Brody, 2012). For example, the developing fetus and child in urban areas and developing countries are at increased risk for health problems because environmental exposure can be exacerbated by inadequate nutrition and stress (Perera, 2008). What is more, past and current exposure to one toxin can increase one’s vulnerability to another Running head: HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS 7 environmental hazard (Chalupka, 2005). Research has shown that certain groups are at increased risk for exposure to environmental hazards including children, older adults, the poor, and minority communities are particularly vulnerable to the adverse affect of fossil fuel combustion on health (Chalupka, 2005). Other groups with increased sensitivity to air pollution include those with pre-existing cardiac, immune, or respiratory system disease and people who exercise or work outdoors (Chalupka, 2005). Pregnant women, the fetus, and children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of fossil fuel burning and its impact on health such as developmental delay, asthma, and cancer, and environmental exposure in utero or in childhood can predispose an individual to chronic respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in adulthood (Perera, 2008). Concern has also been expressed over the vulnerability of older adults as environmental toxins can exacerbate co-morbidities, make people age faster, and affect susceptible body systems, and interact with a possible lifetime exposure to pollutants when less stringent laws were in place (Chalupuka, 2005). In addition, if one is poor and/or a minority, the risks of exposure to environmental hazards and its effects are even greater than for higher income, non-minorities (Chalupka, 2005), equating to environmental racism in which environmental risks are borne disproportionately by a select group (Sen & Chakrabarti, 2010). According to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University, African Americans are 79-percent more likely than Whites to live in areas where industrial pollution is thought to be the greatest health threat, and over two-thirds of Blacks live within 30 miles of a coal-fired power plant, an area in which the maximum impact of smoke occurs (Chappell, 2010). This has Running head: HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS 8 resulted in African Americans having increased rates of asthma, cancer, and lung disease than any other group (Chappell, 2010). It is worth noting that the study of environmental exposures and human health outcomes has limitations due to ill-defined and measured exposure, scarcity of studies on large populations, lack of understanding between the synergies between different types of environmental exposure, varying degrees of susceptibility of people who are exposed, a gap between the exposure and manifestation of a health problem, and a lack of standardization in national reporting of environmental exposures (Chalupka, 2005). In acknowledgement of this, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) set up the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program to track data about environmental hazards, exposure to environmental hazards, and health effects (CDC, 2012), which will help to more effectively identify cause and effect relationships between environmental exposure and adverse health effects. Economic Factors Fossil fuel energy has economic advantages and disadvantages. Fossil fuels are cheaper in terms of their direct costs as they are easier to harness and transport than alternative energy sources such as wind an ...
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Tutor Answer

Doctor_Ralph
School: Duke University

Attached.

Abstract
United States Mental Health Access Improvement Policy (S. 2680/H.R. 2646)
Policy problem: Mental health access improvement
Policy: S. 2680/H.R. 2646
Background
Goals and objectives
Evaluation of alternatives
Nursing implication
Conclusion
Reference


Running head: US MENTAL HEALTH ACCESS IMPROVEMENT POLICY

United States Mental Health Access Improvement Policy (S. 2680/H.R. 2646)
Names
Institution

1

US MENTAL HEALTH ACCESS IMPROVEMENT POLICY

2

Abstract
This assignment analyzes a policy through the stage-sequential model as outlined by Mason,
Leavitt, and Chafee. In the first section, the paper identifies that mental health access is a
significant problem among Americans. However, S. 2680/H.R. 2646 has been formulated to
address many of these problems. An appropriate policy should address legal, political,
economic, social, and ethical issues that surround the sector. The selected policy perfectly
addresses these through its clear goals that seek to increase service providers, reduce wrongful
arrests/convictions, improve funding, and optimize mental health access. While S. 286 could
be an alternative, its financial and political feasibility and quality outcomes do not match S.
2680/H. R. 2646. The latter could revolutionize nursing practice by improving quality and
early intervention, among other factors. It should thus be adopted as a way of addressing
mental health issues.

US MENTAL HEALTH ACCESS IMPROVEMENT POLICY

3

United States Mental Health Access Improvement Policy (S. 2680/H.R. 2646)
One of the most elaborate approaches to evaluate a policy is the stage-sequential
model. As reported by Mason, Leavitt, and Chafee (2012), this model involves four stages
that include setting the agenda, formulating a policy, program implementation, and evaluation
of the policy. Each of these stages should be conducted exhaustively as the outcomes of one
stage guide the actions and decisions undertaken in the next stage (Mason, Leavitt & Chafee,
2012). This paper will analyze a health policy that would be effective in improving mental
health.
Policy problem: Mental health access improvement
Healthcare is a sector that relies heavily on policies. As a sector that affects every
American, healthcare attracts the attention of both the government and the citizens alike. This
sector is often a priority manifesto for many regimes and politicians, considering that it
accounts for more than 17% of all the entire US GDP (Himmelstein & Woolhandler, 2016).
Much of these funds are spent towards the Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) programs.
Within this sector, one of the major areas of concern is mental health. This is one of the least
funded areas in the US healthcare industry despite affecting more than 20% of US adults at
least once every year. In 2013, mental health was classified as the most costly health
condition in the US, with a burden of $201 billion to consumers (Roehrig, 2016). In the recent
past, Congress has worked closely with the Department of Health and Humans Services
(HHS) alongside other government agencies to formulate policies that will streamline the
industry, boost health outcomes, improve the quality and safety of care, and optimize the
utilization of funds in the industry. Without effective policies, such efforts will be futile, and
the government, taxpayers, and consumers will not realize value for their money.
There is a wide gap in mental health access. Specifically, marginalized communities,
low-income persons, and people from minority races are disadvantaged when it comes to

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