MGMT354 University of La Verne Communication Class's Reflection paper

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University of La Verne


At this final-point in the course, take a moment to reflect on the importance of communication (written, oral, nonverbal) within organizations. Then, answering the following below, put your ideas into a coherent, well-structured essay using your best Standard American English (coherent ideas, complete, well-structured sentences, logical paragraph transitions).

PROMPT: At this point in the course, what do you feel you have learned about communication within organizations that will benefit you as a communicator in your professional life? What do you consider to be your greatest strengths as a communicator right now? Where do you see the greatest opportunities for growth in your communication? What concrete steps do you feel you can take to develop and continue to improve as a communicator? How do you see your growing understanding of the importance of organizational communication and, in particular, you-viewpoint communication aiding you in your journey to becoming a more effective business communicator?

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MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 1 of 16 COMMUNICATION THEORY COMMUNICATION The process of people sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings with each other in commonlyunderstandable ways. STANDARD AMERICAN ENGLISH (SAE) Standards (rules of the road) o o Spoken Written RHETORIC HOW communicators use words and language YOU-VIEWPOINT COMMUNICATION The sender gives primary consideration to the receiver’s point of view. Recipient-focused communication. Promotes common understanding. Purpose -- What is my message about? • • • • • Good news / Positive Message? Informative? Negative news? Persuasive? Sales? Social? Intention – To build goodwill. To establish and maintain favorable relationships. Correct word choice – Grammatically correct: using the right word. Effective word choice -- Communicates to message’s purpose and intention. Using the best words. Emphasize the positive – Positive words help build positive relationships ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 2 of 16 4 PRIMARY GOALS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION 1. RECEIVER UNDERSTANDS THE MESSAGE AS THE SENDER INTENDED 2. RECEIVER RESPONDS IN AN APPROPRIATE WAY a. PROVIDE AN AVENUE FOR FEEDBACK 3. ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING FAVORABLE RELATIONSHIPS 4. BUILDING ORGANIZATIONAL GOODWILL – corporate reputation Definition of Communication: the process of people sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings with each other in commonly understandable ways. • • • • Process – ongoing (not an “event” or “snapshot in time”) People – human activity (anything is possible) Sharing – engaging with others ▪ Give and take: reciprocal o Thoughts – cognitive o Feelings – affective o Ideas – conceptualization … models…mind maps ▪ Family ▪ Community ▪ Education ▪ Faith ▪ Success Common understanding o Aligned with the Goals of Organizational Communication ▪ Understanding ▪ Response ▪ Favorable relationships ▪ Organizational goodwill ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 3 of 16 Communication Dynamics – Roles: Senders & Receivers Stimulus, Motivation, Encoding, Decoding Sender – source of the message. • • • • • • Is prompted by some stimulus (need to communicate trigger). The sender may not necessarily be motivated to communicate Choose communication medium – the means to deliver a message o Written o Spoken o Nonverbal ▪ Choose message channel • Written o Letters o Memos o Emails o Texts o Web content o Blogs • Oral o Face to face o Phone o Tele-Presence ▪ Skype ▪ WebEx • Nonverbal o Everything that communicates a message but doesn’t use words ▪ Smile ▪ Handshake ▪ Wave ▪ Head nod Message channels can be strengthened by being combined o Email messages can be more effective combined with F2F o F2F can be more effective combined with email Encodes the message Provides an avenue for feedback ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 4 of 16 Receiver – receives the message • Accepts and is open the message …? o • • Have you ever not answered your cell phone when you saw who was calling? Interprets message o Decodes message ▪ Makes sense of message Responds if necessary ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 5 of 16 Human Language and Communication Language is symbolic activity: --Humans deal in signs and symbols every day and have for about 17,000 – 20,000 years. Prehistoric Cave art, Lascaux France – 20,000 years-old Cuneiform, Mesopotamia – 5,000 years-old Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Egypt – 3,500 years-old ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 6 of 16 Some linguists and communication theorists speculate that language may be returning to something more image-based and less word-centered: The Oxford English Dictionary chose this emoji as its WORD OF THE YEAR for 2015 because this is where language is going, the OED argued: Laughter through tears emoji – do you use it? Professor and Linguistics expert Vyv Evans has explored the emergence of emojis from Cuneiform, 3500 BCE, to the present day in his 2017 book, The Emoji Code. But let’s continue our trip back through time... ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 7 of 16 The illumination of manuscripts by medieval monks was a slow and tedious process – texts created by hand – and knowledge and information was readily accessible to very few: mostly confined to medieval monasteries, which morphed into the early European universities. The Printing Press Revolution, thanks to Gutenberg, created word-based cultures and economies since the 15th century permitting easier access to the written word due to speedier creation of texts. Printing Press Revolution – 15th century ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 8 of 16 For over 500 years, the written word had a certain pervasive power and information was able to spread rapidly through easy replication. JFK Assassination, 1963 We are now in the midst of another communication and information revolution made possible by today’s technologies and distributed through various social media channels: Youtube channels and podcasts are making possible long-form interviews, much like the storytelling of our prehistoric ancestors around the fire. Some call this a listening revolution as we engage more in the oral/aural tradition of learning. But now, instead of being gathered synchronously around the nighttime fire, we are dispersed, geographically and across time zones – asynchronously—but able to hear the same stories even “on the go” through mobile applications. The flickering glow of the nighttime fire is now replaced by the glow of our screens: ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 9 of 16 The Mobile Information Revolution What’s your favorite podcast or Youtube channel? Responding to the World Around Us Semiotics – systems of signs and symbols o o o Pictures Words Nonverbal Signs: Anything sending a message available for interpretation; signs are often directive: Everyday Signs on the Road Stop Sign Traffic Light Railway Crossing Freeway Signs Falling Rocks One-Way Street 90-Minute Parking ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 10 of 16 Symbols: a special kind of sign (represent an idea or abstraction): Symbols of USA American Flag Bald Eagle Statue of Liberty White House Symbols of Religion (e.g.: Christianity) Fish – ICTHUS Cross The Good Shepherd Dove Some things can be both signs and symbols: + • A cross is a symbol of Christianity. • In a different context, this symbol serves as a sign: • On the top of a hospital building or on a Red Cross vehicle, a cross is both a symbol and a sign: 2+2=4 o Sign: Get medical help here o Symbol: Life; healing; faith in God’s healing power • Sign: The Starbucks logo signals where you can get coffee • Symbol: The Starbucks logo represents something beyond just coffee: o Status ▪ Hipness o Belonging / Community o Exclusivity ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY o o 11 of 16 Choice Strength / Endurance ▪ “just gimme coffee!” Putting people first: text by former Starbucks president Howard Behar Signs and symbols can and do change over time and have different meaning in different contexts and cultures: Our immediate response upon seeing the swastika might be one of revulsion or fear and rightly so. This symbol had a previous (religious/spiritual) meaning prior to its use by the National Socialist Party (NAZI) in Europe in the 20th century. It was used on the Indian Subcontinent, 1100s BCE, as a symbol of life, peace, prosperity, wellness, luck, and hope. Native American tribes, too, made use of this symbol in their artifacts. Example: Navajo blanket. ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 12 of 16 Observe, now, how restroom signs are changing. Semantics – interpretation: making meaning • • • • Metaphysics Ontology Existentialism Epistemology o Interpretations differ ▪ Backgrounds • Race • Ethnicity • Age • Gender • Physical challenges Message Codes – symbols that carry the message 1. Language (Verbal) a. Spoken b. Written 2. Paralanguage (Vocal) a. Tone b. Pitch c. Rate d. Volume e. Emphasis 3. Nonverbal (Visual) a. Facial expressions b. Eye contact c. Hand gestures d. Body movement e. Proximity f. Posture ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 13 of 16 Channel Richness – refers to the amount of information a channel can convey • • • • • F2F is most channel rich o All 3 message codes are present ▪ Verbal ▪ Vocal ▪ Nonverbal Email is NOT channel rich o Flat o Message channel preferred in business TV is channel rich Radio o No visual cues Telephone o No visual cues Marshall McLuhan, Canadian professor of philosophy and media studies said: “The medium is the message” – the medium used to communicate a message, itself, communicates a message and enters into the communication context potentially impacting meaning. Presidents often find themselves under scrutiny for things like nonverbal behaviors visible on visual mediums. First televised presidential debate: Radio versus TV o 1960: Kennedy and Nixon TV Viewers wouldn’t have seen Mr. Nixon wiping away his perspiration or the radio. ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 14 of 16 Jimmy Carter – sweater speech, 1979 Americans didn’t respond well to their president addressing them in a sweater. Ronald Reagan The appearance of the messenger sends a message. Suit vs. sweater. Bill Clinton – presidential candidate on late-night TV Politics and Hollywood collide: entertainment or political message? ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 15 of 16 Models of Communication – How we think of communication 1. One-way Model a. Linear b. A talks to B c. No dialogue d. Not dynamic 2. Circular Model a. More interactive b. Implies step by step…linearity…which is rare 3. Transactional Model a. Dialogic b. We are both senders and receivers c. We are both responsible for making meaning d. Messy e. Chaotic Some Principles of Communication 1. Communication is irrevocable a. Can’t take it back b. Effective communicators are reflective communicators i. Think about our message 1. Who 2. What 3. When 4. Where 5. HOW – rhetoric 6. YVP communication calls us to reflect on the 4 primary goals of Org Comm a. Understanding b. Response i. Feedback c. Favorable Relationships d. Organizational goodwill 2. Communication is reparable a. We can’t erase what we’ve b. We can’t take it back… c. Might be able to alter first impressions of your message if sincere i. Apology ii. Self-disclosure 3. Communication is synchronous and asynchronous a. Synchronous – in time i. F2F ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 – COMMUNICATION THEORY 4. 5. 6. 7. 16 of 16 ii. Phone iii. Video Chat iv. In Class 1. Give and take 2. Dialogue b. Asynchronous – out of time i. Delayed communication ii. Not as dynamic / organic iii. Not as give and take iv. Not in the moment 1. Texting 2. Uploaded videos 3. Email 4. Online class with asynchronous elements a. Discussion forum Communication is heavily based on perception and interpretations a. The only message that counts is the message that is received Communication is flawed…faulty a. Spouse b. Kids c. Parent d. Work colleagues e. Boss f. Neighbors g. Extended family Communication is nonlinear (both ways) and subject to distraction a. Dynamic b. Not static As communicators, humans are: a. Adaptable – they can respond; they can change b. Resourceful – they can create; they can generate Desk Set – 1957, clip ©Dan Davis, Ed.d, 2018-2019. MGMT 354 Cultural Diversity Lecture Notes 1 of 27 CULTURAL DIVERSITY, COMMUNICATION, and CONFLICT in the WORKPLACE Cultural diversity affects relationships (interpersonal communication & interaction) in the workplace and in our personal life. Within our organizations, customers, clients, and colleagues represent at least five core dimensions of cultural diversity: • Race • Ethnicity • Gender • Age • Physical challenges Technological advances have brought the world closer than ever before. MGMT 354 Cultural Diversity Lecture Notes 2 of 27 The world, now, is virtually boundaryless. Technology has enabled rapid voice, data, and text communication worldwide. Air travel has made distances between countries and continents more scalable (easier to travel). Thus: Multicultural and global business communication is a common occurrence. MGMT 354 Cultural Diversity Lecture Notes 3 of 27 And sometimes our engagement with other cultures can lead to miscommunication and even conflict no matter who we are. 2015 Headline: Michelle Obama is not amused as she and her husband met the new leader of Saudi Arabia. The FLOTUS caused an “outrage” by not covering her head in Saudi Arabia. Organizational success depends on effective communication with individuals from a variety of cultural backgrounds. CULTURE Culture has many definitions. MGMT 354 Cultural Diversity Lecture Notes 4 of 27 Among these definitions: Culture means --group beliefs --norms --values --traits --behavior patterns We can speak of culture in general… And of organizational culture… Organizational Culture Organizational Culture: Organizational culture (or corporate culture) refers to how we do things in an organization, while organizational climate refers to the environment, its atmosphere: (formal/informal; trusting; anxious; tense; friendly) MGMT 354 Cultural Diversity Lecture Notes 5 of 27 Organizational culture is: ◼ Norms (acceptable standards about how we should behave in groups and toward others) o Set cell phones to silent in meetings (productive) o Let others finish when speaking (respect/communication) o No sidebar conversations (respect) o Honor time commitments (respect/productive) o Be engaged in projects/assignments (productive) ▪Classifications of Norms • Performance norms: acceptable work • Appearance norms: what’s ok to wear • Social norms: friendships/relationships ◼ Shared values (what we hold as important) o Transparency o Honesty o Collegiality o Learning together o Giving back to community ◼ Stories (what we tell ourselves about the past) MGMT 354 Cultural Diversity Lecture Notes 6 of 27 o “You should have been here 10 years ago when the pipes burst. Everyone pitched in and helped! That’s the day I knew we were a real team!” ◼ Rituals (activities that reinforce our values) o Toys for Tots drive during the holidays because we believe in giving to the community ◼ Heroes/heroines (who we hold up as models in the organization) o “I wish you had known Jim; he retired about 12 years ago, but let me tell you…everybody loved Jim! Everybody who knew him has a ‘Jim’ story…” ◼ Our behavioral expectations (what is tolerated and not) o Ethical code of conduct o Honesty o Integrity o Golden Rule (“do unto others…” ) o Doing the right thing even when no one is watching Think about your own organization’s culture. What sets it apart or distinguishes it? MGMT 354 Cultural Diversity Lecture Notes 7 of 27 What are its norms? What are its shared values? What behavioral expectations are there? What is its code of ethics? What stories are told? Who are the heroes / demons? What are its customs and rituals? Racial and Ethnic Culture In terms of culture in general, historical values, beliefs, and behavioral expectations stem from tradition and past experiences of family background and the norms of the society in which we live. Cultural background affects how we see the world and influences our needs, interests, and even values: these things can and do change over time. MGMT 354 Cultural Diversity Lecture Notes 8 of 27 Ethnicity and race affect communication patterns …and impact our interpersonal interactions with others… --how we respond to conflict, in fact. RACE & ETHNICITY Race defines people with the same language and history, as well as similar physical characteristics passed on through DNA … through birth … through descent. --Examples of race: American Indian, Alaskan Native, African American or Black, White, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander. --Decline to state Ethnicity refers to a common history, to nationality, and often relates to the home country of ancestors. MGMT 354 Cultural Diversity Lecture Notes 9 of 27 Ethnicity is seen as the common expressions often associated with a race: we often see this in • • • • • • • rituals celebrations storytelling dance cuisine (food) art clothing --Examples of Ethnicity: Hispanic or Latino, Chinese, Filipino. These are not simple terms, however, and there is often overlap and confusion and terms being used interchangeably. We could look at Jews, for example, who identify as a race, an ethnicity, a culture, and a religion… --their culture is their religion… --their religion is their culture… --they consider themselves born into a race… --they share a common ethnic expression out of these things… --and a common root language: Hebrew…which morphed into Yiddish in some cases… We could look at Spanish speaking people…and this, then, becomes a little more intricate and complicated… MGMT 354 Cultural Diversity Lecture Notes 10 of 27 --if you share a language is that enough of a common background…? --to say that Spaniards, Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, MexicanAmericans, and Columbians are of the same culture or have the same ethnic expressions because of a common language? Race and ethnicity can largely be considered cultural & historical constructs used to identify groups of people with similar characteristics…something that was created…and then imposed on…or applied to groups. Where do we find conflict among racial & ethnic identity? --someone may do or say something that violates a cultural norm or belief. --someone may label you in a way that you find inaccurate or offensive. --even if unintentional, such labeling can result in --resistance to authentic engagement and sustained interaction… --which can become a communication (interaction or engagement) barrier… MGMT 354 Cultural Diversity Lecture Notes 11 of 27 --which can result in latent or open conflict… Human Needs Something to remember: as human beings, we all have the same needs (although they may manifest differently)… In the 1950s psychologist Abraham Maslow identified the Hierarchy of Needs which shows human needs in a hierarchy from basic (or lower rung) needs to more advanced (or higher-order) needs… --physiological needs: shelter, food, water, clothing, air, sleep, sexual expression --if unfulfilled, we may experience pain, physical discomfort, illness… MGMT 354 Cultural Diversity Lecture Notes 12 of 27 --safety needs: work (job), financial security, law & order, protection from injury, poor health, & harm, freedom from fear. --if unfulfilled, we may experience tension, anxiety, fear, panic… --social needs: love, companionship, friendship, sense of belonging to one or more groups. --if unfulfilled, we may experience loneliness, boredom, low self-image, or feelings of being unloved or unlovable. --esteem needs: sense of pride, recognition from others, status, prestige, self-recognition. 13 of 27 --if unfulfilled we might experience loss of confidence, low self-esteem, self doubt --self-actualization needs: becoming the best person one can be…developing to one’s fullest capabilities…achieving worthwhile goals, living our life ON PURPOSE. --if unfulfilled, we may experience feelings of futility, alienation, anger…or bitterness… The result of unmet needs may manifest as futility, alienation, anger, and bitterness, but these are often used to mask our base feelings: FEAR…JEALOUSY…FEELING THREATNED… --fear that my life doesn’t matter… --fear that I don’t measure up…. --fear that I have no purpose… History also shows that sometimes ethnic or racial groups are the targets of baser human feelings. Emotional and Social Intelligence This is where both Emotional & Social Intelligence can come into play… 14 of 27 Emotional Intelligence: Am I mature enough to acknowledge what I’m feeling and not deal with it in an ugly or abusive way … in ways that don’t lead to conflict in my own relationships with others … and in my relationship with myself. There’s a saying: PEOPLE WHO ARE A PAIN ARE IN PAIN… Social Intelligence: Am I mature enough to know how to interact in social contexts and not be a source of conflict…or not incite conflict…? Can I peacefully engage with others? …even if they may not do so with me? 15 of 27 Within all ethnic and racial cultures, gender, age, and physical challenges also come into play and affect communication, our interpersonal interaction, our relationships with others...and these things, too, if not fully understood (or, at least, we have the desire to understand) can lead to conflict. People may differ in expectations, needs, and interests based on any of these cultural core dimensions… And these may lead to conflict: --when we have differing expectations from others… --certain needs at certain times not being met…we may lash out at individuals…or groups… --and varying interests that drive us and our pursuits at various times or stages in our life… So what might this look like? GENDER 16 of 27 Gender is another core dimension of diversity… Societal expectations of males and females affect communication patterns……and misunderstandings by the opposite sex can occur. You’ve heard men are from Mars … Women from Venus… And men and women do communicate differently out of different needs… Think of your communication with your spouse or significant other… Or within your organization…with a colleague of the opposite sex… Gender Roles (stemming from societal expectations) are tricky… Sex refers to biology: Male or Female Gender refers to societal expectations: Masculine or Feminine --what society says is appropriate: traditionally: --boys don’t play with dolls --girls don’t play football or hockey --men are CEOs 17 of 27 --women are assistants --men are doctors --women are nurses… Now, there are also communication differences between men and women… But these are not hard and fast rules… In the United States, as communicators, men tend to be: --decisive to get to an answer or to “fix it” (solve problems): problem oriented --allowed an assertiveness with language to indicate independence --and to maintain status… In the Unites states, as communicators, women tend to be: --process oriented… --concerned with building relationships… --discussion-centered 18 of 27 --if women come off as too strong, too dominant as communicators, what do we think? And so different communication styles and different communication needs may be a result of societal pressures to conform to gender roles thus playing a role conflict… --leading to feelings of frustration --a sense of being constrained… --not free to say/be/express who we are… If a woman comes off strong, decisive, we think one thing… If a man comes off as sensitive, intuitive, gentle…we think another thing… We label… We categorize… We judge… 19 of 27 AGE Another core dimension of diversity is age. In addition, age or stage of life affects individual needs and interests. Age and stage of life affect individuals’ values and how others perceive them. Age Diversity and Generational Diversity Life Stages as Generally Defined in the USA: 18-22 leave home & establish identity 20 of 27 23-28 see self as adult; building your future 29-34 seek stability/security; re-examine relationships 35-42 become your own person; facing reality & age 45-56 settling down; become mentor, grandparent 57-64 mellowing; prepare for retirement; aging OK 65+ begin reviewing life; accepting self/life For the first time ever, we have 4 generations together in the workplace. The multigenerational workforce is thus a phenomenon of organizations today. --Traditionalists (GI/Silent/Radio) born late 20s, 30s, early 40s --Boomers born 46 – 64 --Xers – born 65 – 79 --Millennials / Y born 80 – 2000 21 of 27 Generation Z/Homeland born 2002-2018 – not yet part of the full-time workforce but entering soon Traditionally, most workers left the workforce at ages 59 – 65… But longer lifespans and advances in health are changing this pattern… Each generation is identified by its overarching values: --Traditionalists: value hard work, loyalty, duty, teamwork, respect for authority --Boomers: value personal gratification, strong work ethic: live to work and work long hours (inventors of the 65-hour work week); visibility in the office (idea of a virtual organization: anathema to them) --Xers: value diversity, self-reliance, self-sufficiency; work is part of life, not LIFE; value time as well as money; skeptical; distrustful of structure and authority; do not like micromanagement --Millennials/Y: value family, friends; making money; technology; born DIGITAL; unfamiliar with workplace norms; view work as place you get work done…but social life is your own Examples of generational differences expressed in the workplace: 22 of 27 --from an Xer: I can’t believe we have to attend training on this. Doesn’t everyone already know (Excel, Access, Email basics)? --from a Traditionalist: I worked here at a time before computers and we did just fine…! --from a Millennial: They want to have the company picnic on Sunday…? --from a Boomer: We learned work-life balance so anyone should be able to…! How about in your own organization? Sources of conflict among generations: --communication that specifically mentions age or age-related problems… --comments about work ethic and style… --evaluative or judgmental comments about someone’s ease with technology or learning new things… --evaluative or judgmental comments about one’s history or perceived lack thereof…. --snide or unfavorable comments about an individual’s knowledge base: 23 of 27 • What do you mean you’ve never used Google Docs…You’re kidding, right? OR… • What do you mean you don’t know what rationing is…We lived through that during the war! OR… • You kids have it so easy…When I first started to work here… OR… • What do you mean you’re not on Facebook/Instagram/Twitter…? So we need to think about sensitivity when we communicate across generations… PHYSICAL CHALLENGE 24 of 27 The last core dimension of identity: Physical Challenge In organizations, a physical challenge usually means --use of a wheelchair --a cane --crutches --walker --difficulty hearing --difficulty speaking --difficulty performing physical activities One in five in the U.S. is faced with a physical challenge. 25 of 27 What are some sources of conflict for those with physical challenges? --sometimes these individuals are patronized… --sometimes they are avoided… --they may not be included in social activities… But this is often because others simply don’t understand how to interact effectively with individuals with a physical challenge. A MULTICULTURAL PERSPECTIVE ON CULTURAL DIVERSITY: Awareness that miscommunication and other conflicts can stem from miscommunication due to ethnicity, race, gender, age, physical challenges, and other differences -- even religion or lifestyle – is the first step toward effective intercultural engagement and embracing of inclusivity. There are some areas of conflict -- often related to communication barriers – to our own understanding – when dealing with diverse groups. Areas of conflict arise from: 1. Cultural Relativism – judging cultural values and behaviors of others by your own culture’s standards. 2. Ethnocentrism – belief that your own culture is superior. 26 of 27 3. Lack of knowledge & understanding of cultures – assuming that all persons in a culture are alike is stereotyping. a. An understanding of cultures means being aware that individuals within each culture have similarities and differences. b. It means responding to people as individuals while recognizing that cultural backgrounds and experiences influence behavior and communication. 4. Language – language differences can be a source of miscommunication and thus conflict. a. Words may have different meanings and connotations in different cultures. i. No is a negatively charged word in some cultures so YES is said even when NO is meant. b. Idiomatic expressions have no direct translations i. Time flies. ii. Time is money. iii. If we say someone is “out in left field” we understand this to mean they are odd or strange. 1. This is meaningless to a country without baseball c. Advertisers learn very quickly that they must be careful with language. i. When the American Dairy Association decided to extend their advertising to Mexico: their most famous slogan GOT MILK was translated as ARE YOU LACTATING? 5. Nonverbal cues – differ across cultures. 27 of 27 a. Time – notions of time vary by culture as we saw with the high-context / low-context engagement activity. b. Eye contact and touch – differ across cultures as we saw with the high-context / low-context engagement activity. So…how can we become more sensitive with our cross-cultural engagement and interaction with others? Some Guidelines for Multicultural Engagement • Understanding your own culture and its influence on your beliefs, values, and behavior – looking within first • Keeping an open mind and respecting diversity • Learning about other cultures … is there something I can learn that might explain what I am seeing? • Identifying and adapting to language differences • Embracing opportunities to interact across cultures MGMT 354 ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY – 5 MODELS OF ORGANIZATION Organization: a consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or a set of goals. Organizational structure: defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped, or coordinated. Organizational roles: A set of expected behaviors attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. 1. Traditional / Classical Model – Early 1900s-1920s (METAPHOR: Well-oiled Machine) The Industrial Age – Well-oiled machine a. Theorists were looking for the “one best way” of an organization. b. Scientific Management i. Didn’t look at employee needs as important ii. Frederick Taylor 1. Apply scientific principles a. Data-driven change 2. Scientific Approach a. Scientific design of each task b. Scientific selection of workers c. Adequate rewards (for productivity) and training i. PUNISHMENT d. Division of both labor and responsibilities MGMT 354 The Industrial Age – from Modern Times, dir. Charlie Chaplin, 1936 c. Bureaucratic Management i. Didn’t acknowledge or look at employees at all ii. Gov’t, Healthcare, Military iii. Max Weber 1. Rigidly defined roles 2. Clear division of labor 3. Chain of command is the communication structure 4. Policies and rules should be written down a. Establishing a written record b. Formalizing communication c. Managers should keep relationships with employees impersonal and detached d. Written policies and rules serve as the legal basis of authority over employees MGMT 354 iv. Henri Fayol 1. Identify that were times for horizontal communication a. Legitimate crisis 2. The Human Relations Model – 1930s (METAPHOR: Family) a. Happy employees = productive employees b. It’s important for employees to be able to talk to one another c. See beginnings of i. Empowerment ii. Satisfaction iii. Fulfillment iv. Engagement v. Belonging vi. Mutuality / purpose / respect vii. Valued …. Making a valued contribution d. Informal groups i. Establish a set of norms 1. Culture – Do / Function 2. Climate -- Feel / Atmosphere a. Formal b. Informal c. Friendly d. Welcoming e. Exclusive f. Tense/anxious g. Open/transparent e. Hawthorne Studies i. Elton Mayo ii. Illumination Studies iii. Worker attitude impacts productivity iv. Personal relationships also affect productivity MGMT 354 Tenement Business -- 1900s Hawthorne Studies -- 1926 Classroom setting - Preparation for life on the assembly line, 1900s MGMT 354 3. The Human Resources Model – 1930s- 1960s (METAPHOR: Team) a. Productive employees = happy employees b. Focus on i. Employee satisfaction ii. New element: improved organizational decision making 1. Bring employees in to all decision making process a. Buy-in of all stakeholders b. Participation of all stakeholders c. Not just for small decisions…but ALL decisions… iii. Regular training 1. Problem solving 2. Team work iv. Communication 1. Encouraged: horizontal communication Jack Lemon as a "company man" -- The Apartment, dir. Billy Wilder, 1960 MGMT 354 Douglas McGregor (1957/1960): Theory X / Theory Y Theory Y Theory of Management Employees are willing to work Employees are intrinsically motivated as well / self-directed / seek responsibility Managers must be willing to listen to employees Orgs. Must be open to CHANGE Rapid management response to employee concerns and suggestions Cooperation between management and labor unions MGMT 354 4. The Systems / Contingency / Postmodern Model / Integral -- late 60s- 90s (METAHPOR: The Human Body) a. “IT DEPENDS” … b. There is NO one best way… c. No organizational model will fit all org. structures i. Whole is more than sum of its parts ii. INTERDEPENDENCE 1. TEAM-NESS 2. Interconnectedness a. Entanglement i. Everything is impacted by everything else – even at a distance 1. Ken Wilber 2. Fritjof Capra MGMT 354 5. The Transformational Model – 2000s – Present (METAPHOR: A holon in nature An organization IS communication a. b. c. d. More than the sum of its parts Organic Self-organizing Organization’s success i. Trust ii. Respect iii. Compassion iv. Mindfulness v. Corporate Social Responsibility vi. Strong relationships vii. Innovative thinking viii. Conflict resolution ix. Inclusivity x. Cultural awareness xi. Global awareness xii. Nonviolent communication xiii. Emotional intelligence (EQ) xiv. Social intelligence xv. Spiritual intelligence Holon = Part + Whole) MGMT 354 Form follows function: Physical Structures often tell us something about the dominant theory at the time. MGMT 354 1 of 11 WHAT MAKES ENGLISH SUCH A CHALLENGING LANGUAGE? STANDARD AMERICAN ENGLISH (SAE) STANDARD EDITED AMERICAN ENGLISH (SEAE) • Standards (rules of the road) o Oral o Written LINGUISTICS • Is the Study of Language MGMT 354 2 of 11 LINGUISTICS—THE STUDY OF LANGUAGE Areas of Linguistic Study Phonetics Study of how human speech sounds are physically formed (mouth, tongue, throat, breath), notated by symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) good = ʊ shoot = ʋ sheep = i: ship = I Phonology Study of sound patterns and their meanings based on phonemes, perceptually distinct units of sound. There are 26 letters of the alphabet and 44 phonemes in English but the possibilities for word formation and evolution are endless. book vs. boot cat vs. circle through vs. enough at: cat bat hat mat rat sat Morphology Study of word formations based on morphemes, the smallest meaningful unit in a language the word unconsciousness is made up of 3 morphemes: un = not conscious = aware or alert ness = state Syntax Study of sentence formation and arrangement of words in a sentence. Thus, unconsciousness is defined as the state of not being aware or alert A car drive red I. Vs. I drive a red car. The dog chased the boy with the large teeth. MGMT 354 3 of 11 Vs. The dog with the large teeth chased the boy. Dog bites man Vs. Man bites dog Semantics Study of meaning, considering things like connotative and denotative meanings. My life is an open book. Life is like a box of chocolates. The office was walking on egg shells yesterday. It was rather chilly in that room. I need a second set of eyes on this report. Make sure all your ducks are lined up in a row. Pragmatics Study of language use, being mindful of context. Hey, cool ride! (a colleague says this pointing to your car in the parking lot at work.) Vs. Hey, cool ride! (someone says this pointing to the the X2 roller coaster at Six Flags.) RHETORIC • HOW communicators use words and language MGMT 354 4 of 11 USA ENGLISH CENTER JUDGMENT U2 IS IN CONCERT JURY IS… ORGANIZATION FAVORITE FRIES CHIPS BATHROOM Line UK ENGLISH CENTRE JUDGEMENT U2 ARE IN CONCERT JURY ARE… ORGANISATION FAVOURITE CHIPS CRISPS LOO Queue MGMT 354 5 of 11 A BREIF OVERVIEW OF THE DEVLOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Emerging from the Indo-European language family (German, Dutch, Celtic, Danish, Greek, and others) English is essentially considered a Germanic language with strong Romantic (French, Italian, Spanish) influences. Let’s briefly trace the history of the English language. CLASSICAL ANTIQUTITY Ancient Greece: --Hellenistic ideas spread by Macedonians (Alexander the Great) and, later, Rome. Ancient Rome: --Rome (the “eternal city” and “all roads lead to Rome”) wanted to conquer the world and settles, among other places, in Britain in the first century C.E. --Romans battle the Celts who then retreat and settle in Ireland and Scotland. --The transition from Roman Republic to Empire weakened Rome, making its outposts and settlements susceptible to marauding German invaders (Huns/Goths/Vandals) – 4th-5th century C.E. --Romans withdraw from Britain and the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes (Germanic peoples speaking Germanic dialects) arrive and claim British territory – early 5th century C.E. FRENCH AND ENGLISH France and England at War: MGMT 354 6 of 11 --The Norman Invasion (invasion by “men from the North” or Norseman) of England by William the Conqueror in 1066 C.E. brings a strong French influence to England. Norman French becomes language of the nobility, the courts, and upper classes. Latin is used for ecclesiastical and educational purposes. English is majority language. Dialects over time merge and create what is called “Old English.” • • • • Old English: 700s – 1000s C.E. o Textual example: ▪ Beowulf (anonymous) Middle English: 1150 – 1500 C.E. o Textual examples: ▪ Piers Plowman (Langland) ▪ Canterbury Tales (Chaucer) ▪ Sir Gawain and the Green Night (anonymous) Early Modern English: 1500s – 1600s C.E. o Textual example: ▪ William Shakespeare Modern English: 17th century to the present o Textual example: ▪ The Dictionary PROTESTANT REFORMATION: (1517 -1648 A.D.) Martin Luther: Dissatisfied with practices and teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, German Catholic monk Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses at Wittenberg starting the Protestant Reformation in Europe. THE PRINTING PRESS: Developed by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century, the printing press helped rapidly spread Reformation ideas throughout Europe, making revolutionary ideas available to the common person. Puritans leave for America (1630). MGMT 354 7 of 11 WHAT MAKES ENGLISH CHALLENGING? 1. Homonyms (homo = same; nym = name) & Homophones (homo = same; phone = sound) HOMONYMN Read – to read Read – past tense Fair – L.A. County Fair –reasonable Bass – fish Bass – low note Tear – cry Tear -- rip HOMOPHONE Read – past tense Red – color There, they’re, their Two, to, too Its, it’s Hour, our Pear, pair Peace, piece 2. Slang (often spoken within particular cultures, such as youth), idiomatic expressions (sayings for which there is no direct translation) a. Cool b. Cool ride! i. Parking lot looking at your car ii. Magic mountain looking at X2 c. Hot d. Be on the ball e. Be on your game f. Out in left field g. Elephant in the room h. What’s up? 3. Phonetics (Sound) … Spelling. Words are often not spelled the way they sound a. I have a coff…NO! b. I have a koff…NO! c. I have a cough…YES! (gh = f) d. Through (gh = silent) e. Wodr … Word? i. Wodr … Water (spelled the way we say it; few people pronounce the T in water with a soft T) f. Receive g. Neighbor h. Pneumonia i. Committee 4. There are 2 styles: The Popular Style and the Standard Style and this creates some difficulties in particular areas of grammar: a. Possessives (ownership) MGMT 354 i. John has a book. 1. John’s book (whose) 2. The book of John ii. James has a new car 1. James’s new car (correct in the Standard Style) 2. James’ new car (correct in the Popular Style) 3. Quentin Chalmers’s new car (Standard—correct) 4. Quentin Chalmers’ new car (Popular—correct) iii. Dan Davis has a new car 1. Dan Davis’s new car (Standard--correct) 2. Dan Davis’ new car (Popular--correct) iv. Plurals 1. The Davises are here (Standard – correct) 2. The Davis’ are here (Popular – correct) 3. The Chalmerses are here. (Standard—correct) 4. The Chalmers’ are here. (Popular—correct) 5. The Rooneys are here. 6. The Humphries are here. 7. The Humphrys are here. v. Plural Possessive 1. The Davises’ cars (Standard – correct) 2. The Davis’ cars (Popular – correct) 3. The Chalmerses’ cars (Standard—correct) 4. The Chalmers’ cars (Popular—correct) 5. Difficult word pairs – Correct word choices a. Affect/Effect i. Affect (V) 1. The proposed change might negatively affect the team. ii. Affect (N) 1. Her affect was noted as dismal. iii. Effect (N) 1. The proposed change will have no real effect on the team. iv. Effect (V) 1. The committee is striving to effect change. b. Accept/Except i. I will gladly accept the job offer! ii. Everyone was at the meeting except Joe. c. Insure/Ensure d. Adverse/Averse e. Imply/Infer 6. Verbs are often irregular and have many forms a. To Be i. Am ii. Is 8 of 11 MGMT 354 9 of 11 iii. Are iv. Was v. Were vi. Be vii. Being viii. been b. To swim i. Swim ii. Swam iii. Swum c. To Know i. Know ii. Knew iii. known d. Modal verbs (identifying the possibility or conditions by which things are or may be done). When you were in school and raised your hand to go to the restroom, you may have asked your teacher, “Can I go to the bathroom?” If your teacher was like mine, he or she probably responded, “I don’t know. Can you?” Your teacher wanted you to ask permission: “May I go to the restroom?” i. Could ii. May iii. Might iv. Will v. Would vi. Can 7. Linguistic Varity in the English Language a. English is a hodgepodge language i. Latin (Qu words: quart, square, language, school) ii. Greek (pneumonia: Greek: pneumon = lung, lexicon, kudos, pentagon) iii. French (journal, journey = day) iv. Anglo Saxon (anywhere, ever, evening) v. Arabic (AL = algebra, algorithm, hummus) vi. Native American (Michigan, skunk, caucus) 8. History (our lived experience) Impacts Language a. 9/11 i. Nine-Eleven ii. September 11 iii. Ground Zero iv. War on terror v. Al Qaeda b. ISIS MGMT 354 10 of 11 c. Hiroshima d. Smart bombs e. Alt-right f. Alt-left g. Anti-fa h. Fake News 9. Technology Has Impacted Language a. We live in the Information Age b. ICYMI … In case you missed it… c. Blogs d. Web i. Grammatical errors ii. Content errors iii. Factual errors e. Social media i. Usage errors ii. Grammar errors f. Cell phone i. ? g. CUL8R … See you later. i. Short hand ii. ☺ iii.  iv. Are we returning to cave art? 10. Neologisms (Neo = new; Logos = Word): New Words come into the lexicon all the time a. Selfie b. Unfriend c. Twerk d. Youtube e. Google f. Email g. Facebook h. i-Phone i. i-Pad j. Octomom 11. Mis-Uses … Errors…Stylized words/terms; these often find a permanent place in a language: a. Flustrated i. Flustered + frustrated b. Chillax i. Chill + Relax c. Supposably i. Supposedly d. Irregardless i. Regardless MGMT 354 11 of 11 ii. Without regard to… e. It takes two to tangle… i. It takes two to tango f. He was like a bowl in a china shop i. Like a bull in a china shop
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Title: Communication Reflection
1. Introduction
2. Body
3. Conclusion

Surname 1
Student’s Name
Professor’s Name
Communication Reflection
Communication is an integral part of any communication process, in which case, people
will always respond to cues provided. Where the cues are appropriate enough and pass the
message as the sender intended, then the audience is bound to understand the message as long as
their listening and attention skills are appropriate enough. Therefore, the communication process
is only complete where the sender and recipient understand the language used to encode the
message, to the extent that they can decode it with as much ease as is necessary. Otherwise, it
would be a challenge for any of the involved parties to take action as would be appropriate, due
to poor understanding of the content of said messages. Ultimately, this has been the primary
lesson learned so far throughout the course, and with significant consequences on my working
environment’s interact...

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