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Running Head: MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
Motivation and Emotion
MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
Chapter 9 Summary
What Motivates Us?
Chapter 9 discusses the topic of motivation and emotion. In everyday life, motivation is
described using words such as drive, energy, goal, desire, instinct, purpose, intensity, want, and
need (Zimbardo, Johnson & McCann, 2017). These are internal psychological processes that
presumably allow people to do what they want to do. However, when people act the way it is
expected of them, such as getting up in the morning, often no one thinks of motivation. Another
aspect of motivation revolves around motivating others. For example, an employer may want to
know how to motivate employees, a coach may want to inspire the players, and a student may
also want to motivate oneself to study for better grades.
Motivation refers to the internal temperaments to behave in a particular way. These
temperaments can be impacted by various factors, either internal or external. Mostly, motivation
focuses on processes that:
▪ Senses a need or desire
▪ Triggers and directs an organism by choosing, leading, as well as sustaining a behavior
intended to accomplish a need or want, and,
▪ Decreasing the sensation of need (Zimbardo et al., 2017).
For example, on a sunny day, a biological need for fluids makes one feel thirsty. The sensation of
thirst motivates one to act by getting something to drink. Once drunk to one’s fill, the feeling of
thirst decreases, and the motive disappears. However, it is crucial to note drinking can also be a
psychological as opposed to biological. For example, a person drinking because he or she saw an
advert on Television that drinking is fun. Many of human motives are a combination of
biological, as well as psychological needs.
Extrinsic motivation denotes behavior driven by external stimuli such as rewards, money,
and fame. Expectancy theory argues that people act in a certain way because they expect the
result of their behavior to be successful. Intrinsic motivation refers to behavior inspired by
internal rewards. For example, someone studying a subject because it naturally feels satisfying.
McClelland also identified two other psychological needs necessary to encourage people to
work. These are needs for affiliation and the need for power (for example, using aut...
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