A Rhetorical Reader and Guide
this page left intentionally blank
A Rhetorical Reader and Guide
Laurie G. Kirszner
University of the Sciences
Stephen R. Mandell
Boston • New York
For Bedford/St. Martin’s
Executive Editor: John Sullivan
Production Editor: Jessica Skrocki Gould
Senior Production Supervisor: Jennifer Peterson
Senior Marketing Manager: Molly Parke
Editorial Assistant: Alyssa Demirjian
Copy Editor: Diana P. George
Indexer: Leoni Z. McVey
Photo Researcher: Lynn Tews
Permissions Manager: Kalina K. Ingham
Art Director: Lucy Krikorian
Text Design: Brian Salisbury
Cover Design: Marine Miller
Cover Art: André Derain, Mountains at Collioure, 1905, John Hay Whitney Collection,
Image courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, oil on canvas © 2011
Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris
Composition: Achorn International, Inc.
Printing and Binding: RR Donnelley and Sons
President: Joan E. Feinberg
Editorial Director: Denise B. Wydra
Editor in Chief : Karen S. Henry
Director of Marketing : Karen R. Soeltz
Director of Production: Susan W. Brown
Associate Director, Editorial Production: Elise S. Kaiser
Managing Editor: Shuli Traub
Library of Congress Control Number: 2011931599
Copyright © 2012 (published January 2012), 2010 (Published January 2009), 2007,
2004 by Bedford/St. Martin’s
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as may be expressly permitted by
the applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher.
Manufactured in the United States of America.
1 2 3 4 5 6 15 14 13 12 11
For information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116
ISBN: 978-0-312-67684-1 (paperback)
ISBN: 978-0-312-62307-4 (High School edition)
Acknowledgments and copyrights appear at the back of the book on pages 769–773, which
constitute an extension of the copyright page. It is a violation of the law to reproduce these
selections by any means whatsoever without the written permission of the copyright holder.
For Peter Phelps (1936–1990), with thanks
this page left intentionally blank
Since it was first published, Patterns for College Writing has been used by
millions of students at colleges and universities across the United States.
We have been delighted by the overwhelmingly positive response to the
first eleven editions of Patterns, and we continue to be gratified by positive
feedback from the many instructors who find Patterns to be the most accessible and the most pedagogically sound rhetoric-reader they have ever
used. In preparing this twelfth edition, we have worked hard to fine-tune
the features that have made Patterns the most popular composition reader
available today and to develop new features to enhance the book’s usefulness for both instructors and students.
What Instructors and Students Like about
Patterns for College Writing
An Emphasis on Critical Reading
The Introduction, “How to Use This Book,” and Chapter 1, “Reading
to Write: Becoming a Critical Reader,” prepare students to become analytical readers and writers by showing them how to apply critical reading
strategies to a typical selection and by providing sample responses to the
various kinds of writing prompts in the book. Not only does this material introduce students to the book’s features, but it also prepares them to
tackle reading and writing assignments in their other courses.
Extensive Coverage of the Writing Process
The remaining chapters in Part One, “The Writing Process” (Chapters 2
through 5), comprise a “mini-rhetoric,” offering advice on drafting, writing, revising, and editing as they introduce students to activities such as
freewriting, brainstorming, clustering, and journal writing. These chapters
also include numerous writing exercises to give students opportunities for
Detailed Coverage of the Patterns of Development
In Part Two, “Readings for Writers,” Chapters 6 through 14 explain
and illustrate the patterns of development that students typically use in
their college writing assignments: narration, description, exemplification,
process, cause and effect, comparison and contrast, classification and division, definition, and argumentation. Each chapter begins with a comprehensive introduction that presents a definition and a paragraph-length
example of the pattern to be discussed and then explains the particular
writing strategies and applications associated with it. Next, each chapter
analyzes one or two annotated student essays to show how the pattern can
be used in particular college writing situations. Chapter 15, “Combining
the Patterns,” illustrates how the various patterns of development discussed in Chapters 6 through 14 can work together in an essay.
A Diverse and Popular Selection of Readings
Varied in subject, style, and cultural perspective, the sixty-nine professional selections engage students while providing them with outstanding
models for writing. We have tried to achieve a balance between classic authors (George Orwell, Jessica Mitford, E. B. White, Martin Luther King Jr.)
and newer voices (Sherman Alexie, Amy Chua, Amanda Brown) so that instructors have a broad range of readings to choose from.
More Student Essays Than Any Comparable Text
To provide students with realistic models for improving their own
writing, we include sixteen sample student essays (one new to this edition). These essays are available as transparency masters so that instructors
can use them more effectively in the classroom. They can also be downloaded
from the Patterns for College Writing companion Web site, bedfordstmartins
Helpful Coverage of Grammar Issues
Grammar in Context boxes in chapter introductions offer specific advice on how to identify and correct the grammar, mechanics, and punctuation problems that students are likely to encounter when they work with
particular patterns of development. Practice exercises for mastering these
grammar skills are available on Re:Writing , a comprehensive online exercise
collection accessible at the Patterns companion Web site.
Apparatus Designed to Help Students Learn
Each professional essay in the text is followed by four types of questions.
These questions are designed to help students assess their understanding
of the essay’s content and of the writer’s purpose and audience; to recognize the stylistic and structural techniques used to shape the essay; and to
become sensitive to the nuances of language. Each essay is also accompanied by a Journal Entry prompt, Writing Workshop topics (suggestions for
full-length writing assignments), and Thematic Connections that identify
related readings in the text. Also following each essay is a Combining the
Patterns feature that focuses on different patterns of development used in
the essay and possible alternatives to these patterns. Each chapter ends with
a list of Writing Assignments and a Collaborative Activity. Many of these
assignments and activities have been updated to reflect the most current
topics as well as the most up-to-date trends and sites available on the Web.
Extensive Cultural and Historical Background for All Readings
In addition to a biographical headnote, each reading is preceded by a
headnote containing essential background information to help students
make connections between the reading and the historical, social, and economic forces that shaped it.
An Introduction to Visual Texts
Every rhetorical chapter includes a visual text — such as a photograph,
a piece of fine art, or panels from a graphic novel — that provides an acces
sible introduction to each rhetorical pattern. Apparatus that helps students discuss the pattern in its visual form follows each image.
Thorough Coverage of Working with Sources
“Part Three: Working with Sources” takes students through the process of writing a research paper and includes a model student paper in MLA
style. (The Appendix addresses APA style and includes a model APA paper.)
What’s New in This Edition
Engaging New Readings
The twenty-seven new professional essays treat topics of current interest. Deborah L. Rhode discusses “Why Looks Are the Last Bastion of
Discrimination,” Paul H. Rubin makes a surprising case for “Environmentalism as Religion,” and Maria Hinojosa, in “A Supreme Sotomayor: How
My Country Has Caught Up to Me,” shows how one judicial appointment
has ramifications for all Latinas. In all cases, readings have been carefully
selected for their high-interest subject matter as well as for their effectiveness as teachable models for student writing.
Argumentation Chapter Updated
The argumentation chapter now includes two new debates (“Are Internships Fair to Students?” and “Should American Citizenship Be a Birthright?”) and two new casebooks (“How Can We Address the Shortage of
Organ Donors?” and “Should Government Tax Sugary Drinks?”).
More Support for Critical Reading
A new introductory chapter, “Reading to Write: Becoming a Critical
Reader,” explains and illustrates the process of previewing, annotating, and
summarizing and includes examples and exercises for active learning.
More Help with Research
Coverage of research has been expanded, with three full chapters in
the new Part Three devoted to finding, evaluating, and integrating sources;
avoiding plagiarism; and documenting sources in MLA style. Part Three
includes exercises to help students practice their research skills as they
learn. An Appendix, “Documenting Sources: APA,” explains APA style and
includes a model student paper.
You Get More Digital Choices for
Patterns for College Writing
Patterns for College Writing doesn’t stop with the book. Online, you’ll
find both free and affordable premium resources to help students get even
more out of the book and your course. You’ll also find convenient instructor resources, such as downloadable sample syllabi, classroom activities,
and even a nationwide community of teachers. To learn more about or
order any of the products below, contact your Bedford/St. Martin’s sales
representative, email sales support (firstname.lastname@example.org), or visit
the Web site at bedfordstmartins.com.
Companion Web Site for Patterns for College Writing
Our companion Web site enables you to send students to free and
open resources, choose flexible premium resources to supplement your
print text, or upgrade to an expanding collection of innovative digital
Free and open resources for Patterns for College Writing provide students with easy-to-access reference materials, visual tutorials, and support
for working with sources.
Reading comprehension quizzes
Downloadable PDF files of the peer editing worksheets
Research and Documentation Online by Diana Hacker, which offers research sources for more than thirty disciplines and documentation
guidelines, models, and sample papers in MLA, APA, Chicago, and
Bedford Bibliographer: a tool for collecting source information and
making a bibliography in MLA, APA, and Chicago styles
VideoCentral is a growing collection of videos for the writing class that
captures real-world, academic, and student writers talking about how and
why they write. VideoCentral can be packaged for free with Patterns for College
Writing. An activation code is required. To order VideoCentral packaged with
the print book, use ISBN 978-0-312-53975-7.
Re:Writing Plus gathers all of Bedford/St. Martin’s premium digital
content for composition into one online collection. It includes hundreds
of model documents, the first ever peer review game, and VideoCentral.
Re:Writing Plus can be purchased separately or packaged with the print book
at a significant discount. An activation code is required. To order Re:Writing
Plus packaged with the print book, use ISBN 978-0-312-53982-5.
A Variety of E-Book Options
An electronic edition of Patterns for College Writing is available in a
variety of e-book formats that can be downloaded to a computer, tablet, or
e-reader. Your students get the content you want in a convenient format — for about half the cost of a print book. We give you two options:
our Bedford/St. Martin’s e-book is optimized for reading and studying online, available from bedfordstmartins.com/patterns. Our CourseSmart
e-book can be downloaded or used online, whichever is more convenient
for your students. See bedfordstmartins.com/ebooks for details.
You have a lot to do in your course. Bedford/St. Martin’s wants to
make it easy for you to find the support you need — and to access it quickly.
Resources for Instructors Using Patterns for College Writing is available
in PDF format that can be downloaded from the companion Web site at
bedfordstmartins.com/patterns. In addition to chapter overviews and
teaching tips, the Instructor’s Manual includes sample syllabi and suggestions for classroom activities.
TeachingCentral (bedfordstmartins.com/teachingcentral) offers the
entire list of Bedford/St. Martin’s print and online professional resources
in one place. You’ll find landmark reference works, sourcebooks on pedagogical issues, award-winning collections, and practical advice for the
classroom — all free for instructors.
Bits (bedfordbits.com) collects creative ideas for teaching a range of
composition topics in an easily searchable blog. A community of teachers — leading scholars, authors, and editors — discuss revision, research,
grammar and style, technology, peer review, and much more. Take, use,
adapt, and pass the ideas around. Then, come back to the site to comment
or share your own suggestion.
Content cartridges for the most common course management systems — Blackboard, WebCT, Angel, and Desire2Learn — allow you to easily
download digital content for your course. To find the cartridges available
with Patterns for College Writing , visit bedfordstmartins.com/patterns
As always, friends, colleagues, students, and family all helped this project along. Of particular value were the responses to questionnaires sent to
users of the eleventh edition, and we thank each of the instructors who
responded so frankly and helpfully: Emily Berg, Reedley College; Deanie
Carlton, Polk State College; Angela Chilton, Tarrant County College;
Holly DeGrow, Mt. Hood Community College; Dr. George Edwards Jr.,
Tarrant County College; Sallyanne H. Fitzgerald, Polk State College; Jim
Frank, St. Clair County Community College; Melissa Freitas, Massasoit
Community College; Holly French-Hart, Bossier Parish Community College; Larry Gilbert, Ivy Tech Community College; John R. Hart, Motlow
State Community College; Charles Hill, Gadsden State Community College; Anneliese Homan, State Fair Community College; Patricia D. Jackson, Norfolk State University; Nancy Kerr, North Lake College; Madelaine
Kingsbury, Overbrook High School; Michael Kleeberg, Ivy Tech Community College; Patricia M. Leonard, Carl Sandburg High School; Amelia L.
Lopez, Harold Washington College; John S. Lusk, St. Clair County Community College; Susan McKinnis, Allen Community College; Eric Norment,
Bridgewater State University; Carol Pearson, West Georgia Technical College; Rosie Soy, Hudson County Community College; Wes Spratlin, Motlow State Community College; Elizabeth H. Stringer, East Mississippi
Community College; Charrolee Thompson, Massasoit Community College; Gina Thompson, East Mississippi Community College; Usha Wadhwani, New Jersey City University; Jane Williams, Arizona Western College;
Natasha Molet Worthington, Wayne Community College; Rose N. Yesu,
Massasoit Community College.
We are also grateful to those instructors who responded to an in-depth
review letter: Heidi Ajrami, Victoria College; Jacqueline Allen Trimble, Hun
tingdon College; Rhonda Armstrong, Paris Junior College; Jose M. Blanco,
Miami Dade College; Robert E. Cummings, University of Mississippi; Rita
B. Dandridge, Virginia State University; Chip Dunkin, University of Mississippi; Michael Allan Earle, St. Petersburg College; George Edwards Jr.,
Tarrant County College; Holly French-Hart, Bossier Parish Community
College; David S. Hainline, Lee College; Catherine F. Heath, Victoria
College; Beverly Holmes, Northwest Florida State College; Linda LaPointe,
St. Petersburg College; Bryan Moore, Arkansas State University; Ann H.
Moser, Virginia Western Community College; Jeffrey Rubinstein, Hillsborough Community College; Elizabeth Starr, Ivy Tech Community College;
Robert A. Taylor, Florida Institute of Technology; Gina Thompson, East
Mississippi Community College; Cheli J. Turner, Greenville Technical College; Janet M. Willman, Hillsborough Community College.
Special thanks go to Jeff Ousborne for his help with some of the apparatus and for revising the headnotes and the Resources for Instructors.
Through twelve editions of Patterns for College Writing , we have enjoyed a
wonderful working relationship with Bedford/St. Martin’s. We have always
found the editorial and production staff to be efficient, cooperative, and
generous with their time and advice. As always, we appreciate the encouragement and advice of our longtime friend, Nancy Perry. In addition, we
thank Joan Feinberg, president of Bedford/St. Martin’s, for her support
for this project and for her trust in us. During our work on this edition, we
have benefited from our productive relationship with John Sullivan, our
editor, who helped us make this edition of Patterns the best it could be. We
are also grateful to Jessica Gould, project editor, and Shuli Traub, managing editor, for their work overseeing the production of this edition; Lucy
Krikorian and Brian Salisbury for the new interior design; Donna Dennison for the attractive new cover; Shannon Walsh, associate editor, for her
help throughout the project; and editorial assistant Alyssa Demirjian, for
her invaluable help with tasks large and small.
We are fortunate to have enjoyed our long and fulfilling collaboration; we know how rare a successful partnership like ours is. We also know
how lucky we are to have our families help keep us in touch with the things
that really matter.
Laurie G. Kirszner
Stephen R. Mandell
this page left intentionally blank
Thematic Guide to the Contents
Introduction: How to Use This Book ...
Purchase answer to see full