NR505 Week 5 Vaccinations Qualitative Research Design Approach Paper

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A minimum of 10 (ten) research-based references are required No older than 5 years . APA

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NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice Week 5: Research Literature, Design, Sampling, and Implementation PURPOSE: This assignment provides the opportunity for the student to continue development of a MSN EBP scholarly project that started with the identification of a nursing concern and PICOT/PICo question from Week 2. The focus of this assignment is to discuss the research-based literature support for the selected concern, identify an appropriate research design, explain the sampling method, and discuss implementation through the use of a change model. COURSE OUTCOME: This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcome: CO #1. Integrate evidence-based practice and research to support advancement of holistic nursing care in diverse healthcare settings. (PO # 1) CO #2. Integrate knowledge related to evidence-based practice and person-centered care to improve healthcare outcomes. (PO #2, 5) CO #4. Develop knowledge related to research and evidence-based practice as a basis for designing and critiquing research studies. (PO 1, 2, 3, 5) CO #5. Analyze research findings and evidence-based practice to advance holistic nursing care initiatives that promote positive healthcare outcomes. (PO 1, 2, 5) DUE DATE Sunday 11:59 PM MT at the end of Week Five TOTAL POINTS POSSIBLE: 250 POINTS REQUIREMENTS Description of the Assignment: This continues the development of a MSN EBP scholarly project by requiring the student to identify the additional elements of the process. The required elements are noted to be: • • • • Research Literature Support (NOTE: ten research-based references related to PICOT/PICo question are required) Research Approach and Design Sampling Intervention W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) 1 NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice Criteria for Content 1. Research Literature Support: In this section, comprehensive research literature support for the identified nursing concern and PCIOT/PICo question is to be provided. A minimum of 10 (ten) research-based references are required. The use of a systematic research review article as a reference is NOT allowed. All research studies are to be consistent with the selected concern and PICOT/PICo question. The PICOT/PICOT question is restated before presenting the research literature support. For each research-based reference the following information is to be discussed: • • • • • • Purpose of the research study Research approach that was used Data collection methods used Results of the research study One strength of the research study One limitation of the research study. 2. Research Approach and Design: In this section, the student will identify the research approach that he/she plans on using for the EBP project as being either quantitative or qualitative. In addition, if the selected approach is quantitative, the student needs to identify if the design is experimental, quasi-experimental, or descriptive. If the selected approach is qualitative, the student needs to identify if the design is phenomenological, ethnography, grounded theory, or historical. A description of the selected design is to be provided as well as rationale for its selection. In addition one advantage and one disadvantage to the selected design is to be identified and discussed. Required content includes: • • • • • • • • Identification of the research approach that the student plans on using as either quantitative or qualitative Identification of selected quantitative research design by indicating if the design is experimental, quasiexperimental, or descriptive Identification of the selected qualitative design by indicating if the design is phenomenological, ethnography, grounded theory, or historical Description of the selected design Rationale for the selected design Identification of one advantage of the selected design Identification of one disadvantage of the selected design Provide scholarly reference(s) to support information about the selected research approach/design 3. Sampling: In this section, the student will identify the sampling method to be used in order to obtain the necessary participants for the proposed EBP project. Discussion of participants’ rights as research subjects is also included. Required content includes: • • • Describe the target population Identify the sampling method as being either probability or nonprobability Provide a complete description of the sampling procedure including: o Sample size o Inclusion criteria o Exclusion criteria W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) 2 NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice • • • • Identify one advantage to the selected sampling procedure Identify one disadvantage to the selected sampling procedure Explain how participants’ rights will be protected including confidentiality, anonymity, protection from harm, and informed consent Provide scholarly reference(s) to support information about the selected sampling method 4. Proposed Implementation with a change model: In this section, the student will apply the PDSA Change Model as the method to implement the proposed EBP practice solution/change. The required content includes: • • • • • • Describe the PDSA Change Model Explain why this change model is best suited for implementation of your evidence-based nursing practice solution/change Apply each step of the PDSA Change Model to implementing the proposed practice solution/change Explain how to overcome one barrier to the use of the EBP results from this project Explain how an environment that supports EBP can be fostered in your future practice setting Include a scholarly reference(s) for the PDSA Change Model PREPARING THE ASSIGNMENT Criteria for Format and Special Instructions 1. The additional sections to the proposal are not to exceed 15 (fifteen) pages. Be sure that all literature review articles are on your reference page. Points will be lost for not meeting these length requirements. 2. Title page, running head, body of paper, headings, and reference page(s) must follow APA guidelines as found in the 6th edition of the manual. 3. Required textbook for this course, dictionarylesson information may NOT be used as scholarly references for this assignment. For additional assistance regarding scholarly nursing references, please see “What is a scholarly source” located in the Course Resources tab. Be aware that information from .com, .edu, and library websites may be incorrect and should be avoided. Please contact your faculty member for guidance concerning the acceptability of a website as a scholarly source. References are current - within a 5-year time frame unless a valid rationale is provided and the instructor has approved the use of the older reference. 4. This assignment is the required submission to Turn It In™ (TII) for NR 505. To prepare for the final submission, students are encouraged to submit their assignments early. A similarity score of 24% or less is required for the final submission. Any other level of similarity index requires the student to revise the assignment before the due date and time. To allow sufficient time for revision, early submission of the assignment to TurnItIn™ is highly encouraged. The final submission will be graded by faculty. If the final TurnItIn™ report indicates that plagiarism has occurred, the Academic Integrity policy will be followed. Similarity scores of 25% or higher result in the implementation of W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) 3 NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice DIRECTIONS AND ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA Assignment Criteria Points % Research Literature Support 75 30 The required content is: • Restate PICOT/PICo Question • A minimum of 10 (ten) research-based references are required. • The use of a systematic research review article is not allowed. • All research studies are to be consistent with the selected concern and PICOT/PICo question. • For each research-based reference the following information is to be discussed: o Purpose of the research study o Research approach that was used o Data collection methods used o Results of the research study o One strength of the research study o One limitation of the research study. Research Approach 40 16 The required content is: • Identify if the research approach is quantitative or qualitative o Identification of selected quantitative research design (experimental, quasiexperimental, or descriptive ) o Identification of the selected qualitative design (phenomenological, ethnography, grounded theory, historical) • Description of the selected design • Identify a rationale for the selected design • Identification of one advantage to the selected design • Identification of one disadvantage to the selected design • Use scholarly reference(s) to support information about research approach/design Sampling 40 16 The required content is: • Describe the target population for your project • Identify the sampling method as being either probability or nonprobability W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) Description Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) 4 NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice • • • • • Provide a complete description of the sampling procedure including: o Sample size o Inclusion criteria o Exclusion criteria Identify one advantage to the selected sampling procedure Identify one disadvantage to the selected sampling procedure Explain how participants’ rights will be protected including confidentiality, anonymity, protection from harm, and informed consent Use scholarly reference(s) to support information about sampling method Proposed Implementation with a Change Model 35 14 The required content is: • Describe the PDSA Change Model • Explain why this change model is best suited for implementation of your evidence-based nursing practice solution/change • Apply each step of the PDSA Change Model to implementing the proposed practice solution/change • Explain how to overcome one barrier to the use of the EBP results from this project • Explain how an environment that supports EBP can be fostered in your future practice setting • Include a scholarly reference(s) for the PDSA Change Model Paper Specifications 10 4 The additional sections do not exceed 15 (fifteen) pages Scholarly nursing references related to the content are presented A dictionary, required textbook for this course and may NOT be used as scholarly references for this assignment. References are current - within a 5-year time frame unless a valid rationale is provided and the instructor has approved them. APA Format (6th edition) W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) 25 1 Title page, body of paper, and reference page must follow APA guidelines as found in the 6th edition of the manual. Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) 5 NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice One deduction for each type of APA style error Citations in Text 10 4 Ideas and information that come from readings must be cited and referenced correctly. Writing Mechanics 15 6 Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are followed and consistent with formal written work as found in the 6th edition of the APA manual. Total W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) 250 100 % Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) 6 NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice GRADING RUBRIC Exceptional Exceeds Meets Needs Improvement Developing 100% 88% 80% 38% 0% Outstanding or highest level of performance Very good or high level of performance Competent or satisfactory level of performance Poor or failing level of performance Unsatisfactory level of performance 75 Points 66 Points 60 Points 29 Points 0 Points Presentation of information was exceptional and included all of the following elements: Presentation of information was good, but was superficial in places and included all of the following elements: Presentation of information was minimally demonstrated in the all of the following elements: Presentation of information in ONE or TWO of the following elements fails to meet expectations: Presentation of information unsatisfactory in THREE or more of the following elements: • • • Assignment Criteria Content Possible Points = 200 Points Research Literature Support • • • • Restate the PICOT/PICo question A minimum of 10 (ten) research-based references are required. The use of a systematic research review article is not allowed. All research studies are to be consistent with the selected concern and PICOT/PICo question. W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) • • • • Restate the PICOT/PICo question A minimum of 10 (ten) research-based references are required. The use of a systematic research review article is not allowed. All research studies are to be consistent with the selected concern and PICOT/PICo question. • • • Restate the PICOT/PICo question A minimum of 10 (ten) research-based references are required. The use of a systematic research review article is not allowed. All research studies are to be consistent with the selected concern and PICOT/PICo question. Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation • • • Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) Restate the PICOT/PICo question A minimum of 10 (ten) research-based references are required. The use of a systematic research review article is not allowed. All research studies are to be consistent with the selected concern and PICOT/PICo question. 7 • • • Restate the PICOT/PICo question A minimum of 10 (ten) research-based references are required. The use of a systematic research review article is not allowed. All research studies are to be consistent with the selected concern and PICOT/PICo question. NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice • Research Approach and Design For each research• based reference the following information is to be discussed: o Purpose of the research study o Research approach that was used o Data collection methods used o Results of the research study o One strength of the research study o One limitation of the research study. For each research• based reference the following information is to be discussed: o Purpose of the research study o Research approach that was used o Data collection methods used o Results of the research study o One strength of the research study o One limitation of the research study. 40 Points 35 Points Presentation of information was exceptional and included Presentation of information was good, but was superficial in places W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) For each researchbased reference the following information is to be discussed: o Purpose of the research study o Research approach that was used o Data collection methods used o Results of the research study o One strength of the research study o One limitation of the research study. • For each researchbased reference the following information is to be discussed: o Purpose of the research study o Research approach that was used o Data collection methods used o Results of the research study o One strength of the research study o One limitation of the research study. 32 Points Presentation of information was minimally Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation • For each researchbased reference the following information is to be discussed: o Purpose of the research study o Research approach that was used o Data collection methods used o Results of the research study o One strength of the research study o One limitation of the research study. 15 Points 0 Points Presentation of information in one, two or three of the following Presentation of information unsatisfactory Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) 8 NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice all of the following elements: and included all of the following elements: demonstrated in the all of the following elements: in four or more of the following elements: • • • • • • • • • • Identification if the research approach as quantitative or qualitative Identification of selected quantitative research design (experimental, quasiexperimental, or descriptive) Identification of the selected qualitative design (phenomenological, ethnography, grounded theory, historical) Description of the selected design Identify a rationale for the selected design Identification of one advantage of the selected design Identification of one disadvantage of the selected design W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) • • • • • • Identification if the research approach as quantitative or qualitative Identification of selected quantitative research design (experimental, quasiexperimental, or descriptive) Identification of the selected qualitative design (phenomenological, ethnography, grounded theory, historical) Description of the selected design Identify a rationale for the selected design Identification of one advantage of the selected design Identification of one disadvantage of the selected design • • • • • • • elements fails to meet expectations: • Identification if the Identification if the research approach as research approach as quantitative or quantitative or qualitative qualitative • Identification of Identification of selected quantitative selected quantitative research design research design (experimental, quasi(experimental, quasiexperimental, or experimental, or descriptive) descriptive) • Identification of the Identification of the selected qualitative selected qualitative design design (phenomenological, (phenomenological, ethnography, grounded ethnography, grounded theory, historical) theory, historical) • Description of the Description of the selected design selected design • Identify a rationale for Identify a rationale for the selected design the selected design • Identification of one Identification of one advantage of the advantage of the selected design selected design • Identification of one Identification of one disadvantage of the disadvantage of the selected design selected design • Use scholarly Use scholarly reference(s) to support reference(s) to support information about Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) 9 • • • • • • • Identification if the research approach as quantitative or qualitative Identification of selected quantitative research design (experimental, quasiexperimental, or descriptive) Identification of the selected qualitative design (phenomenological, ethnography, grounded theory, historical) Description of the selected design Identify a rationale for the selected design Identification of one advantage of the selected design Identification of one disadvantage of the selected design Use scholarly reference(s) to support NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice • Use scholarly reference(s) to support information about research approach/design Sample • Use scholarly reference(s) to support information about research approach/design information about research approach/design 40 Points 35 Points 32 Points Presentation of information was exceptional and included all of the following elements: Presentation of information was good, but was superficial in places and included all of the following elements: Presentation of information was minimally demonstrated in the all of the following elements: • • • W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) Describe the target population Identify the sampling method as being either probability or nonprobability Provide a complete description of the sampling procedure including: o Sample size • • • Describe the target population Identify the sampling method as being either probability or nonprobability Provide a complete description of the sampling procedure including: o Sample size • • • Describe the target population Identify the sampling method as being either probability or nonprobability Provide a complete description of the sampling procedure including: o Sample size o Inclusion criteria Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation research approach/design information about research approach/design 15 Points Presentation of information in one, two or three of the following elements fails to meet expectations: Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) • • • Describe the target population Identify the sampling method as being either probability or nonprobability Provide a complete description of the sampling procedure including: o Sample size 10 0 Points Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in four or more of the following elements: • • • Describe the target population Identify the sampling method as being either probability or nonprobability Provide a complete description of the sampling procedure including: o Sample size o Inclusion criteria NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice o • • • • W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) Inclusion criteria o Exclusion criteria Identify one advantage to the selected sampling procedure Identify one disadvantage to the selected sampling procedure Explain how participants’ rights will be protected including confidentiality, anonymity, protection from harm, and informed consent Use scholarly reference(s) to support information about sampling method o • • • • Inclusion criteria o Exclusion criteria Identify one advantage to the selected sampling procedure Identify one disadvantage to the selected sampling procedure Explain how participants’ rights will be protected including confidentiality, anonymity, protection from harm, and informed consent Use scholarly reference(s) to support information about sampling method o • • • • Exclusion criteria Identify one advantage to the selected sampling procedure Identify one disadvantage to the selected sampling procedure Explain how participants’ rights will be protected including confidentiality, anonymity, protection from harm, and informed consent Use scholarly reference(s) to support information about sampling method Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) o • • • • Inclusion criteria o Exclusion criteria Identify one advantage to the selected sampling procedure Identify one disadvantage to the selected sampling procedure Explain how participants’ rights will be protected including confidentiality, anonymity, protection from harm, and informed consent Use scholarly reference(s) to support information about sampling method 11 o • • • • Exclusion criteria Identify one advantage to the selected sampling procedure Identify one disadvantage to the selected sampling procedure Explain how participants’ rights will be protected including confidentiality, anonymity, protection from harm, and informed consent Use scholarly reference(s) to support information about sampling method NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice Proposed Implementat ion with a Change Model 35 Points 31 Points 28 Points 13 Points 0 Points Presentation of information was exceptional and included all of the following elements: Presentation of information was good, but was superficial in places and included all of the following elements: Presentation of information was minimally demonstrated in the all of the following elements: Presentation of information in one or two of the following elements fails to meet expectations: Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in three or more of the following elements: • • • • • W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) Describe the PDSA Change Model Explain why this change model is best suited for implementation of your evidencebased nursing practice solution/change Apply each step of the PDSA Change Model to implementing the proposed practice solution/change Explain how to overcome one barrier to the use of the EBP results from this project Explain how an environment that • • • • • Describe the PDSA Change Model Explain why this change model is best suited for implementation of your evidencebased nursing practice solution/change Apply each step of the PDSA Change Model to implementing the proposed practice solution/change Explain how to overcome one barrier to the use of the EBP results from this project Explain how an environment that supports EBP can be fostered in your • • • • • Describe the PDSA Change Model Explain why this change model is best suited for implementation of your evidencebased nursing practice solution/change Apply each step of the PDSA Change Model to implementing the proposed practice solution/change Explain how to overcome one barrier to the use of the EBP results from this project Explain how an environment that supports EBP can Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) • • • • • Describe the PDSA Change Model Explain why this change model is best suited for implementation of your evidencebased nursing practice solution/change Apply each step of the PDSA Change Model to implementing the proposed practice solution/change Explain how to overcome one barrier to the use of the EBP results from this project Explain how an environment that supports EBP can be fostered in your 12 • • • • • Describe the PDSA Change Model Explain why this change model is best suited for implementation of your evidencebased nursing practice solution/change Apply each step of the PDSA Change Model to implementing the proposed practice solution/change Explain how to overcome one barrier to the use of the EBP results from this project Explain how an environment that supports EBP can NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice • Paper Specification supports EBP can be fostered in your future practice setting Include a scholarly reference(s) for the PDSA Change Model • 10 Points future practice setting Include a scholarly reference(s) for the PDSA Change Model • be fostered in your future practice setting Include a scholarly reference(s) for the PDSA Change Model 9 Points future practice setting Include a scholarly reference(s) for the PDSA Change Model 8 Points • 4 Points be fostered in your future practice setting Include a scholarly reference(s) for the PDSA Change Model 0 Points This section included all of the following: This section included three of the following: This section included only two of the following: This section included only one of the following: This section included none of the following: • • • • • • • • The added sections do not exceed 15 (fifteen) pages Scholarly nursing references related to this content are presented A dictionary, required textbook for this course and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information, were NOT used as scholarly references. References are current – within a 5- W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) • • • The added sections do not exceed 15 (fifteen) pages Scholarly nursing references related to this content are presented A dictionary, required textbook for this course and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information, were NOT used as scholarly references. References are current – within a 5-year time • • • The added sections do not exceed 15 (fifteen) pages Scholarly nursing references related to this content are presented A dictionary, required textbook for this course and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information, were NOT used as scholarly references. References are current – within a 5-year time Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation • • • Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) The added sections do not exceed 15 (fifteen) pages Scholarly nursing references related to this content are presented A dictionary, required textbook for this course and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information, were NOT used as scholarly references. References are current – within a 5-year time 13 • • • The added sections do not exceed 15 (fifteen) pages Scholarly nursing references related to this content are presented A dictionary, required textbook for this course and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information, were NOT used as scholarly references. References are current – within a 5-year time NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice year time frame unless a valid rationale was provided and the instructor approved them. frame unless a valid rationale was provided and the instructor approved them. frame unless a valid rationale was provided and the instructor approved them. frame unless a valid rationale was provided and the instructor approved them. frame unless a valid rationale was provided and the instructor approved them. Total Content Points __________out of 200 Format Possible Points = 50 Points APA Style 25 Points 22 Points APA guidelines, as per the 6th edition of the manual, are demonstrated for the APA guidelines, as per the 6th edition of the manual, are demonstrated for the APA guidelines, as per the 6th edition of the manual, are demonstrated for the APA guidelines, as per the 6th edition of the manual, are demonstrated for the APA guidelines, as per the 6th edition of the manual, are demonstrated for the • • • • • • • • • • • title page, body of paper (including margins, headings, font etc), and reference page One deduction for each type of APA format error 0 to 1 APA error are present Citations W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) 10 Points • title page, body of paper (including margins, headings, font etc), and reference page One deduction for each type of APA format error 20 Points • title page, body of paper (including margins, headings, font etc), and reference page 10 Points • title page, body of paper (including margins headings, font etc), and reference page One deduction for each type of APA format error One deduction for each type of APA format error 4 – 5 APA are present 6 – 7 APA are present 2 - 3 APA errors are present 9 Points Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation 0 Points • title page, body of paper (including margins headings, font etc), and reference page One deduction for each type of APA format error 8 or greater APA errors are present 8 Points Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) 4 Points 14 0 Points NR505 Advanced Research Methods: Evidenced Based Practice Writing Mechanics There were 0-1 errors in the crediting of ideas, and information that contributed to knowledge, and APA formatting. There were 2-3 errors in the crediting of ideas, and information that contributed to knowledge, and APA formatting. There were 4-5 errors in the crediting of ideas, and information that contributed to knowledge, and APA formatting. 15 Points 13 Points 12 Points 1–2 errors or exceptions to the rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, punctuation and other aspects of formal written work as found in the 6th edition of the APA manual 3 – 4 errors or exceptions to the rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, punctuation and other aspects of formal written work as found in the 6th edition of the APA manual 5 – 6 errors or exceptions to the rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, punctuation and other aspects of formal written work as found in the 6th edition of the APA manual There were 6-7 errors in the crediting of ideas, and information that contributed to knowledge and APA formatting. 6 Points 7 – 8 errors or exceptions to the rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, punctuation and other aspects of formal written work as found in the 6th edition of the APA manual Total Points W5 Assignment Rev. 1/10/18 (AR) Research Lit Design Sampling Implementation There were 8 or greater errors in the crediting of ideas, and information that contributed to knowledge and APA formatting. 0 Points 9 or greater errors or exceptions to the rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, punctuation and other aspects of formal written work as found in the 6th edition of the APA manual _____of 250 points Rev. 07/27/2017 (AR) 15 Running head: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Qualitative Research 1 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 2 Research Approach and Design For this evidence-based Practice (EBP) project, the qualitative research approach will be utilized. The qualitative research approach is a type of research approach that collects and uses non-numerical data to understand the social life of people by studying targeted places or populations (Percy et al., 2015). In other words, it uses non-numerical data to answer research questions. The qualitative design that will be used for this project is the grounded theory. Grounded theory is a research tool that enables one to develop a theory that explains some concerns about a population or that explains the essence of an event or activity. The grounded theory allows one to find out and conceptualize underlying social structures and patterns in an area of interest, through a process of continuous comparison. Grounded theory is the best design for this project because through the design, it will be easier to understand why some parents and caregivers choose to deprive their children of vaccinations. Through this design, it is easy to understand the experiences and patterns in a certain area of interest. It will help understand the patterns that exist when it comes to parents and caretakers taking their children for vaccinations, any reemerging experiences, and trends in that area, and any possibility of reappearing in the future. Grounded theory is an essential tool because it will provide sequential and explicit guidelines for carrying out qualitative research (Flick, 2018). This design will make it possible to develop a theory that explains why some caregivers and parents decide to deprive their children of vaccinations. One advantage of the grounded theory is that it adopts a neutral view of people’s actions in the social context instead of merely making assumptions and it gives a methodology to create an understanding of the social phenomena that are not developed pre-theoretically with the QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 3 existing paradigms and theories. One disadvantage of this design is that it leaves a room for bias, which is researcher-induced (Glaser & Strauss, 2017). Sampling The target population in this research project will be primary caregivers and parents of children of the age that is recommended to receive vaccinations in the United States. Sampling Procedure The inclusion criterion is that the participants in the study must be caregivers and parents with a child or children of the age of fewer than 12 years, both male and female. The exclusion criterion is that any parent or caregiver who is less than 18 years old does not qualify for the study because they may provide inaccurate data. The sample will consist of 500 participants from different states in the United States of America. If the sample exceeds 500 participants, the excess participants will be randomly removed from the sample. The sampling method that will be used is the probability sampling method. The probability sampling method is a sampling method whereby a sample is obtained from a larger population based on the theory of probability. Random selection is used to get a probability sample, and hence, everyone in the population has a chance of being selected (Elfil & Negida, 2017). One advantage of this sampling technique is that every person in the population has a chance to be selected and hence there is a more likelihood that the results will reflect the entire population more accurately and there are minimal chances of sampling bias and systematic error. One disadvantage of this sampling technique is that it is more complicated compared to the nonprobability sampling technique and hence, more expensive and time-consuming (Elfil & Negida, 2017). QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 4 To protect the rights of participants, including protection from harm, anonymity, and confidentiality, they will be asked not to write their details on the questionnaire papers. Instead, they will be asked to create a unique identification code that will include their parent’s initials and their month of birth. This unique code will be used to withdraw their data if they decide to, after completion of the study. Voluntary informed consent will be obtained from the participants. It will be ensured that the participants have a good understanding of the study and their choices throughout the research. They will be given a chance to weigh between the risks and the benefits of the study through voluntary informed consent, and they have the right to refuse to participate or stop their participation in the study anytime in the study. The participants will also be allowed to leave some items unanswered. Proposed Implementation with a Change Model The Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) change model is a method to test an implemented change. The change model gives a framework for developing, implementing, and testing changes and hence leading to improvement (Donnelly & Kirk, 2015). The model moderates the impulse of executing immediate action with the wisdom of first conducting a careful study. This model enables one to test small-scale changes, building on the learning from the test cycle before doing the complete implementation. As a result, it allows the stakeholders to assess whether the proposed change will be successful, and hence, it is an excellent tool for learning what to do and what no to do. This makes the change process less disruptive and safer. This model is useful when planning for changes and improvements. It helps in testing a change or improvement concept or process before fully implementing it. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 5 The framework consists of three main questions that need to be answered before testing an improvement process or concept. These questions are; what are the goals to be accomplished? How will one know that change is an improvement? What changes can be made to lead to an improvement (change concepts to be assessed)? The model has four steps, which are Plan, Do, Study, and Act. Plan – the change to be implemented or tested Do - carry out the change study or the test Study – collect data before and after the change based on the set measurable outcomes and reflect on the change’s impact and what can be learned Act – Plan the full implementation of the second change cycle. Why this Model The PDSA Change Model is a simple model yet a very critical tool in speeding up quality improvement. This change model is best suited for implementation of the evidence-based nursing practice solution because it will make it easier to implement the change, and it is the best model for sustaining a change. Through this model, the change will be tested, and this testing will create time to adopt the change to the local conditions. An idea may be suitable and may give the desired effect in one setting but not in another setting. For this reason, ideas need to be refined in order to account for the specific needs and challenges in a new environment. Since there is no way of telling the results of a change in an environment before implementing, this tool will be very critical in testing for the desired results of the change in the environment before the change is fully implemented (Donnelly & Kirk, 2015). Through this model, it will be QUALITATIVE RESEARCH possible to identify the side-effects of implementing the change. In the health care setting, all aspects are connected, and providers play different roles in different systems and hence implementing a change may result in some sort of side effects. This model is suitable for identifying the side-effects before full implementation. The cycles of the PDSA model will help determine whether the change needs some refinements to address the side-effects. Through small-scale testing first, it will minimize cost and risk. Although the idea might bring about positive results for the goal intended, the change may not lead to an improvement if it causes some negative unintended consequences to the system. This model will help minimize resistance. People will be involved in testing and planning, and through the process, they will understand the importance of the change and be more willing to embrace the change. Through the PDSA cycles, more and more audience is introduced into the process because with every test, a sample is required (Donnelly & Kirk, 2015). The idea, as a result, becomes a more and more solution that is actionable with every cycle of the PDSA model. It will help to illustrate to the shareholders what they will be doing and what is expected of them during the full implementation. It is also a suitable strategy for facilitating a collective solution and problem ownership. It will empower the team members through the common objective of obtaining relevant and better clinical outcomes. For these reasons, this change model is best suited for this EBP project. Implementing the Proposed Practice Solution/ Change Using the PDSA Change Model What are the goals to be accomplished? To prevent high disease and illness rates How will one know that change is an improvement? Increase in the number of children getting vaccinations 6 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 7 What changes can be made to lead to an improvement (change concepts to be assessed)? Offering public education to parents and primary caregivers about vaccinations and the importance of ensuring their children are vaccinated. PDSA (Plan-Do-Study-Act) Plan We intend to: Educate primary caregivers and parents on the importance of vaccines to their children as a way of reducing the rates of illnesses. Prediction: More parents and primary caregivers will ensure that their children are vaccinated after the discussions. Steps to execute: • Office staff, physician assistant, nurses, and doctors will be asked to talk to the parents they interact with within two weeks about vaccination, answer their questions and encourage them to take their children for vaccination. • Give the parents or caregivers a questionnaire to fill in after the discussion about vaccination. Do What happened? Discussions were held about vaccination between health care professionals and parents/ caregivers. The parents/caregivers were requested to give their opinion about vaccines through a questionnaire. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 8 Twenty-six questionnaires were filled in the set period which even exceeded the target of 20 participants. Twenty-six discussions between health professionals and parents/caregivers were successful. Problems Some parents were hesitant to fill the questionnaires, but this was alleviated by explaining the importance of the study to the parents/ caregivers. What did you observe? We noticed that many parents and caregivers understood the importance of vaccinations, and hence, they ensure that their children get vaccines. However, in this group, some parents consider delaying one or more vaccines. There was another group of parents and caregivers who are hesitant when it comes to vaccines. Study We learned that even though many parents/ caregivers understand the importance of vaccinations, they still consider delaying some vaccines. After the discussion, some parents/ caregivers accepted their children to get vaccines, and this showed that the problem of depriving children of vaccines could be addressed through public education. Act The problem of depriving children of vaccination can be addressed by educating the parents and caregivers. The next step is to educate parents and caregivers through various strategies. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 9 Parents will be encouraged to give their children vaccines, and they will be educated on why it is crucial. The next text will involve the most effective strategy to educate as many parents as possible. A barrier to Using the EBP Results from this Project One of the possible barriers to using the EBP results from this project is resistance from the stakeholders needed to make the change successful. When a change is introduced, it is normal .to be faced with some opposition. However, this challenge will be overcome by involving all the stakeholders in the entire process from understanding the problem to creating a solution and implementing the change. All stakeholders will need to be taught on the importance of vaccinations and the impact that evading vaccinations can cause. They will be involved in the process of creating and implementing the solution to the problem. By engaging the stakeholders, they will understand how significant the change is, and they will be more willing to embrace the implementation of the change. It will create a sense of problem and solution ownership and make it easy to use the results of this project to make a change and solve a problem. The stakeholders also need to be equipped with the knowledge and skills required to incorporate the results of this project into their practice. Fostering an Environment that Supports Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in Future Practice Setting New evidence is continuously surfacing in the medical and nursing environments, and it is, therefore, essential to create an environment that is supportive of evidence-based-practice. It is crucial for practitioners to incorporate the tremendously increasing new technology into the day to day routines for their practices to be considered as evidence-based. For this to be possible, QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 10 environments that support evidence-based practice must be fostered. One way of creating an environment that supports EBP is by facilitating leadership through strategic plan, philosophy, mission, and vision (Schaefer & Welton, 2018). An EBP environment cannot be created and maintained without a supportive leadership, and hence, a leadership that is supportive of EBP is required to develop an EBP environment. EBP must be incorporated into the top leader’s normative behavior and their roles. Another way of fostering an environment that supports EBP is by creating an organizational structure that supports EBP. Resources, including time, human resources, and financial resources need to be negotiated and allocated to promote the EBP initiative. The staff members should be able to access computers, library resources, and online database resources where they can get current evidence. Experts like mentors should be a part of the infrastructure. To foster an environment that supports EBP, staff members’ needs need to be assessed and identified. They should be equipped with knowledge and skills that will give them the confidence to read the outcomes of research studies and in turn, translate them into their practice. The staff can be supported by champions, mentors, and EBP leaders throughout the EBP process of incorporating the changes into their practice. The input of the staff should be valued, failure to which it might lead to lack of confidence and interest in taking part in EBP initiatives. An environment that supports EBP can be fostered by establishing an organizational culture of evidence-based practice. This can be done by embedding EBP into the structure, norms, and values of the organization through a systematic and planned approach. Organizational culture is a force that can stabilize, constrain, and guide the group members’ behavior through shared group values and norms. The corporate culture can develop a context QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 11 for practice. Setting this environment will require leaders at all levels to model the use of evidence to base their decisions, to set expectations, to challenge tradition explicitly, and to hold the staff accountable. The tangible or visible work of developing a culture that supports EBP requires creating a strategic plan, revisiting the nursing philosophy, identifying and using informal leaders and mentors, overcoming barriers, and ensuring that the leaders are committed (Schaefer & Welton, 2018). QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 12 References Flick, U. (2018). An introduction to qualitative research. Sage Publications Limited. Percy, W. H., Kostere, K., & Kostere, S. (2015). Generic qualitative research in psychology. The Qualitative Report, 20(2), 76-85. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (2017). Discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Routledge. Elfil, M., & Negida, A. (2017). Sampling methods in clinical research; an educational review. Emergency, 5(1). Schaefer, J. D., & Welton, J. M. (2018). Evidence based practice readiness: A concept analysis. Journal of nursing management, 26(6), 621-629. Donnelly, P., & Kirk, P. (2015). Use the PDSA model for effective change management. Education for Primary Care, 26(4), 279-281.
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Explanation & Answer

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Running head: RESEARCH

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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
Name
Institution
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RESEARCH

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Research Approach and Design

In researching the Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) project, a qualitative research tactic
will be used to help in coming up with the expected result. Qualitative research approach seeks
to come up with a particular outcome based on user experience. The method is, therefore focused
on narrative, whereas the quantitative approach uses numbers. The research type will focus on
collecting then using non-numerical information to enable the researcher to understand the target
group’s social life through studying of the intended population or the target places. The theory
that is to be adopted in the project in hand with the qualitative technique is grounded theory.
Grounded theory is a research method that is concerned with coming up with a theory linked to
the data that has been collected systematically and analyzed (Reichertz, 2007). The doctrine
operates inductively in contrast to the deductive hypothesis approach. When using the grounded
theory, the research begins with a question or a collection of data. The method helps one to
explain the critical concerns regarding a particular population or even the essence of an activity
or an event. The theory enables the researcher to understand the underlying social patterns and
structures within the range of study through a continuous procedure of assessment. In this study,
the method best applies since it makes it easier to understand the reason for making some parents
and the caregivers to deprive their young ones of immunizations. The strategy makes it easy to
comprehend children’s involvements in a given area of attention. The plan also helps in
understanding the patterns that exist when taking the young ones for vaccinations, trends within
the field of study or any experiences arising within the areas of interest and the possibility of
such occurrences recurring in future (Charmaz and Belgrave, 2007). The theory also provides
specific and essential guidelines for the qualitative research method, thereby making it an
essential tool of the study. As more information is collected and analyzed, codes can then be

RESEARCH

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grouped into concepts then later into categories which later become a new theory. Therefore, the
grounded theory is somewhat different from the traditional research models whereby the
researchers had the option of choosing the theoretical framework then later collect data to show
how the method applies or not apply to the study. The grounded theory makes it possible to come
up with a new theory explaining why the parents may deprive the young ones of vaccinations
(Glaser and Strauss, 2017). The approach is vital since it assumes a normal view of actions
within the communal context instead of using conventions thereby giving a procedure that can
create a comprehension for the given occurrences that has been advanced using the existing
theories and paradigms. The limitation of the approach is that it leaves a room for prejudice
inducing the scholar to come up with a particular result.
Methods of data collection
Sampling
The population target in the research are the parents and caregivers to the children who are of the
recommended age to get the vaccination process.
Sampling procedure
The participants in the research include the parents and caregivers with children ages 12
and below. The participants need to be either male or female, of which the sample size expected
is 400. The participants in the study come from different states within the USA. In case the
selection goes beyond the expected number, then the excess has to be removed from the study.
Probability sampling method will be ...


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