CJA340 National University History of Corrections in American Paper

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There are 7 questions. Signature Assignment for cja in 1 to 2 pages of double-spaced text for each question below (total of 7-14 pages), respond to each of the following 7 discussion items, and use references/citations: 1. Describe the history of corrections in American. (worth 2 points) 2. List and briefly describe the 5 goals of corrections. Citing at least 2 sources, how effective has U.S. Corrections been at achieving these 5 goals? (worth 2 points) 3. Briefly discuss the prison sanctions of indeterminate, determinate, and mandatory sentencing. (worth 2 points) 4. What are the historical differences among probation, parole, and intermediate sanctions? (worth 2 points) 5. Discuss the inmate balance theory vs. the administrative control theory in the administration of policies and procedures (worth 2 points) 6. Identify and briefly discuss 4 group treatment modalities used in prisons to attempt to rehabilitate prisoners. (worth 2 points). 7. When considering probation, parole, community-based (intermediate) sanctions, and incarceration, discuss how each is intended to rehabilitate offenders. (worth 2 points) Total points = 14

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Explanation & Answer



The United States’ System of Criminal Justice
Institutional Affiliation





The United States’ corrections history has a rich as well as ancient fabric. The progress of

the correctional system in the United States in its own right did not start till just before the
revolutionary war in 1763. Previously before that year, the United States’ penal system highly
replicated features of the British system because of the colonization of the United States at that
time. The utmost vital part of the expansion of the United States own, independent; the penal
system is that of the prison models of Pennsylvanian Auburn. These two replicas are the primary
pillars for America’s prison system that are currently in place. The Pennsylvanian substituted the
archaic "punishment of the body" in 1718.
The penitentiary system of the United States was formed in 1891. The Three Prison Act
proved funding for Leavenworth, McNeil island and as well as the UPS Atlanta. It looks like the
original federal penitentiary was Leavenworth in Kansas. The Leavenworth jail began to house
prisoners in 1906, and before it opened, the Fort Leavenworth military prison was used to house
federal prisoners (Clear, Reisig & Cole, 2018). The prisoners themselves built the Fort
Leavenworth prison. Within the US corrections system, the next pointed step was that of the
establishment of the federal bureau of prisons. This establishment occurred in 1930, and it put
the entire federal prisons under a single arm of control. The move was taken to control the
penitentiary system in the United States. Amid the 1930s and early 1970s, the country could be
observed as being somewhat liberal in its style to its corrections beliefs. After Robert Martinson
wrote a piece that was published in the United States, the progressive approaches of the time
came to a standstill. By then, the country retreated to a more archaic philosophy of delinquent
administration. The ideology focused on punishment as well as vengeance rather than
rehabilitation. This philosophy is profoundly insightful in today’s correctional system in the
United States.



Before the government of the United States approved the Three Prison Act, state prisons
were utilized to house federal prisoners. Currently, those prisoners imprisoned of federal crimes
are housed by the Federal Bureau. In 1895, Congress approved the building of the federal prison
system. In 1896, the Congress also approved a fresh central prison. In March 1897, Warden
French organized a marching of prisoners every morning 4km from Ft. Leavenworth to the new
site belonging to the federal prison. That work went on for a duration of two and one-half
decades. In 1906, the entire prisoners had been moved to the new facility. Also, the War
Department enthusiastically accepted its prison’s return. In 1902, President William McKinley
signed off on the building of a new federal prison in Atlanta where men were held. In 1930, the
federal bureau of prisons was started and in 1934, the federal prison industries were developed.
In the 1940s, the correction system of the United States developed modern BOP practices. In the
1950s, the medical model gained traction together with the passing of key legislation. In the
1960s, the American prison system experienced high growth in the inmate population, but the
situation was controlled in 1970 when the population of inmates was reduced. In 1974, the
national institute of corrections was started, and prisoners’ number stayed steady throughout the
1980s. In 1987, the Atlanta/Oakdale disturbances arose with prisoners’ growth becoming high
again in 1990. In 1997, BOP absorbed DC prisoners, and the prison system resumed federal
executions in 2001 (Keve, 1995). Throughout the 2000s, the inmate population was rising, and in
2003, the system came up with legislation that had long term impacts. These long term
legislations were also intended to curb terrorism. There was also the establishment of major
initiatives to reduce cost. In 2008, the earliest special management unity unit was developed. In
2011, the eighth BOP director was named with the ninth one named in 2017.


Clear, T. R., Reisig, M. D., & Cole, G. F. (2018). American corrections. Cengage learning.
Keve, P. W. (1995). Prisons and the American conscience: A history of US federal corrections.
SIU Press.





There are five aims of corrections. These goals include; retribution, incapacitation,

rehabilitation, deterrence, and as well as preparation of offenders for re-entering the society
(Kifer, Hemmens & Stohr, 2003). Correction also targets preventing recidivism and minimizing
delinquency as well as violence in the community. Restoration: the primary aim of restoration is
to assist the victim in being restored both in mind as well as spirit. The aim of sentencing the
guilty is to make the victim feel a sense of relief and assist them in moving forward with their
lives. For example, is convicting a rapist for an extended time to help the victim recuperate from
the criminality as well as feel some measure of safety. Rehabilitation: in a case, if rehabilitation
is the aim, a judge decides the perfect possibility for those who are imprisoned. There are various
avenues at the disposal of the courts where the convicted can be rehabilitated. These avenues
include; prisons, probation with restrictions, and admission into a program/facility of
rehabilitation. For example, the justice system of juveniles was developed mainly to offer such
punishing objectives. Deterrence: this is one of the goals that has been condemned in the past
years due to its little, if any, effects on future delinquency. However, the main aim of deterrence
is to send a warning meaning to other possible breakers of the law. The toughness of the penalty

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