The Democracy in The Philippines Basic National Conditions Research Essay

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Read the outline and basic materials about the democracy in the Philippines. Then talk about the democracy from the 4 part I list in the outlines.

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The Democracy in the Philippines --Yuning Li Part One Basic National Conditions of the Philippines Unique Colonial History 1. The Spanish Rule (1565-1898, Feudal autocratic rule) ● Exploitation and oppression ● Refused to give the Filipinos government positions; refused to educate the Filipinos; Spread Christianity; Christianity played a dominant role in politics 2. The American Rule (1899-1946, mercy) ● Concealed exploitation ● Political: implementing the two-in-one policy of the United States in “behind” and the Philippines in “front” ● Economic: promoting economic monopoly policies based on investments and free trade ● Cultural: exporting the American-style values and ideology (education, language) Part Two The Political System of the Philippines The constitutional system The Republic of the Philippines implements a presidential system with separation of the three powers. The 1987 Constitution is the current Constitution of the Philippines, which regulates for the American-style democracy - separation of the three-power and the implementation of the presidential republican system. The Parliamentary System ● ● The President is the head of state, the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Philippine Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate has 24 seats for a term of six years and will be re-elected once. The senators are elected by national suffrage and re-elected every three and half years. The House of Representatives has 274 seats for a three-year term and has to be re-elected twice. Among these, 222 are directly elected by the citizens and the remaining 52 are elected by the party. ● The judiciary authority consists of the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the District Court, the Clean Government Court and the Islamic Court. The Electoral System The Philippine electoral system conducts a general election every six years and a midterm election in three years. Due to its economic foundation, education level, history, social culture and other reasons, the democratic elections in the Philippines have formed a combination of the family politics, money election, violent election and star election. Family Political Dynasty ● Family political dynasty is very popular in the Philippine politics. ● Nine-year term limit. ● Pass the position to their eldest son through "democratic elections". ● Then the younger brother, sister or The wife would temporarily replace this job. ● The family will re-allocate power and exchange political roles through negotiation and election. ● Therefore, the highest public office of the governor, provincial councillors, members of the House of Representatives and the mayor is basically circulating within the family political dynasty, and the family forces firmly control the local government. Violent Election ● Election is full of blood and violence; the private army ● 3G elections: Gun (GUN), Thug (GOON), and Gold (GOLD). ● Congressman: Luis Bersamin ● National Banned Gun Day Money Election ● The election campaign is the most important part of the candidate's election. ● The television, radio, newspapers and other media to make campaign advertisements; personally lead the campaign team to shake hands with the people in their constituencies and distribute food, goods to the people. ● Many candidates also sent money directly to voters to buy votes. ● Hard to carry out national campaigns without financial support. ● Rural areas - low education Star Election ● Filipinos are deeply influenced by American Hollywood culture and worship movies, TV and sports stars. ● The candidate's popularity > ability ● As a result, more and more movies, TV and sports stars have stepped into the political arena with the psychology of the Filipino people. ● Former President Estrada and the late presidential candidate Fernand Bo are the best examples of the past. PART THREE Problems with the politics of the Philippines Corruption ● The shadow of the hidden family political dynasty ● The effectiveness of the Western democratic politics National conditions Political conditions Social conditions Public sentiments Thanks The Democracy in the Philippines Outline Introduction study further about how these colonial periods shaped the democracy in the Philippines today; the political system and the economy of the philippines; problems with the democracy in the Philippines. PART 1 Basic National Conditions of the Philippines Unique Colonial History PART 2 The Political System of the Philippines PART 3 The Economy of the Philipines PART 4 Problems with the democracy in the Philippines From 1565 to 1898, the Philippine was under the Spanish colonial period, which was feudal autocratic rule. The Spanish rule was full of exploitation and oppression; they refused to give the Filipinos government positions or to educate the Filipinos.The Spanish also tried to spread Christianity, which played a dominant role in politics at that time. From 1899 to 1946, the Philippine was under the American colonial period. Compared to the Spanish method, the American rule was merciful and thus the exploitation was concealed. In the politics, they implemented the two-in-one policy of the United States in “behind” and the Philippines in “front” , which means The Philippine government came forward to solve domestic problems, and the method and recognition for solving problems came from the United States. In the economy, they promoted economic monopoly policies based on investments and free trade In the culture, they exported the American-style values and ideology such as education and language In general, The United States transplanted a political system to the Philippines, abolished the original colonial system of Spain, and established a new "Americanstyle" political system. Then, I will talk about the political system of the Philippines. The Republic of the Philippines implements a presidential system with separation of the three powers. The 1987 Constitution is the current Constitution of the Philippines, which regulates for the American-style democracy - separation of the three-power and the implementation of the presidential republican system./ The President is the head of state, the head of government and the commander-inchief of the armed forces. The Philippine Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate has 24 seats for a term of six years and will be re-elected once. The senators are elected by national suffrage and re-elected every three and half years. The House of Representatives has 274 seats for a threeyear term and has to be re-elected twice. Among these, 222 are directly elected by the citizens and the remaining 52 are elected by the party. The judiciary authority consists of the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the District Court, the Clean Government Court and the Islamic Court. The Philippine political system also basically copy that of United States. Its electoral system conducts a general election every six years and a midterm election in three years. Due to its economic foundation, education level, history, social culture and other reasons, the democratic elections in the Philippines have formed a combination of the family politics, money election, violent election and star election. Family politics is very popular in the Philippine politics. The Philippine Constitution stipulates that the leaders of local governments such as the House of Representatives and the Governors should be elected once every three years and cannot be re-elected for more than three terms. However, after three years, they can still run for these positions. so, when the old governors who has the power is ready to retire, they pass the position to their eldest son through "democratic elections". When the eldest son can no longer work because of the nine-year term limit, then the younger brother, sister or The wife would temporarily replace this job. When the next election comes, the family will re-allocate power and exchange political roles through negotiation and election. Therefore, the highest public office of the governor, provincial councillors, members of the House of Representatives and the mayor is basically circulating within the family political dynasty, and the family forces firmly control the local government. Although the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines stipulates that government public office is open to citizens and prohibits political dynasties, Some members of Congress have also seriously called for political reforms to abolish political dynasties, but the long-standing and deep-rooted family politics is hard to be removed. Since the fall of Marcos in the 1980s, the Philippines has entered the era of so-called democratic elections, but every local election is full of blood and violence, and most of these violence cannot be separated from the private army. Some local observers even claimed that the local elections in the Philippines were 3G elections, namely Gun (GUN), Thug (GOON), and Gold (GOLD). In the past December, when the prelude to the election was not officially opened, Congressman Luis Bersamin, who had planned to run for the governor of Abra, was shot in the streets of Manila in the daytime. The police suspected that the murderer was the current governor of Abra. Leila. In order to achieve peaceful elections, the Philippine Electoral Office has regulated that from January 14 to June 13 as the "National Banned Gun Day", it is strictly forbidden to privately possess guns and explosives except agencies and the military. President Arroyo also set up the disbanding of private armed forces nationwide, and the police set up a special group for peaceful elections to disband private armed forces. Earlier, the police initially listed 613 electoral violence hotspots across the Philippines, of which 49 were listed as “immediately concerned with constituencies” and the rest as “concerned constituencies”. According to the report of the Philippine police, there were about 406,600 firearms that were not registered in the private sector. According to police records, during the 2004 election, there were 249 violent incidents that killed 41 people. The police expect that the election violence and death toll will continue to rise as the election enters the final critical stage. The election campaign is the most important part of the candidate's election. Many candidates not only use the television, radio, newspapers and other media to make campaign advertisements, but also personally lead the campaign team to shake hands with the people in their constituencies and distribute food, goods to the people. They also promise that once they are elected, they will bring certain benefits to the people. In the latter part of the campaign, many candidates also sent money directly to voters to buy votes. According to past practice, there are about 43 million voting voters registered in each election. The Philippine National Election Law allows candidates to spend 3 pesos per vote. The national election campaign can cost up to 129 million pesos (about 2.7 million USD). Money and political analyst Edner said that when the election is regarded as an investment in the future, the candidate must take back his own costs from the people after he is elected. Some senator candidates admit that they can't carry out national campaigns without financial support. In local elections, no money would result in no progress. moreover, many voters in rural areas have low education and are even difficult to recognize candidates, thus, local politicians’ behavior of buying votes is a common phenomenon in elections. Filipinos are deeply influenced by American Hollywood culture and worship movies, TV and sports stars. They sometimes are considering the candidate's popularity rather than ability when voting. As a result, more and more movies, TV, and sports stars have stepped into the political arena with the psychology of the Filipino people. Former President Estrada and the late presidential candidate Fernand Bo are the best examples of the past. After independence, the Philippines has been copying and following the democratic system of the United States and implementing a presidential system. However, under the influence of Marcos' rule, greed, corruption, and dictatorship are still affecting the politics of the Philippines. The so-called party competition and democratic elections are just a few family political games. Democracy in the Philippines is immature and unsound. It still takes a long time to develop and nurture in order to move toward democratic politics like the United States./ In the Philippines, the corruption problem that seriously plagued the Philippine national society has not been solved despite of the adoption of the American-style separation of powers. On the contrary, it has become more and more serious and affects the political development of the Philippines and thus cannot fully advance its economic and social fields. Being influenced by the Philippine socio-political culture and history, the shadow of the hidden family politics has long been accompanied by the Philippine political development process, which has become a constant political corruption in the Philippines. In terms of solving the problem of corruption, the democratic political system in the Philippines is ineffective. The implementation of democratic politics has not effectively prevented the occurrence of corruption in the Philippines, reduced the extent of corruption and the spread of democracy. So, there is no inevitable connection between the implementation of democratic politics and the suppression of corruption. Therefore, my argument would be / the effectiveness of the implementation of Western democratic politics must be carefully analyzed and rationally treated according to the national conditions, political conditions, public sentiments, and social conditions.
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Running head: PROBLEMS WITH THE DEMOCRACY IN THE PHILIPPINES

Problems with the democracy in the Philippines
Name
Institution

1

PROBLEMS WITH THE DEMOCRACY IN THE PHILIPPINES

2

Failing democracy
One of the most hailed ruling system in the world is a democratic ruling system. It
effectively works where the people have the power to elect the rulers they want and that the
supremacy of the law lies with the people. One man, one vote has been perceived as a proper to
let the voice of every individual be heard when it pertains matters of governance. Some
democracies have failed while others are performing exemplary well. The Philippines have been
a victim of ineffective democracy as it will be discussed in this paper. The country was colonized
by Spanish. Then, upon having its power for self-governance, it is apparent that democracy has
been going sideways.
It is crucial to appreciate a fact that a democratic country is far different from autocratic
state or any...


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