1.What political, economic, and technological factors allowed Spain and Portugal to explore new trade routes?
2. Why were the Spanish able to establish a territorial empire in the New World
3. What were the long-term political effects of the Protestant Reformation.
4.Who was Machiavelli and what political advice did he advocate?
5.What were the most important elements of the Columbian exchange?
6.How did the Atlantic system affect Europe, Africa, and the Americas?
7.Discuss the events that led to the decline of the Mughal Empire?
8. Why did Peter the Great wish to modernize Russia on the Western Model?
9.How did events in the eighteenth century lead to industrialization in the nineteenth century? What was the most important catalyst for industrialization?
10. Discuss the significance of the Factory Act of 1833 and the Mine Act 1842?6.
11.Discuss the causes and consequences of the French Revolution?
12. What were the causes of the Crimean War and how did warfare change?
13. Why were the Ottoman and Qing Empires vulnerable to Western pressure in the nineteenth century?
14. Discuss the causes and consequences of the Taiping Rebellion.
Explanation & Answer
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RUNNING HEAD: HISTORY DISCUSSIONS
1. Exploration of the new world explains the economic, political and technological factors that
led to the introduction of Spain, England and Portugal. This led competition between nation
states and technological advancement in navigation and shipbuilding. Consequently,
international trade was enhanced. Some of the economic factors that led to the exploration of
new trade routes are the expansion of international trade. This was evident when merchants
would bring spices for profit. The merchants could travel from Eastern Europe regions to
introduce their commodity to the new world. On the same vein, economically, other Europeans
found using intermediaries as extra expenses, which led to increased economic competition on
how middlemen get to benefit (Bulliet, 2014). Also, under the leadership of Prince Henry,
Portuguese were able to seek a water route to Asia to enhance their trading deals. There was an
emergence of economic competition where Portuguese influenced Spain to partner and sponsor
explorers such as Columbus with an unmapped geographical location so as they can be able to
determine the consumer behavior of the new world. The new world was the target among the
Europeans who wanted to venture into international business opportunities. The water routes
helped them in cutting expenses. Politically the competition was high between countries that had
an interest in the New World. For instance, England became interested in exploring the New
World. Other countries such Spain were very impressed with the silver and gold found in these
countries which later contributed to its superpower across Europe. Also, the English monarch
started sending explorers, who made them dominant in the North American countries after years
of trading. On the same vein, the technological factors that influenced the exploration of new
trade routes include the latest inventions on shipbuilding. Shipbuilding involved the construction
of caravel smaller ships. Other ships which were invented include the triangular sails that were
meant to sail with the wind and withstand the storms. There were also faster ships. Other
technological factors involve the improvement of the navigation system, which made them
acquire new tools in establishing their moving directions. The introduction of astrolabe measures
assisted in plot location where horizon compass helped with the course.
2. During 15th century, Christopher Columbus, the leader of the Spanish government who
assisted in conquering the new world. They were able to undertake a new route to Asia as part of
their exploration. This made the other European countries follow suit in exploring the new world,
thus invading their political systems. The Spanish governments were able to invade the south and
Central America in search of riches in those countries. To introduce their territory, the Spanish
were ready to conquer the great Inca cultures and Aztec empires. This led to a new wave of
Spanish government which launched its particular territory in South and Central America. The
new world exploration was affected by the intervention and interaction with the indigenous
people. The interaction between Spain and the indigenous people was profoundly affected by
diseases and violence, which reduced the numbers of indigenous people. This also gave Spain a
stronghold building its territories. The monarchy of Spain later developed the colonial expansion
under the Spanish empire. The monarchy was the mission and administrator of the conquest. The
territorial developments were made possible by the introduction of trade and the spread of faith
and Christianity. One of the Spanish conquistadors, Juan Ponce De Leon invaded the new world
together with Christopher Columbus. He became the governor of Puerto Rico. The influence of
the Catholic religion Into the New world was made possible by the massive conquest that the
Spanish government had. The Spanish established their attacks on nationalists such as the French
who had occupied the new world (Bulliet, 2014). The French settled at fort Carolina. The
Spanish navy was able to conquer over 200 French Huguenot immigrants. They slaughtered
them to the point that they had to surrender to the Spain military. Later on, Spanish invaders built
their settlement at St Augustine. Nonetheless, Spain was also invaded in different instances. For
example, when Leon was exploring the coast of North America where he found a peninsula. The
new land Florida was eyed by various European invaders and also the ancient Americans. Leon
was attacked by the Indian government which was later killed on his way.
3. The long term political effects of protestant reformation influenced the culture of the
Europeans and Americans. The reform transformed Christianity and Europe in different ways. It
is important to note that Christianity had been divided into different denominations long before
reformations. The reformations developed as revolution other than a theological dispute. The
theological disputed were solved, but the results did not yield any fruits. The church councils in
medieval Christianity were unable to resolve doctrinal disputes. Consequently, the emergence of
Protestantism institutionalized sectarianism. Later on, there was the formation of different
denominations which acted independently to avoid theological synthesis .As always, the church
and the state had a secure connection because they controlled the masses. During the
Reformation, there was the emergence of wars based on religion. The violence and intractable
wars were inevitable. For instance, In Europe, there were constant wars between Protestants and
Catholics. The wars were fueled by the differences between the two denominations under
Christianity. The French war lasted from 1562-1598 and in Germany from 1618-1648. As the
long term effect, the wars were deadly, which came with a combination of diseases and famine.
This means that the war killed millions of Europeans. For instance, in Germany, 30% of the
population died during these protests (Bulliet, 2014). This affected the political ruling since the
government could have divided attention based on religion, thus leading to political instability.
The divide between Protestants and Catholics was not o...