ENG124 Grossmont Cuyamaca A Comic Book World Article Response

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English 124 Martin |1 Ethos, Pathos, Logos Whenever you read an argument you must ask yourself, “is this persuasive? And if so, to whom?” There are several ways to appeal to an audience. Among them are appealing to logos, ethos, and pathos. These appeals are prevalent in almost all arguments. To Develop or Appeal to ETHOS (character, ethics) How an author builds credibility & trustworthiness. To Appeal to PATHOS (emotion) Words or passages an author uses to activate emotions. Ways to Develop ETHOS • • • • • • • • • Author’s profession / background Author’s publication Appears sincere, fair minded, knowledgeable Concedes to the opposition Morally / ethically likeable Appropriate language for audience and subject Appropriate vocabulary Correct grammar Professional format Effect on Audience Helps reader to see the author as reliable, trustworthy, competent, and credible. The reader might respect the author or his/her views. How to Talk About It Through his use of scientific terminology, the author builds his ethos by appearing knowledgeable. The author’s ethos is effectively developed as readers see that he is sympathetic to the struggles minorities face. To Appeal to LOGOS (logic, reasoning) The argument itself; the reasoning the author uses. Types of Pathos Appeals • • • • • • Emotionally loaded language Vivid descriptions Emotional examples Anecdotes, testimonies, or Narratives about emotional experiences or events Figurative language Emotional tone (humor, sarcasm, disappointment, excitement, etc.) Effect on Audience Evokes an emotional response. Persuasion by emotion. (usually evoking fear, sympathy, empathy, anger,) How to Talk About It Types of LOGOS Appeals • • • • • • • • • • Theories / scientific facts Indicated meanings or reasons (because…) Analogies Definitions Factual data & statistics Quotations Citations from experts & authorities Informed opinions Examples (real life examples) Personal anecdotes Effect on Audience Evokes a cognitive, rational response. Readers get a sense of, “Oh, that makes sense,” or “Hmm, that really doesn’t prove anything.” How to Talk About It When referencing 9/11, the author is appealing to pathos. Here, he is eliciting both sadness and anger from his readers. The author appeals to logos by defining relevant terms and then supports his claim with numerous citations from authorities. The author’s description of the child with cancer was a very persuasive pathos appeal. The author’s logos appeals of statistics and expert testimony are very convincing. English 124 Martin |2 T-GAP T ONE , G ENRE , A UDI ENCE , & P URPOSE *Being able to identify the following elements when reading an article, book, etc. is a useful skill to have in college classes and for critical reading outside the college classroom. I. DETERMI NI NG TONE *Here are just some examples of the kinds of tone an author can take. Pay close attention to the language (word choice) of an author. Tone Angry Biased Candid Casual Challenging Humorous Intellectual Neutral Personable Sad Sarcastic II . Synonyms Irritated, vexed, indignant, offended One-sided, partial Blunt, forthright, frank, abrupt Informal, easy-going Inquisitive, Provocative, defiant, questioning Amusing, funny, jovial, joking Intelligent, knowledgeable, thoughtful Impartial, unbiased, open-minded, objective Friendly, good-natured, affable Dispirited, discouraged, unhappy Satirical, disparaging, scornful, contemptuous I D E N TI F Y I N G G E N R E *Below is a chart that outlines the different genres (categories or types) of a text. There are many genres and sub-genres—graphic novels, plays, social media status updates, etc.—and by identifying the genre, we can determine what we should be looking for or can gain from reading that text. Genre Textbook Journal Article Fiction (Novel or Short Story) Non-Fiction (Book, Essay, or Article) Magazine or Newspaper Article Blog Author Scholars or Professionals in the Discipline Scholars or Professionals in the Discipline Audience Students Professional Writer Students, Professors, and Others Educated Specialists in that Discipline General Reader Professional Writer, Scholar, or Journalist Professional Journalist General Reader (Possibly Educated) General Reader Professional or Amateur Writer General Reader III . E S T A B L I S H I N G T A R G E T A U DI E N C E *It is important to look at the kinds of information and the word choices of the author (s) when trying to identify what specific group of people were the target audience. Consider:  Is it meant for the general public or a specific group of people? o Are there terms only a doctor or a scuba diver is familiar with?  Is the audience expected to have a certain level of education? o Look at the level of vocabulary being used.  Is there a specific age group being targeted? o The kinds of examples and stories included in the source can help determine this. IV. CHOOSING ACCURATE VERBS TO DESCRIBE PURPOSE I know what it says…but what does it do? *The following verbs will be helpful when analyzing what an author is doing (the rhetorical moves he/she is making), rather than what he/she is saying. Acknowledges Amplifies Analyzes Argues Articulates Asserts Blends Challenges Clarifies Compares Compiles Concludes Constructs Contrasts Debates Deconstructs Defends Defines Differentiates Discusses Dissects Distinguishes Establishes Evaluates Exemplifies Explains Forecasts Gathers Generalizes Identifies Illustrates Incorporates Inspects Integrates Interprets Introduces Justifies Models Navigates Organizes Outlines Persuades Predicts Presents Proposes Proves Qualifies Questions Substantiates Suggests Summarizes Theorizes Traces Uses Critical Response #1 Directions: Please type your responses directly into the blanks, taking as much room as you need. Also, stick to Arial 14-point font, as it is very easy to read. Article #1: “A Comic Book World” by Stephen E. Tabachnick Tone Genre Audience Purpose Examples of Ethos Examples Pathos Examples of Logos Article #2: “How Graphic Novels and Comics Can Move a Story” by Melina Delkic Tone Genre Audience Purpose Examples of Ethos Examples Pathos Examples of Logos Article #3: “The Art of Words and Pictures” by Rachel Cooke Tone Genre Audience Purpose Examples of Ethos Examples Pathos Examples of Logos Article #4: “Beyond Graphic Novels: Illustrated Scholarly Discourse and the History of Educational Comics” by Aaron Humphrey Tone Genre Audience Purpose Examples of Ethos Examples Pathos Examples of Logos 1 “A Comic-Book World” by Stephen E. Tabachnick IN THE PAST FEW YEARS, many excellent films have been adapted from equally excellent graphic novels--for instance, Max Collins's Road to Perdition, John Wagner and Vince Locke's A History of Violence, Alan Moore and David Lloyd's V for Vendetta, Frank Miller's Sin City, and Daniel Clowes's Art School Confidential. Several more films made from graphic novels-including an adaptation of Frank Miller and Lynn Varley's retelling of the Greeks' stand against the Persians at Thermopylae, entitled 300--are also on the way. Yet another graphic novel, Art Spiegelman's Maus, has won the Pulitzer Prize and was the subject of an exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons's Watchmen has achieved cult status on university campuses. Is this recent popularity of the graphic novel in Hollywood, with prize and museum committees, on campuses and, it must be added, in chain bookstores, an instant trend that will soon pass, or does it point to a deeper, more lasting shift in our culture? My fifteen years of teaching this new genre at the university level have provided some hints of an answer to this question. The excitement of newness alone is not very lasting in academe, as elsewhere. But instead of sputtering out like other trendy fireworks, the graphic novel has been steadily gaining in brightness among audiences both inside and outside the academy. Why? My conclusions to date, which have not and probably will never pass the test of scientific scrutiny, but which seem sensible to me, follow. First, it seems to me that the graphic novel represents the answer of the book--and people who love to read and make books--to the challenge of the electronic screen, including film, television, the Internet, and video games. Just as the theater's survival was challenged by the rise of film, which led playwrights and theater crews to create new techniques and special effects, so traditional literature and the book medium in which it exists have found a way to combine their strengths with that of painting, another threatened medium in the electronic age, and to meet the screen on its largely visual ground while retaining the pleasures and advantages of the book. Literary books can offer depth, subtlety, privacy, and intimacy. They also offer an experience controlled by the reader, who can open and close a book at any time, unlike the film or TV viewer, who must follow a film or television show more or less continuously while it is being screened and finds interruptions a disservice. Yet the advantages of the electronic media are many: presentations in the electronic media are relatively concise and offer speed of apprehension, are relatively easy on the eyes compared to print (except for some badly illuminated computer screens), include sound, and can portray such things as subtle facial expressions and landscapes better than literature can. In the form of video games, they also offer interactivity. Whereas the graphic novel cannot include sound, it provides many of the advantages of both print and electronic media while creating a unique and subtle experience all its own (including strikingly lettered indications of sound). Whether we're dealing with Watchmen (known as the Ulysses of the graphic novel for its subtlety, stylistic variety, philosophical reach, and depth of characterization, and which is much more approachable than Joyce's Ulysses) or Marjane Satrapi's Persepolis--a stark and harrowing look into what it was like to grow up under the Shah of Iran and then Khomeini--the graphic novel gives us the subtlety and intimacy we get from good literary books while providing the speed of apprehension and the excitingly scrambled, hybrid reading experience we get from watching, say, computer screens that are full of visuals as well as text. 2 The graphic novel also provides something else, as Marshall McLuhan noted long ago and Scott McCloud has since reiterated: imaginative interactivity. Comics for McCloud constitute a Zenlike "invisible art," which makes use of the blank spaces, or gutters, that exist between panels and which are the very definition of the unique comics experience. According to McCloud, the reader must fill in these blanks, thus imagining a good deal of the action that takes place in comics. It follows that the mental interactivity of the reader with a graphic novel is much more pronounced and essential than that which occurs when he or she watches a film or highdefinition television, in which there are ordinarily no blank spaces for a reader to fill in imaginatively. Thus, the graphic novel routinely manages to provide a powerful interactive experience that has something in common with the interactivity of even that most interactive genre of all, the video game. It is auspicious, indeed, for those who value books and reading that the book has managed to offer this new, hybrid form of reading that combines visual with verbal rhetoric, for the screen is a very powerful competitor--seeming to threaten, at times, the erasure of reading altogether, except perhaps among those people (usually of an older generation) most devoted to it. Even people like myself, who value traditional reading enormously, often find it more appealing to surf the unique blend of text and picture that is the Internet rather than to read a book when suffering a spell of insomnia. Video games are hypnotic, to judge from the scores of young people playing them devotedly in shopping malls. Television is actually addictive, as several studies have shown. Films provide a great Friday-night social experience. Therefore, it is no wonder that, owing to the impact of these various visual media, from year to year students display less and less patience with unillustrated texts, especially long ones; teaching Moby Dick or Paradise Lost is now a job that takes far more persistence, devotion, and flair to perform successfully than was the case in the past. Even with the best teachers, many students cannot now rise to the challenge of reading pure texts. Because of the influence of the electronic screen, that form of reading is slowly being lost, except for a few specialist readers, much like the amateur playing of classical piano, which is now a vanishing art. The new hybrid visual and verbal reading--different from traditional reading but fortunately no less subtle, intelligent, or, in its way, demanding--is rapidly taking its place. That is why, I believe, English departments-rather than art or communications departments--are leading the movement into the teaching and study of the graphic novel. English departments are book-oriented, students are reading pure text much less than they used to, and English departments are trying to find a way to react to this trend in order to ensure their own survival. It is only honest to admit that even the most motivated readers, whether they are twenty-five or sixty-five, can become physically exhausted when reading pure text in books and staring at those little black marks on white paper for long periods with no visual relief. A long, un-illustrated text takes a long time to read, and many people don't quite have the stamina or, more importantly, the taste for that anymore. They just don't want to put in the time, no matter how fascinating the book. They wonder why the writer could not have been more concise. They want a quick read rather than a thick text, not because they are unintelligent or lazy, but simply because they are used to quick electronic perception. Also, despite all of the cliches written about purely textual novels allowing us to imagine characters and places, the truth is that most of us who are not visual artists cannot really visualize what a writer is talking about when he or she describes a person or physical object; most of us need to see that person or object, and television and films-- 3 and graphic novels--allow us to do just that. (The fact that graphic novels are so easily adaptable to other visual media also partially explains why so many talented artists and writers are drawn to the genre these days.) At the same time, books as a medium are not going away, just as theater survived films. I--and apparently a lot of other people--like to go to bookstores, to hold books, to flip through them, and even to read them while drinking some coffee. There is something special--call it privacy and intimacy--between ourselves and a book that we are not ready to give up. And then there's the fact that books don't black out on us sometimes, as electronic devices do. The graphic novel is the ideal evolution of the book in its attempt to adapt to the new electronic age. I do not mean to imply that text-based books will disappear in the foreseeable future, and even Watchmen includes a substantial piece of pure (and brilliantly written) text at the end of each chapter. Nor do I think that English departments are going to stop teaching Melville or Milton in their original, textual versions anytime soon (although there exist terrific graphic-novel adaptations of Eliot's Waste Land by Martin Rowson and of Kafka's "Metamorphosis" by Peter Kuper). I think text-based books will exist for a long time to come, but I also think that the balance between purely textual books and graphic novels in terms of numbers of readers will continue to shift in favor of graphic novels. I also predict that the graphic novel will continue to hold its own against the electronic screen and that, if handheld electronic book readers ever prove themselves (as they have so far failed to do), the graphic novel will be an extremely popular form of reading in that format as well. While all this relates to the technical reason that the graphic novel is becoming prevalent today-namely, a diminution of our ability and desire to read straight text, while we retain our taste for the intimacy of the book and find a combination of text and picture very congenial--there is also one primary cultural reason for the emerging triumph of the graphic novel. It is the reason comics were and still are considered childish by many people. In a child's imagination, the line between the physically possible and the physically impossible is blurred, as it is in comics, where a man can leap tall buildings in a single bound and creatures may metamorphose into other creatures at will. It is very easy for the artist to make the move from the realistic to the fantastic and vice versa in comics; it can be done from one panel to the next or even within one panel. We accept strange transformations in comics; that is perhaps the very essence of the cultural side of the comics experience, running from Lyonel Feininger's Wee Willie Winkie's World to Shuster and Siegel's Superman and beyond. (That is why we are able to accept Peter Kuper's superb rendering of Kafka's bug/human character, Gregor Samsa, in Kuper's adaptation of "The Metamorphosis," so readily.) In short, I feel that the cultural reason that serious comics seem to appeal to so many readers today is that we are living in a world in which our reality might instantly prove, and often does prove, to be completely different from what we thought it was. I happened to be teaching Alan Moore and David Lloyd's V for Vendetta, which ends with the Houses of Parliament being blown up, at the University of Oklahoma around the time when the Alfred P. Murrah building was destroyed by a truck bomb about fifteen miles north of my classroom. I remember the class and I remarking that we were now living in a comic-book world. And many of us have been teaching Watchmen, which details a catastrophic attack on New York City, before and since 9/11. Again, we are living in a comic-book world--that is, a world that seems to partake of the elastic landscape of a comic book, so ready to explode from mundane 4 realism into a fantastic shape in a second. Moore and Gibbons, who created Watchmen as a serial in 1987-88, prove that verbal and visual poets can indeed be seers, as the Romans believed. (And in a particularly brilliant observation based on William Burroughs's "cut-up" collage technique, Moore shamanistically implies in chapter 11 that, for the reader, the panels and gutters of Watchmen itself are comparable to the multiple television screens that Veidt watches simultaneously in order to discern the shape of the future, thus turning the reader into a seer as well.) The world has caught up with Moore and Gibbons and has become as outlandish as the virtual world they describe. Moore's fantastic plot in Watchmen, in particular, and its elastic rendering in comics seem to duplicate our own explosive experience better than any other medium does. No wonder Art Spiegelman found it so possible to render his personal 9/11 experience in a graphic novel, In the Shadow of No Towers, or that Sid Jacobson and Ernie Colon have just turned the 9/11 commission report into a graphic novel, The Illustrated 9/11 Commission Report. The elasticity of comics makes Jacobson and Colon's adaptation more apt, more suited to our sense of how "unreal" the Twin Towers events were, than the 9/11 report itself. And their adaptation has a diagrammatic quality that makes these fantastic events easier to read about and to understand than might be possible in prose alone. A comic-book-like incident, planes deliberately flying into the Twin Towers, has actually become a comic book. The new comic book makes 9/11 no more or less "real" than it was; it just fits those events naturally, or so it seems. But the comic-book novel is of our times not only because many of today's events are truly "fantastic"--that is, horrific and unexpected. The elasticity of the comic-book novel also allows it to bring out the fantastic element inherent--but not often noticed--in mundane reality. One of my (and many of my students') favorite graphic novels is Raymond Briggs's Ethel and Ernest. Briggs is one of the premier contemporary British illustrated children's book creators. His Father Christmas and The Snowman have sold many, many copies to parents eager to show and tell these illustrated stories to their children. Ethel and Ernest is a serious, subtle, and gentle biography of his parents and also an account of British history from circa 1930 (when they were married) to 1971, the year in which both died. We watch as Ethel and Ernest move through a life made difficult by the Depression and the Blitz and then made incomprehensible to them by rapid social change after World War II. Despite this seriousness of subject and purpose, however, the characters are rendered in gentle, slightly blurred and dreamy colors. The prose is simple, relatively sparse, and limited to dialogue. The word balloons swell from small, smooth, and regular to jagged, large, and full of emphasis. The world of Ethel and Ernest, rendered nostalgically by their son despite its many difficulties, becomes a fairy-tale landscape inhabited by a noble (if sometimes silly and ignorant) queen and king, although Briggs never directly refers to his parents as such. He has taken his and his parents' mundane and sometimes not-somundane reality and brought out all of its inherent magic, thus collapsing the boundary between reality and fantasy. In short, Briggs's book is really a children's book for adults, and his intention seems to be to comfort us, just as children are comforted by a gently told tale. Whether it deals primarily with fantasy or with reality, the graphic novel is a form suited to the contemporary age because of its appeal to our newly learned sense that reality can very quickly become fantasy, and vice versa, as well as its unique and comforting combination of the qualities of both book and screen. If we add the enormous popularity of Japanese manga with American 5 preteens, as well as the remembered comfort inherent in the illustrated children's books with which we are all familiar, to the present impetus toward reading sophisticated comics, I contend that the graphic novel will continue to displace (if never completely replace) purely textual writing and that it will eventually become the most popular form of reading. That is because I think that, fortunately or unfortunately, we will watch reality and fantasy morph into each other many, many times in our collective lives in the years to come, not always pleasantly. The good news is that the graphic novel now offers just as many fine creative talents--and as subtle, plastic, and wonderful a reading experience--as any literary genre ever has done. University of Memphis Tabachnick, Stephen E. Source Citation: Tabachnick, Stephen E. "A comic-book world." World Literature Today 81.2 (2007): 24+. Literature Resource Center. Web. 20 Apr. 2010. How Graphic Novels and Comics Can Move a Story By Melina Delkic May 28, 2018 The New York Times The Times’s Books desk has recently hired two graphic novels and comics columnists, and an editorial cartoon series just won a Pulitzer. Jake Halpern had been thinking about how to make people care about issues that were tough to read about — especially the plight of the modern refugee. He had written lengthy narratives about refugees in The New Yorker, and was used to deep-dive, text-based articles that sometimes attracted limited audiences. At the end of a long day, he said, “The idea of reading about other people’s misery is a hard sell, even for people with the best of intentions.” So he was intrigued and optimistic when Bruce Headlam, then an opinion editor at The Times, suggested that he approach the refugee story through a visual medium — the graphic narrative. About 18 months after the initial conversations, he and the illustrator Michael Sloan won a Pulitzer Prize for their graphic narrative series, “Welcome to the New World.” It was somewhat novel for The Times. Comic strips have rarely appeared in the paper, sometimes to the chagrin of our readers. And Mr. Halpern and Mr. Sloan’s Pulitzer was The Times’s first win for editorial cartooning. Even though the graphic novel long ago became a serious literary genre in countries like France and Japan, in America, the movement’s growth has been comparatively slow or niche. But that’s changing. Recently, the Books desk hired two graphic novels and comics columnists, Hillary Chute and Ed Park, to write alternating monthly reviews featuring graphic narratives, organized into categories, like black-and-white stories or, this month, stories featuring emotional absence. “I think there’s something really special that can happen when you bring together images and words in the way comics do,” said Gal Beckerman, an editor for the Book Review. When it comes to the kinds of difficult subject matters that can feel abstract in text — sometimes “hitting the boundaries of language alone,” as he said — comics can make those issues feel distinctly tangible. “It’s an art,” said Pamela Paul, editor of the Book Review. “I’m blown away by the quality of storytelling.” While working on “Welcome to the New World,” Mr. Halpern said he was pleasantly surprised by how quickly readers of various age groups could move through the story — almost “too quickly,” he said, for the hours upon hours of work each of the narrative’s 20 parts required. Part of its accessibility was Mr. Sloan’s “warm drawings” of the characters, he said. “The characters kind of brim with humanity,” instead of with some of the darker aspects other war-related graphic novels have highlighted in characters, Mr. Halpern noted. Comics can evoke meaning from small moments like pauses in conversation, nuances of facial expression and internal turmoil. Mr. Beckerman said that some comics, like Nick Drnaso’s “Sabrina,” which Mr. Park reviews in his upcoming column, highlight the “internal quality of the human mind” in a deep way. In “Welcome to the New World,” textless or “silent” panels underscore a family’s shock in discovering that its home has been destroyed; a mother’s sleepless, anxiety-ridden night; a child’s wonder at seeing snow from his window. Mr. Sloan said those moments were inspired by the often entirely silent comics of Frans Masereel, a Flemish graphic artist. “There’s this beautiful economy that happens with pictures and images when you combine them with words or the absence of words,” Mr. Beckerman said. But, editors caution, beautiful illustration is not enough to hold up a story; it has to move the story forward and work in conjunction with the text. “Sometimes, a book can be really artistically beautiful, but it’s not working well with the text,” said Ms. Paul. And so the genre’s reviewers must be art critics as much as they are literary critics. Marrying the two is a skill that can take a lifetime of practice and learning by example. Mr. Sloan, who has been an illustrator for over 25 years, grew up with comics like “Peanuts” and “Pogo.” “As a child, it was something I immediately responded to,” he said. “I liked having the story told visually and also as a text narrative.” That’s part of why the format has seen an explosion in books for children and young adults. “There’s a realization that being able to follow visual storytelling is such a part of learning how to read,” said Maria Russo, the children’s books editor at The Times, “and many kids remain visually oriented even after they’re reading words.” When she interviews young readers for her column in The New York Times For Kids, a monthly print-only special section, she finds that “easily half” of the children name graphic novels as their favorite books. In some ways, she noted, there’s not much difference between graphic novels for children and adults. Pénélope Bagieu’s “Brazen,” for instance, published as an adult book in France, but a young adult book in the United States. “If they are different, it’s sometimes only because people are writing them with easier words. Often you’ll find the deeper themes are pretty consistent,” Ms. Russo said. “Children and grown-ups aren’t that different.” Melina Delkic is a senior staff editor. @MelinaDelkic Looking to get into reading graphic novels? Try these recommendations for seminal graphic novels and comics, from the Book Review’s Gal Beckerman and Maria Russo. For novices and longtime fans alike, these are must-reads. Children’s Books • • • • • • • • • • • Nimona, Noelle Stevenson Bone, Jeff Smith Amulet, Kazu Kibuishi Smile, Raina Telgemeier American Born Chinese, Gene Luen Yang Olympians, George O’Connor Roller Girl, Victoria Jamieson Be Prepared, Vera Brosgol This One Summer, Mariko and Jillian Tamaki Zita the Spacegirl, Ben Hatke Lost in NYC: A Graphic Adventure, Nadja Spiegelman Adult Books • • • • • • • • • • • Black Hole, Charles Burns Killing and Dying, Adrian Tomine Fun Home, Alison Bechdel Jimmy Corrigan: The Smartest Kid on Earth, Chris Ware Here, Richard McGuire Sabrina, Nick Drnaso Maus, Art Spiegelman, One Hundred Demons, Lynda Barry Persepolis, Marjane Satrapi Palestine, Joe Sacco My Favorite Thing Is Monsters, Emil Ferris
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Critical Response #1
Article #1:
“A Comic Book World” by Stephen E. Tabachnick
The author’s tone is neutral: he portrays both the
advantages of both print and film in portraying
The author is addressing the general public
The author seeks to educate the audience of the
significance of graphic novel both in the past and the
Examples of Ethos The author builds credibility by stating experience
and level of knowledge in the field.
Examples Pathos The author arouses emotional appeal through his
argument that the “older generation” is the one most
devoted to the screen (Tabachnick, 2)
Examples of Logos The author appeals to logic by comparing print and
electronic medi...

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